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Search Engines focused on Botany and Earth Sciences

! Warren D. Allmon, Palaeontologia Electronica, Volume 7, Issue 2 December 2004 (Coquina Press): Googling Turritella, or The Present and Future Value of the Web for Paleontological Research (PDF file). A state of the art report of palaeontological search strategies.

! BASE. Created and developed by Bielefeld University Library, Germany (search technology provided by FAST Search & Transfer, Norway). This is a multi-disciplinary search engine for academically relevant web resources. Excellent!

BIOME. This search engine offers free access to a searchable catalogue of Internet sites and resources covering the health and life sciences. Unlike generic search engines, BIOME direct you to Internet resources that have been hand selected and quality evaluated.

! The Botanical Society of America. Go to: Resources.

CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Data Centre: Web-based Resources for Biodiversity - a preliminary selection. This page aims to bring together in one place significant internet resources in the areas of searchable databases of species names, systematic treatments of major groups, checklists, etc. Botany is starting with "57".

Datasurge Company: GeoIndex. The areas covered by this search engine are: Geotechnical, Environmental, Hydrogeology, Geology, Mining, Petroleum. The information available is broken down into four different categories, they are Companies, Associations, Education, and Goverment.

! FID GEO (supported by DFG, German Research Foundation). A specialised information service for solid earth geosciences.

Fuchsias in Focus, UK: Internet Directory for Botany. Societies and International Botanical Organizations.

GEIN, German EnvironmentalInformation Network (in German). The GEIN search engine consolidates a wide range of information currently distributed across many different Web sites run by public institutions in Germany, such as environmental authorities, agencies and ministries at the federal levels. It thus acts as an information broker for environmental information in Germany.

! Google Scholar: Just as with Google Web Search, Google Scholar orders your search results by how relevant they are to your query, so the most useful references should appear at the top of the page. Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research.

M. Gusenbauer (2019): Google Scholar to overshadow them all? Comparing the sizes of 12 academic search engines and bibliographic databases. Free access, Scientometrics, 118: 177–214.
"... The exact workings of Google Scholar’s database remain a mystery
[...] Google Scholar, with 389 million records, is currently the most comprehensive academic search engine ..."

! Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), Hannover, Germany: Freie Alternativen zu zugangsbeschränkten Publikationen anhand des DOI finden. In German. Annotated links about unrestricted access to publications by means of DOI (Digital Object Identifier System). (a non-profit making, private website, serving the international academic community):
Open Education Directory.
Open Courseware. Annotated links to publicily-available courseware. See especially to:
Health and Life Sciences,
Earth Sciences.

ingenta. Ingenta provides libraries and researchers with access to the most comprehensive collection of academic and professional content available online. Go to: Biology / Life Sciences, Botany.

! The Internet Archive, San Francisco: Its purposes include offering permanent access to historical collections that exist in digital format. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software as well as archived web pages.

! ISI Web of Knowledge (by Thomson Reuters). ISI Web of Knowledge is a research platform, helping you quickly find, analyze, and share information in the sciences. Go to: Access ISI Web of Knowledge. Now with conference proceedings.

D. Lewandowski (2010): Google Scholar as a tool for discovering journal articles in library and information science. In PDF, Online Information Review.

D. Lewandowski and P. Mayr (2006): Exploring the Academic Invisible Web. In PDF.

P. Mayr and A.K. Walter (2007): An exploratory study of Google Scholar. In PDF, Online information review.
"... Our results show that the expanding sector of open access journals (DOAJ list) is underrepresented among the servers. Something that remains unclear is why journal articles that are freely available on web servers are not readily listed by Google Scholar even though they are searchable via the classic Google Web Search. Although Google Scholar claims to provide “scholarly articles across the web,” the ratio of articles from open access journals or the full-text (eprints, preprints) is comparably low ..."

! NSDL Internet Scout Project (hosted by University of Wisconsin, Madison). As part of the NSDL project (National Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Digital Library), the Internet Scout Project's NSDL Scout Reports offer high quality information about online resources. Go to: The Scout Report Archives. This is a searchable and browseable database to over nine years' worth of the Scout Report and subject-specific Scout Reports. A treasure chest of critical annotated and carefully selected Internet sites. See also: NSDL Scout Reports > Life Sciences.

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, (Tim Rhodus), The Ohio State University: PlantFacts. A factsheet database and university search engine answering plant-related questions using data from 46 different universities and government institutions across the United States and Canada with over 20,000 pages. There is also a database of horticulture programs in 40 university departments across the United States with pages related to admissions, degree requirements, career opportunties, research projects, and online courses.

Open courseware projects (OCDB), Chicago: Open courseware projects provide a head rush for many autodidactics because those projects often offer lecture notes, chapters or entire textbooks online, illustrations, charts, and other tools that help the reader learn a given subject. Go to: Top 100 Open Courseware Projects, Botany.

Jerry Parsons and Dan Lineberger, PLANTanswers. This new searching tool, the PLANTanswer Machine, searches all the files in Aggie Horticulture, the Texas Plant Disease Handbook, and the TAMU Entomology web site simultaneously.

! Scott Russell, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma: Botanical Information on the WWW.

Science Search. Science Search wants to make it possible to find accurate and helpful information in scientific areas.

! Semantic Scholar.
Semantic Scholar is a free, nonprofit, academic search engine from AI2 (Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence).

! Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Useful Botanical Links. A page of links to botanical resources on the Web.

Startlocal, Australia:
! A List of Education Search Engines.

Thomson Reuters: Biology Browser. This is a free web site offering resources for the life sciences information community. Go to: What's Hot in Biology. Feature articles accompanied by expert discussion and analysis, plus hot papers in biology.

Center for Biological Informatics of the U.S. Geological Survey: Botany. An all-encompassing guide to the world of botany, linking to resources and articles on such topics as paleobotany, species identification, pathology, and applied sciences like agronomy and forestry.

U.S. Geological Survey, (a bureau of the U.S. Department of the Interior), Reston, VA: Search Engine. Topics are: "Biological Resources", "Earthquakes", "Fact Sheets", "Floods", "Jobs/Employment Opportunities", "Maps", "Minerals", "News Releases", "USGS Manual", "USGS by State", "Volcanoes", etc.

! Vadlo. Vadlo search engine caters to all branches of life sciences. It allows users to search within five categories:
Protocols (methods, techniques, assays, procedures, reagent recipes, plasmid maps, etc.),
Online Tools (calculators, servers, prediction tools, sequence alignment and manipulation tools, primer design etc.),
Seminars (powerpoint files for presentations, lectures and talks),
Databases (resources, compilations, lists etc.), and
Software (codes, scripts, algorithms, executables, downloadable programs).

ViFaBio, The Virtual Library of Biology (University Library Johann Christian Senckenberg, Frankfurt/Main, Germany):
! Internet Guide. Search for:

! WorldCat (OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., Dublin OH USA). WorldCat is a global network of library content and services that uses the Web. See especially:
! WorldCat Identities. WorldCat Identities has a summary page for every name in WorldCat (currently some 30 million names). Excellent!

Chemistry Biology Information Center, ETHZ, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich: Chemistry, Biology and related disciplines in the WWW, Botany. See also: Links > Chemie & Biologie > Evolution > Pflanzen (in German).
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated January 05, 2017

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