Homepage Klaus-Peter Kelber
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Homepage Chair for Geodynamics and Geomaterial Research, Institute of Geography, University of Würzburg
Homepage University of Würzburg

Franconica Online, BLO, Bavarian Bibliography,
OPAC, Gateway Bavaria, Databases Regensburg, and Library, University of Würzburg


Klaus-Peter Kelber
Fröbelstr. 31
D-97074 Würzburg
Germany

E-mail address: kp-kelber@t-online.de
Phone: +49 (0)931 / 707133


See also:
University of Würzburg,
Department of Geography and Geology,
Geodynamics and Geomaterials Research Division,
Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg

My (amateur) research interest is palaeobotany, focused on macroplants of the Keuper (Ladinian-Rhaetian, Triassic, Southern Germany) and the Neogene (Rhön area, Northern Bavaria). See also my Researchgate-Website.

Publications
Some Conference-Abstracts















Publications



See also Google Scholar citation overview

Kelber, K.-P.: Die Makrofloren der Keuperzeit: Paläobotanische, phyto-taphonomische und paläoökologische Befunde.- In: Hauschke, N., Bachmann, G. H. and Franz, M. (Hrsg.), TRIAS. Aufbruch in das Erdmittelalter. München: Friedrich Pfeil. (in press).

Kelber, K.-P.: Neue Triopsidenfunde (Crustacea, Notostraca) aus dem Keuper Frankens.- In: Hauschke, N., Bachmann, G. H. and Franz, M. (Hrsg.), TRIAS. Aufbruch in das Erdmittelalter. München: Friedrich Pfeil. (in press).



Kelber, K.-P. (2015): 5. Die Makroflora des Lettenkeupers. - p. 51-100. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
Abstract.
PDF file, 6 MB. Other articles from the Lettenkeuperbuch are downloadable from here (scroll down to "Special Issue").

Hagdorn, H., Kelber, K.-P. & Schoch, R. (2015): 15. Fossile Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper.- p. 359-385. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
Abstract.
PDF file, 2.5 MB. Other articles from the Lettenkeuperbuch are downloadable from here (scroll down to "Special Issue").

Kelber, K.-P. & Schoch, R. (2015): 18. Lebensbilder des Lettenkeupers im Wandel der Zeiten.- p. 407-413. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
Abstract.
PDF file, 1 MB. Other articles from the Lettenkeuperbuch are downloadable from here (scroll down to "Special Issue").

Hagdorn, H. & Kelber, K.-P. (2015): 19. Kohle, Alaun und Vitriol - Historische Rohstoffgewinnung. - p. 417-426. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
Abstract.
PDF file, 1 MB. Other articles from the Lettenkeuperbuch are downloadable from here (scroll down to "Special Issue").

Kelber, K.-P. (2013): Zur Geologie der Würzburger Gartenstadt Keesburg.- p. 465-476; In: Schmollinger, E.: Geschichte und Chronik der Keesburg und ihrer Umgebung.- (K. Triltsch), Würzburg.

Kustatscher, E., Kelber, K.-P., & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. (2012): Danaeopsis Heer ex Schimper 1869 and its European Triassic species.- Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 183: 32-49.
Abstract.

H. Süss, H. & Kelber, K.-P. (2011): Eine neue Art der Morphogattung Baieroxylon Greguss aus dem Keuper von Franken, Deutschland.- Feddes Repertorium, 122: 257-267.
Abstract

Kelber, K.-P. (2009): Lebensbilder der Unterkeuperzeit im Spiegel der paläontologischen Forschung.- Veröffentlichungen Naturhistorisches Museum Schleusingen, 24: 27-52, Schleusingen.
PDF file, 9 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (2007): Die Erhaltung und paläobiologische Bedeutung der fossilen Hölzer aus dem süddeutschen Keuper (Trias, Ladinium bis Rhätium).- pp. 37-100; In: Schüßler, H. & Simon, T. (eds.): Aus Holz wird Stein - Kieselhölzer aus dem Keuper Frankens.- (Offsetdruck Eppe GmbH), Bergatreute-Aulendorf.
PDF file, 33 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. & Okrusch, M. (2006): Die geologische Erforschung und Kartierung des Würzburger Stadtgebietes von den Anfängen bis 1925.- Mainfränkische Hefte, 105: 71-115; Würzburg.
Announcement, Informationsdienst Wissenschaft.
PDF file, 17 MB.

Okrusch, M., Kelber, K.-P., Friedrich, V. & Neubert, M. (2006): Historische Steinbrüche im Würzburger Stadtgebiet im Wandel der Zeit.- Mainfränkische Hefte, 105: 1-70; Würzburg.
Announcement, Informationsdienst Wissenschaft.

Kelber, K.-P. (2005): Makroflora (Die Keuperfloren).- pp. 32-41; In: Beutler, G., Hauschke, N., Nitsch, E. & Vath, U. (eds.): Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission, Stratigraphie von Deutschland IV - Keuper.- Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 253; Frankfurt am Main. PDF file, 12 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. & Nitsch, E. (2005): Paläoflora und Ablagerungsräume im unterfränkischen Keuper (Exkursion H am 1. April 2005).- Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N.F., 87: 217-253; Stuttgart.
PDF file, 20 MB.

Okrusch, M., Kelber, K.-P. & Neubert, M. (2004): Steinbrüche der Barockzeit im Würzburger Stadtgebiet.- pp. 692-702; pl. 62-63; pp. 953-957; In: Wagner, U. (ed.): Geschichte der Stadt Würzburg.- vol. 2; Vom Bauernkrieg 1525 bis zum Übergang an das Königreich Bayern 1814.- (Theiss-Verlag), Stuttgart.

Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren .- pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
PDF file, 17 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. & Okrusch, M. (2002): Athanasius Kircher retrospektiv: Pendelschläge geowissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis.- pp. 137-162; In: Beinlich, H., Vollrath, H.-J. & Wittstadt, K. (eds.): Spurensuche: Wege zu Athanasius Kircher.- (J.H. Röll) Dettelbach.
PDF download available from there.

Okrusch, M. & Kelber, K.-P. (2002): Erkenntnisse - Phantasien - Visionen. Athanasius Kirchers geologisches Weltbild im Lichte heutiger Anschauungen.- pp. 131-160. In: Beinlich, H., Daxelmüller, C., Vollrath, H.-J. & Wittstadt, K. (eds.): Magie des Wissens. Athanasius Kircher 1602-1680: Universalgelehrter - Sammler - Visionär.- (J.H. Röll) Dettelbach.
PDF download available from there.

Geyer, G., Hagdorn, H. & Kelber, K.-P. (2002): Trias-Exkursion II: Muschelkalk und Keuper in Nord-Württemberg und Unterfranken.- pp. 45-87; In: Niebuhr, B. (ed.): Geo 2002 - Planet Erde: Vergangenheit, Entwicklung, Zukunft. 1.-5.10.2002, Würzburg. Exkursionsführer, Schriftenreihe Deutsche Geol. Ges., 22, Hannover.

Kelber, K.-P. (2000): Zur Pflanzenwelt des Keupers.- In: Brunner, H. & Hinkelbein, K.: Geol. Kte. Baden-Württemberg 1 : 50 000. Erläuterungen zum Blatt Heilbronn und Umgebung.- pp. 78-94; (Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau Baden-Württemberg), Freiburg i.Br.

Kelber, K.-P. (2000): Paläobotanisch-geologische Exkursion in die Obere Trias Frankens.- (Exkursion 7; 70. Jahrestagung Paläont. Ges., Coburg 2000). Terra Nostra, 00/4: 120-142; Berlin.
PDF file, 21 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1999): Neue Befunde über die Schachtelhalme des Keupers.- In: Hauschke, N. & Wilde, V. (eds.): Trias - Eine ganz andere Welt, III.14: 355-370; (Verl. Dr. F. Pfeil), München.
Abstract.
PDF file, 35 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1999): Triops cancriformis (Crustacea, Notostraca): Ein bemerkenswertes Fossil aus der Trias Mitteleuropas.- In: Hauschke, N. & Wilde, V. (eds.): Trias - Eine ganz andere Welt, III.16: 383-394; (Verl. Dr. F. Pfeil), München.
PDF file, 14 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1998): Phytostratigraphische Aspekte der Makrofloren des süddeutschen Keupers.- Documenta naturae, 117: 89-115; München.
Abstract.
PDF file.

Kelber, K.-P., & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. (1998): Equisetites arenaceus from the Upper Triassic of Germany with evidence for reproductive strategies.- Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 100: 1-26; Amsterdam.
Abstract.
PDF file, 18 MB.

Kelber, K.-P., Okrusch, M. & Nikel, S. (1997): Exotische Kristallingerölle aus dem süddeutschen Schilfsandstein (Mittlerer Keuper, Trias).- N. Jb. Geol. Paläont., Abh., 206: 93-131; Stuttgart.
Abstract

Kelber, K.-P., & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. (1997): A new Rhaetian flora from the neighbourhood of Coburg, (Germany) - preliminary results.- Proceedings 4th. Europ. Palaeobot. Palynol. Conf. Heerlen 1994 (EPPC); Meded. Ned. Inst. Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO, 58: 105-113; Haarlem.
Abstract

Grauvogel-Stamm, L. & Kelber, K.-P. (1996): Plant-insect interactions and coevolution during the Triassic in Western Europe.- Paleontologica Lombardia, N. S. 5: 5-23, 31 fig.; Milano.
Abstract, and PDF file, 29 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. & Hansch, W. (1995): Keuperpflanzen. Die Enträtselung einer über 200 Millionen Jahre alten Flora.- Museo 11, 157 pp., 300 fig..; Heilbronn.

Martini, E., Rothe, P., Kelber, K.-P. & Schiller, W. (1994): Sedimentäres Tertiär der Rhön (Exkursion I am 9. April 1994).- Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N. F., 76: 219-244, 9 fig., 1 Tab., Stuttgart.

Kelber, K.-P. (1994): J.L. Schönlein als Förderer der paläobotanischen Wissenschaft.- PDF file, 2.4 MB, in German. Beiblatt (pp. 1-4) zu: Mälzer, G.: Johann Lukas Schönlein (1793-1864) und die Bibliotheca Schoenleiniana.-Begleitheft der Schönlein-Ausstellung in der Universitätsbilbliothek Würzburg.
PDF file.

Kelber, K.-P., Franz, L., Stachel, T., Lorenz, V. & Okrusch, M. (1993): Plant fossils from Gross Brukkaros (Namibia) and their biostratigraphical significance.- Communs geol. Surv. Namibia, 8 (1992/93): 57-66, Windhoek.
Abstract.
PDF file.

Kelber, K.-P. (1992): Der dreidimensionale Bau der Blattspitzen bei Equisetites arenaceus (Equisetopsida, Equisetales) aus dem Unteren Keuper (Trias, Ladin).- In: Kovar-Eder, J. (ed.): Palaeovegetational development in Europe.- Proc. Pan-European Palaeobot. Conf.Vienna (PEPC 1991), pp. 289-299, 2 fig., 2 pl.; Vienna.
PDF file, 10 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1990a): Die versunkene Pflanzenwelt aus den Deltasümpfen Mainfrankens vor 230 Millionen Jahren. Makrofloren aus dem Germanischen Unterkeuper.- Beringeria, Sonderheft 1, 67 pp., 100 fig.; Würzburg.

Kelber, K.-P. (1990b): Ein steinernes Herbarium aus Mainfranken.- Info. Bayer. Julius-Maxim.-Univ. Wzbg., 3/24: 4-6, 4 fig.; Würzburg.

Kelber, K.-P. & Geyer, G. (1989): Lebensspuren von Insekten an Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers.- Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 109: 165-174, 2 pl.; Frankfurt am Main.
PDF file, 15 MB.

Amelingmeier, E. & Kelber, K.P. (1989): Die Rhön: Gesteine - Mineralien - Fossilien.- Texte zur Sonderausstellung im Mineralogischen Museum der Universität Würzburg, 19 pp. (Selbstverlag).

Kelber, K.-P., Baumhauer, R., Gregor, H.-J., Hottenrott, M. & Schmidt, K. (1988): Exkursionspunkt 3: Bauersberg - bei Bischofsheim v. d. Rhön - Fossilführendes Braunkohlentertiär.- In: Giessner, K., Baumhauer, R., Kelber, K.-P. & Rössner, U.: Führer zur Exkursion C, Rhön und Vorländer.- DEUQUA, 24. Tg., pp. 28-29; Hannover.

Brunner, H. & Kelber, K.-P. (1988): Eisenerzkonkretionen im württembergisch-fränkischen Unterkeuper - Bemerkungen zum fossilen Environment.- In: Hagdorn, H. (ed.): Neue Forschungen zur Erdgeschichte von Crailsheim.- Sonderbände d. Ges. f. Naturk. in Württemberg, 1: 185-205, 21 fig., 1 Tab.; Stuttgart.
PDF file, 20 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1988): Was ist Equisetites foveolatus? In: Hagdorn, H. (ed.): Neue Forschungen zur Erdgeschichte von Crailsheim.- Sonderbände d. Ges. f. Naturk. in Württemberg, 1: 166-184, 42 fig.; Stuttgart.
PDF file, 15 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1988): Exkursionspunkt 1: Sandgrube Wollbach bei Bad Neustadt - Die Taphoflora von Wollbach.- In: Giessner, K., Baumhauer, R., Kelber, K.-P. & Rössner, U.: Führer zur Exkursion C, Rhön und Vorländer.- DEUQUA, 24. Tg., pp. 20-24, fig. 10-12; Hannover.

Kelber, K.-P. & Gregor, H.-J. (1987): Makrofloren aus dem Tertiär der Langen Rhön: Erste Ergebnisse von Neuaufsammlungen.- Documenta naturae, 41: 11-13, 2 pl.; München.

Geyer, G. & Kelber, K.-P. (1987): Flügelreste und Lebensspuren von Insekten aus dem Unteren Keuper Mainfrankens.- N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 174(3): 331-355, 19 fig.; Stuttgart.
PDF file, 7 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1987): Spirorbidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) auf Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers -Ein Beitrag zur Phyto-Taphonomie.- N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 175(3): 261-294, 36 fig., 2 Tab.; Stuttgart.
Abstract and PDF file, 23 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1986): Taphonomische Konsequenzen aus der Besiedelung terrestrischer Pflanzen durch Spirorbidae (Annelida, Polychaeta).- Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 86: 13-26, 7 fig., 1 pl.; Frankfurt am Main.

Kelber, K.-P. (1983a): Schizoneura paradoxa Schimp. & Moug. aus dem Unteren Keuper Frankens.- Naturw.-Jb. Schweinfurt, 1: 19-33, 4 fig., 2 pl.; Schweinfurt. PDF file, 32 MB.

Kelber, K.-P. (1983b): Zur Pflanzenwelt des Keupers.- pp. 41-47, pl. 1-2, 1 Tab., In: Rutte, E. & Wilczewski: Mainfranken und Rhön.- Sammlung geol. Führer, 74, 217 pp., 64 fig., 4 pl., 2 Tab.; Berlin-Stuttgart, Gebr. Borntraeger.

Kelber, K.-P. (1980): Blatt- und Fruchtreste aus dem Jungtertiär von Wollbach, Unterfranken.-Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 42: 40-42, 1 fig.; Frankfurt am Main.

Kelber, K.-P. (1977): Hungarites strombecki Griepenkerl aus dem mainfränkischen Wellenkalk.- Aufschluss, 28: 145-149, 3 fig.; Heidelberg. PDF-file

Kelber, K.-P. (1974): Terebratel/Placunopsiden-Riffe im basalen Hauptmuschelkalk Unterfrankens.- Aufschluss, 25: 643-645, 3 fig.; Heidelberg.






Some Conference-Abstracts


Kelber, K.-P., (2015):
Small and rigid: some plant taphonomic patterns of the Triassic liverwort Naiadita lanceolata.
24th International Workshop on Plant Taphonomy 2015 at the State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Germany, November 26-27, 2015.

Kelber, K.-P., (2013):
Naiadita lanceolata (Marchantiophyta, Bryophyta) from the Triassic of Germany.- "Green planet: 400 million years of terrestrial floras." Symposium on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Prof. Dr. Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert. Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden (NL), April 17-19, 2013.
See also here.

Kelber, K.-P., (2005): Beyond the Permian-Triassic extinction events: The highly diverse Lower Keuper flora (Ladinian, Triassic) of southern Germany.- Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

Kelber, K.-P., (2004): Die Makrofloren des süddeutschen Unteren Keupers (Ladinum, Trias): Neue Einsichten, Potenziale und Perspektiven.- Jahrestagung, Arbeitskreis Paläobotanik und Palynologie (APP), 20.-22. Mai 2004, München.

Kelber, K.-P., (2001): Preservation and taphonomy of charcoal from the Upper Triassic of southern Germany.- Abstract, 12th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, 26th of October 2001, Altlengbach, Austria.
See also here

Kelber, K.-P., (1999): Der Nachweis von Paläo-Wildfeuer durch fossile Holzkohlen aus dem süddeutschen Keuper.- Abstract, 69. Jahrestagung der Paläontologischen Gesellschaft in Zürich vom 20.9.-26.9.1999; Terra Nostra, 99/8: 41; Zürich.

Kelber, K.-P., (1999): Holzkohlen (Fusit) aus dem süddeutschen Keuper.- 27. Jahrestagung, Arbeitskreis Paläobotanik und Palynologie (APP), 12.-15. Mai 1999, Tübingen.

Kelber, K.-P., (1998): Makrofloren aus dem süddeutschen Keuper: Eine Übersicht.- Abstract (in PDF), 68. Jahrestagung der Paläontologischen Gesellschaft in Berlin vom 6.10.-9.10.1998 (Geo-Berlin 98); Terra Nostra, 98/3: V 163; Cologne.

Kelber, K.-P., (1998): New Triopsids (Crustacea, Notostraca) from the Upper Triassic of Frankonia, Germany.- Abstract; Epicontinental Triassic International Symposium, Halle/Saale, Germany, September 21-23, 1998; Hallesches Jb. Geowiss., Beiheft 5: 85; Halle.

Kelber, K.-P. & van Konijnenburg - van Cittert, J.H.A., (1995): Unterschiedliche Reproduktionsstrategien bei Equisetites arenaceus aus dem fränkischen Unterkeuper (Trias, Ladin).- Abstr. Arbeitskreis Paläobotanik und Palynologie, Dresden.

Kelber, K.-P., (1994): Fossile Equisetales aus dem Unteren Keuper Frankens: Aktueller Wissensstand und Probleme.- Abstr. S 27.01, Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft, Botanikertagung Bayreuth.

--- (1992): Recognition of phytotaphonomical patterns: an additional tool to taxonomic identification.- Abstr. 4th Int. Workshop on Plant Taphonomy, pp. 4-5; Münster.

--- (1991): Equisetites arenaceus: three-dimensional leaf architecture and a further mode of vegetative propagation.- Abstr. Paneurop. Palaeobot. Conf., p. 16; Vienna.

--- (1989): Brauneisenkonkretionen aus dem Unteren Keuper: Eine reaktivierte Quelle strukturzeigender Triaspflanzen.- Abstr. 19. Jahrestag. Arbeitskr. Paläobot. Palynol. 1989; Krefeld.











Abstracts






Kelber, K.-P., (2015):
Small and rigid: some plant taphonomic patterns of the Triassic liverwort Naiadita lanceolata.
24th International Workshop on Plant Taphonomy 2015 at the State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Germany, November 26-27, 2015.

Abstract
Recent findings of Naiadita lanceolata (Marchantiophyta, Bryophyta) from the Lower Keuper (Erfurt-Formation, Ladinian, Triassic) of Frankonia (southern Germany) have revealed exceptional plant taphonomic traits. Delicate leafy axes of the gametophyte, partly with attached gemmae cups and the sporophyte in situ are preserved as compression and impression fossils in a structureless mudstone.
These monospecific assemblages retained the three-dimensional non-deformed architecture of attached leaves, which implies a disperse propagation in muddy suspension with subsequent embedding. Even dispersed sporophyte capsules, still organically connected with leaves of a perianth-like structure of the gametophyte indicate the feature of vertically embedded leaflets.
The more durable sporophyte capsules have also been found in size sorted clusters, which corroborate their cleistocarpous nature. Isolated capsule fragments also occur on some bedding planes, scarcely associated with dispersed plant cuticles, wood debris, conchostracans, ostracods, insect wings, and fragments of the brachiopod Lingula sp.
In an advanced stage of decay badly preserved axes, leaflets, and broken sporophyte capsules of Naiadita lanceolata have formed interwoven spherical accumulations. These fabrics strikingly coincide in those which can be observed in recent sea or lake ball structures.







Kelber, K.-P. (2015):
5. Die Makroflora des Lettenkeupers.
- p. 51-100. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).

Abstract
Macroplant assemblages from the Lettenkeuper (Lower Keuper, Erfurt Formation; Middle Triassic, Ladinian, Longobardian) of southern Germany have been described from a large number of localities since the early 19th century. Although favourable outcrop situations in previous decades are nowadays reduced to a minimum, intensive sampling has yielded an additional variety of new plant fossil taxa.

The Lower Keuper flora in Germany represents a mixed array of palaeophytic floral elements and of modern mesophytic components that emerged for the first time in the Anisian or Ladinian. Lycopsids are represented by Isoetites sp. and Lepacyclotes zeilleri, the latter occasionally in large quantities. Sphenophytes are very prominent genera appearing ubiquitously and in abundance and diversity. Equisetites arenaceus and Neocalamites merianii being the most abundant horsetails, followed by Equisetites conicus, E. macrocoleon, Neocalamites schoenleinii, Schizoneura paradoxa, Echinostachys sp., and Phyllotheca sp. The flora yields also a wide association of Filicales and Pteridosperms, e.g., Danaeopsis marantacea, Symopteris rumpfii, Chelepteris strongylopeltis, Rhacophyllum crispatum, Chiropteris lacerata, Sphenopteris schoenleiniana, Cladophlebis remota, Scytophyllum bergeri, "Sagenopteris" sp., Neuropteridium grandifolium, and Glossopteris-like leaves. Very rare are pinnules of Phlebopteris sp. (Matoniaceae), pointing to a debut of leptosporangiate ferns in the Lettenkeuper. Cycads occur infrequently and include fronds of Pterophyllum robustum, Sphenozamites tener and leaves of Taeniopteris kelberi as well as fertile structures named Dioonitocarpidium pennaeforme. The salient evolutionary feature is the first appearance of the Bennettitales, testified by fronds of Pterophyllum brevipenne. Ginkgophytes and conifers are documented by Sphenobaiera sp., Ginkgo sp., Swedenborgia sp., Willsiostrobus sp., Widdringtonites sp., "Podozamites" sp., and Desmiophyllum imhoffi. Only recently, the bryophyte Naiadita has been discovered in the Albertibank of Franconia. A first description of this early representative of Bryophyta is included.

Peat-forming plants have produced considerable quantities of biomass, proved by sporadically appearing lenticular coal seams. Thus, Lower Keuper coals ("Lettenkohle") belonging to the first coals beyond an Early Triassic global gap in coal formation. The composition of the Lettenkeuperflora seems to be similar to the flora of the germanotype Schilfsandstein floral complex (Stuttgart-Formation, Carnian). In synonymising Lettenkeuper plant genera, a global trend towards uniformisation of Ladinian-Carnian phytocommunities can be tentatively implied. Approx. 18 Ma after the devastation of end-Permian terrestrial ecosystems and subsequent periods characterised by monotypic Pleuromeia- and Voltzia-floras, the flora of the Lettenkeuper can be deemed as a reliable touchstone to ascertain biotic recovery and long term generic transition through Early Triassic time.







Hagdorn, H., Kelber, K.-P. & Schoch, R. (2015):
15. Fossile Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper.
- p. 359-385. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).

Abstract
This chapter aims at reconstructing Lower Keuper palaeocommunities in their habitats and to elucidate interdependences of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Four major groups of palaeocommunities are differentiated: (1) The terrestrial palaeocommunities are poorly known from transported floral and faunal elements into submersed depositional environments and rooted soil horizons. Clusters of insect eggs and nutritional traces on plants indicate animal-plant-interactions. Small pieces of charcoal give evidence of fires. The terrestrial reptile record comprises small insectivores and larger carnivores with the rauisuchian Batrachotomus as the top predator, while herbivores are still unknown. The other groups of palaeocommunities depend on the salinity of the water bodies. (2) The freshwater palaeocommunities are characterized by charophytes, by darwinulid ostracods, by bivalves (Unionites brevis/Unionites donacinus) and by amphibians. Here, a low diverse amphibian (Mastodonsaurus/Plagiosuchus/Gerrothorax) and a high diverse amphibian/ reptile palaeocommunity (Mastodonsaurus, Callistomordax, Kupferzellia, Trematolestes, choristoderes, and questionable juvenile thalattosaurs) can be discerned. (3) The three brackish water palaeocommunities are dominated by invertebrates: Myophoria/Bakevellia, Lingularia/Euestheria, "Anodonta" gregaria). (4) Among the nearly marine palaeocommunities are five bivalve-dominated: Entolium discites, Pseudocorbula/Bakevellia subcostata, Hoernesia/Bakevellia subcostata with Placunopsis bioherms in Southern Baden-Württemberg, Costatoria goldfussi/Bakevellia subcostata, the latter two becoming more diverse towards the South, and the Central and North German Modiolus rhomboidalis/Costatoria goldfussi palaeocommunity documenting the northernmost expansion of the marine Lower Keuper. One of the two marine vertebrate associations is dominated by diverse fishes and reptiles plus the most saltwater- tolerant amphibian, Plagiosternum, and another diverse palaeocommunity without amphibians. Stromatolites occur in three different horizons of the Lower Keuper and indicate hypo- or hypersalinar conditions. Non-quantitative examples of selected invertebrate dominated palaeocommunities from Northern Württemberg are ecologically characterised in terms of life habits and shell mineralogy.







Kelber, K.-P. & Schoch, R. (2015):
18. Lebensbilder des Lettenkeupers im Wandel der Zeiten.
- p. 407-413. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).

Abstract
Since more than 100 years, the rich and well-preserved Lettenkeuper floras and faunas have induced scientists and inspired artists to compose reconstructions. These pictures shaped the imagination of laymen and scientists what Lower Keuper landscapes and their inhabitants might have been looking like. This article reproduces some of the most well known of these life reconstructions and evaluates their scientific accuracy.







Hagdorn, H. & Kelber, K.-P. (2015):
19. Kohle, Alaun und Vitriol - Historische Rohstoffgewinnung.
- p. 417-426. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).

Abstract
This chapter gives a short overview of the historical Lettenkohle (Lower Keuper coal) exploitation and the vitriol and alum production in the 18th and 19th century in Germany. The earliest mines were opened in 1763 in Gaildorf (County Limpurg, now Baden-Württemberg), 1766 in Crailsheim (Brandenburg-Ansbach, now Baden-Württemberg), and 1767 by J. C. W. VOIGT in Mattstedt (Thuringia). It was VOIGT, who coined the name Lettenkohle in terms of a stratigraphical unit. Due to their high clay content, these coals were too poor for industrial usage. Therefore, all these small mines could only survive as long as they produced vitriol and alum as well. However, in none of them this production lasted longer than till the end of the 19th century. Among palaeontologists, the Gaildorf mine gained fame because it yielded the first Mastodonsaurus remains.







Kelber, K.-P., (2013):
Naiadita lanceolata (Marchantiophyta, Bryophyta) from the Triassic of Germany.
"Green planet: 400 million years of terrestrial floras." Symposium on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Prof. Dr. Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert. Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden (NL), April 17-19, 2013.

Abstract
Among the scarce fossil record of bryophytes Naiadita lanceolata has played a crucial role due to its completeness of features. Since the profound investigations of T.M. Harris (1938; 1939), this taxon is deemed to be one of the best known fossil liverworts. Minute fossils attributed to N. lanceolata have been recently found in argillaceous intercalations of the basal Albertibank, Lower Keuper (Erfurt-Formation, Ladinian, Triassic) of Schleerieth, Germany. The studied Lower Keuper material includes both impression fossils of gametophyte fragments and compressions of the globose sporophyte. They occur in almost monospecific assemblages, scarcely associated with dispersed cuticles, wood debris, conchostracans, ostracods, insect wings and the brachiopod Lingula sp.

Leaves of N. lanceolata without a costa, with rectangular cells and straight walls, are helically attached to the stem. Their shape is basically more lanceolate but become gradually rounder towards the apex. Stem fragments show attached gemma cups of conical shape and lobed margin. Some leafy gametophyte axes are terminated by sporophytes in situ, born in a perianth-like structure, composed of four to five leaves. Even dispersed sporophytes are still organically connected with leaves, conveying the impression of a winged reproduction structure, which is matter-of-factly a plant taphonomic feature. The newly discovered N. lanceolata impression/compression fossils from the Lower Keuper of Schleerieth are the stratigraphically oldest founds reported to date.

Harris, T.M. 1938. The British Rhaetic Flora. - British Museum (Natural History), London. 84 pp.
Harris, T.M. 1939. Naiadita, a fossil bryophyte with reproductive organs. Annales Bryologici 12: 57-70.







Kelber, K.-P., (2004), Institute of Mineralogy, University of Würzburg:
Die Makrofloren des süddeutschen Unteren Keupers (Ladinum, Trias): Neue Einsichten, Potenziale und Perspektiven
Jahrestagung, Arbeitskreis Paläobotanik und Palynologie (APP), 20.-22. Mai 2004, München.

Abstract
Wissenschaftsgeschichtlich gehören die fossilen Pflanzenreste aus dem Unteren Keuper (Langobardium, Ladinium, Trias) zu den am längsten bekannt gewordenen Makrofloren Europas. Von zahlreichen Fundorten liegen in großer Fülle fossile Makropflanzenreste vor, unter denen die Equisetales dominant vertreten sind. Die z.T. strukturbietend erhaltenen Pflanzen liefern in besonderer Weise Einsichten zur Pflanzentaphonomie, terrestrischen Paläoökologie und zur Koevolution der Tier und Pflanzenwelt. Ein neuer Blickwinkel zur Bewertung der germanotypen Unterkeuperfloren ergibt sich aus der Berücksichtigung des permo-triadischen Massenaussterbens und den damit verbundenen Auswirkungen ("fungal spike", "global coal gap", Phase der Re-Konsolidierung). Die temporär auftretenden kleinen Kohleflöze im Unteren Keuper gehören zu den ersten Kohlebildungen nach einer weltweiten Phase aussetzender Kohlebildung in der Unteren Trias.

Die Paläovegetation zur Zeit des Unteren Keupers war keinesfalls nur eine monotypische Florengemeinschaft der Schachtelhalmgewächse, sie beherbergte vielmehr neue Pflanzengruppen, unter denen die Gymnospermen einen erheblichen Anteil einnahmen. Das Florenbild ist geprägt durch die Koexistenz von paläophytischen Pflanzentaxa, die in ihrer Entwicklungsgeschichte bis zu dem Florenwechsel Palaeophytikum/Mesophytikum zurückreichen und durch moderne mesophytische Florenelemente, die durch ihr erstmaliges Erscheinen im Unteren Keuper gekennzeichnet sind oder nur kurze Zeit vorher, im Oberen Buntsandstein, zum ersten Mal aufgetreten sind. Neufunde von unbekannten Pflanzenorganen in den letzten Jahre weisen auf die Existenz weiterer noch unbekannter Pflanzen hin; offensichtlich wurden die Pflanzenlagerstätten des Unteren Keupers bislang noch nicht erschöpfend besammelt. Weil einige der in der älteren Literatur schon beschriebenen Pflanzenfossilien in neueren Florenbearbeitungen unter Nichtbeachtung der nomenklatorischen Regeln neu benannt worden sind, herrscht für die fossilen Makropflanzenreste aus dem Unteren Keuper zur Zeit noch ein relativ unbefriedigender taxonomischer Bearbeitungsstand. Vorläufige Vergleiche lassen einen eher kosmopolitischen Florencharakter für den Zeitraum des oberen Ladiniums und Karniums erkennen.

Die erreichte Evolutionshöhe spiegelt sich bei den Lycopodiales durch den Wandel von den Pleuromeiales zu den Organresten der Gattung Annalepis wieder. Vertreter der modernen Farne waren bisher nur ab dem Schilfsandstein bekannt; durch einen Einzelfund von Phlebopteris (Matoniaceae) ist das Debüt der leptosporangiaten Farne schon in der Zeit des oberen Ladiniums dokumentiert. Die wichtigste biologische Innovation in der Unterkeuperflora ist jedoch das erstmalige Erscheinen der Bennettiteen, durch die sterile Belaubung der Gattung Pterophyllum sicher bezeugt.







Kelber, K.-P., (2001), Institute of Mineralogy, University of Würzburg:
Preservation and taphonomy of charcoal from the Upper Triassic of southern Germany
The 12th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Altlengbach near Vienna, Austria, 26th of October 2001.

Abstract
Fossil charcoal (fusain), preserved in fluvial, lake and peat sediments have been yielded from the Erfurt-Formation (Lower Keuper, Upper Ladinian), Stuttgart-Formation (Schilfsandstein, Carnian), Haßberge-Formation (Coburger Sandstein, Carnian? Norian?) and the Exter-Formation (Rhaetian) of southern Germany. Broken chunks of charcolified wood, associated with microbial mats also occur in chert beds of the Trossingen-Formation (Knollenmergel, Norian) from the Mainhardter Wald in Württemberg. Fractured cubic charcoal pieces in size up to 3 x 3 x 2 cm have been resistant to compression and are three-dimensionally preserved. These specimens are black and brittle, with silky luster. They display porosity from form of original cells. SEM and reflective microscopy of cell walls shows clear evidence of cell wall homogenisation. Fluvial transportation is well documented by rounded charcoal pieces.

The superb preservation achieved by charcolification enables exceptionally wood detail analysis, e.g. in revealing uniseriate separate bordered pits and pit aperture characteristic in cross-field pits. So far as microscopically scrutinized, all wood belongs to the genus Dadoxylon ENDLICHER. Growth rings in secondary wood indicate a degree of seasonality. The charcolified wood remains, sourced from fire prone coniferopsid upland forests, suggest that wildfire was an important environmental factor in germanotype Keuper ecosystems. Abundant quantities of charcoal together with Semionotus bergeri and other fish remains from the Coburger Sandstein of Ebelsbach (northern Bavaria) are interpreted as the result of a local catastrophic wildfire. Erosion after wildfire might have induced nutrient flux into the water body. Then eutrophic processes have led to low oxygen levels and triggered out massive fish kill.







Kelber, K.-P., (1999, Institute of Mineralogy, University of Würzburg:
Neue Befunde über die Schachtelhalme des Keupers.-
In: Hauschke, N. & Wilde, V. (eds.): Trias - Eine ganz andere Welt, III.14: 355-370; (Verl. Dr. F. Pfeil), München.

Abstract
Horsetails are the prevalent floral elements in Lower Keuper (Ladinian) and Schilfsandstein (Carnian) taphofloras of the Upper Triassic in Central Europe. Recently discovered details of Equisetites arenaceus include: cuticles, the three-dimensional architecture of the leaf segments, permineralized roots, spores in situ and autochthonous stem casts. A new reconstruction is given of the strobiliferous branches. An additional mode of vegetative reproduction is documented by adventitious roots at the nodes of slender branches.

In Neocalamites merianii, whorls of leaves are situated at the base of branches on the main stem, and permineralized tissue has been observed for the first time. Equisetites macrocoleon and E. conicus have been found in the Lower Keuper for the first time, but are rarely associated with Schizoneura paradoxa and Phyllotheca sp.

The phyto-taphonomic overprint on the plant fossils can be exceptionally characteristic, and is in many cases limited to distinct plant groups. Patterns of selective destruction may be quite typical, as well as distortion caused by desiccation on fragments of Neocalamites merianii bark and Equisetites arenaceus leaf sheaths. Herbivory in the Lower Keuper ecosystem is shown by feeding traces on Schizoneura paradoxa leaves. Light is shed on animal-plant interactions by encrustations by Spirorbis, subaquatically attached clusters of insect eggs, and other scarlike imprints on leaf sheaths of Equisetites arenaceus, and on the bark of Neocalamites merianii.







Kelber, K.-P. (1987): Spirorbidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) auf Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers - Ein Beitrag zur Phyto-Taphonomie.- N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 175: 261-294.; Stuttgart.

Abstract:
A rich thanatocoenosis of land plants from the Ladinian of Ochsenfurt (southern Germany) illustrates the differential taphonomic durability of plant materials. Their encrustation by worm tubes further suggests that they lasted in the submersed stage longer then comparable modern plant remains, while the euytopic nature of Spirorbis makes it unsuitable as a paleoenvironmental indicator.

Zusammenfassung:
Aus dem Unteren Keuper (Trias, Ladin) von Ochsenfurt (Süddeutschland) werden Landpflanzenreste vorgestellt, auf denen sich Abdrücke, seltener auch die pseudomorph umgewandelten Gehäusefragmente von Spirorbis befinden. Vom Fundort werden Beobachtung zur Stratigraphie, zur Fossilführung und zum Sedimentationsgeschehen mitgeteilt. Die Merkmale der Spirorbis-Wohnröhre - insbesonders der Skulptur - werden beschrieben, zusammen mit Hinweisen über den Ablauf der Fossildiagenese. Es konnten mehrphasige Besiedelungsfolgen festgestellt werden. Eine Übersicht über die Biologie und Ökologie der rezenten Spirorbidae sowie ein Vergleich mit triadischen Spirorbis-Vorkommen zeigt auf, daß die Beurteilung des fossilen Environments - gestützt auf Funde der Wohnröhren von Spirorbis - nicht möglich ist.

Ausgangspunkt für weitergehende Schlußfolgerungen zur Pflanzentaphonomie ist die Tatsache, daß die etwa sechsmonatige Baudauer der Spirorbis-Wohnröhren bis zur adulten Größe unter Berücksichtigung des aktualistischen Prinzips mit einer ununterbrochenen submersen Verweildauer der Pflanzensubstrate gleichgesetzt werden kann. In diesem Zeitraum waren alle Voraussetzungen eines Ausleseprozesses gegeben, sowohl durch den mikrobiologischen Zerfall als auch durch biostratinomische Wirkungsweisen.







Kelber, K.-P., (1999), Institute of Mineralogy, University of Würzburg:
Der Nachweis von Paläo-Wildfeuer durch fossile Holzkohlen aus dem süddeutschen Keuper.-
Abstract, 69. Jahrestagung der Paläontologischen Gesellschaft in Zürich vom 20.9.-26.9.1999; Terra Nostra, 99/8: 41; Zürich.

Abstract
Aus vier Zeitscheiben der Oberen Trias Süddeutschlands konnten durch langjährige Aufsammlungen fossiler Pflanzenreste episodisch auch fossile Holzkohlen geborgen werden. Isolierte Stücke von kubischer oder durch Transporteinwirkung abgerundeter Gestalt bis zu 3 x 3 x 2 cm entstammen dem Rhät von Heilgersdorf, dem Coburger Sandstein (Karn?/Nor?) von Eltmann und dem Ebelsbachtal, dem Schilfsandstein (Karn) von Zeil und Kirchschönbach sowie dem Unteren Keuper (Oberes Ladin) von Schleerieth.

Alle Funde geben sich schon makroskopisch durch ihren seidigen Glanz, ihr poröses Gefüge und durch ihren spröd-splitterigen Zerfall als Holzkohlen (Fusit, charcoal, fusain) zu erkennen. Die mikroskopisch näher untersuchten Proben gehören zur Gattung Dadoxylon. Im Auflicht, besonders aber unter dem REM, lassen sich sowohl die unverfüllten Tracheiden (teilweise mit ausgeprägten Zuwachszonen), aber auch die vorzüglich erhaltenen Markstrahlen, Hof- und Kreuzungsfeldtüpfel gut erkennen. Kollabierte Tracheiden zeigen typische "Bogenstrukturen". Von besonderer Relevanz sind die durch den Vorgang der Pyrolyse homogenisierten Tracheidenwände.

Die neu entdeckten Holzkohlenfunde bezeugen Wildfeuer in den Ökosystemen der germanotypen Oberen Trias. Sie sind deshalb ein Dreh- und Angelpunkt für weiterführende phytotaphonomische und paläoökologische Überlegungen, vor allem in Hinblick auf die komplexen ökodynamischen Auswirkungen solcher Vegetationsbrände.






Kelber, K.-P. (1998), Institute of Mineralogy, University of Würzburg:
New Triopsids (Crustacea, Notostraca) from the Upper Triassic of Frankonia, Germany
Abstract; Epicontinental Triassic International Symposium, Halle/Saale, Germany, September 21-23, 1998; Hallesches Jb. Geowiss., Beiheft 5: 85; Halle.

Abstract

Triops cancriformis minor, initially described in 1937 by Trusheim (Palaeont. Z. 19: 198) from the Upper Triassic (Norian) of Koppenwind (Frankonia, Germany) has been regarded as an outstanding case of longevity. Owing to its exceptionally preserved soft-part morphology, these finds have been deemed as conspecific with the extant tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis. Hence, this taxon is supposed to be the longest existing species on earth. Unfortunately, all the invaluable Trusheim material, except a single head shield impression ("carapace") appear to be lost.

A targeted campaign prospecting for fossil plant deposits in the Coburger Sandstein (Carnian) near Ebelsbach (Frankonia, Germany) has yielded a new fossil lagerstaette of notostracans. Hundreds of flat impressions of triopsid head shields and some abdominal remains, caudal rami and intact specimens have been excavated, associated with conchostracans, fish and megafloral remains. The fossils occur in laminated clayey shale from a 0.5-2 m thick lacustrine bed intercalated in the Coburger Sandstein fluvial channel and floodplain sequence. Ichnopodichnus ichnofauna, most likely produced by notostracan branchiopods, also occur in the same locality, but not within the notostracian beds.

Measurements on head shields and intact specimens have been carried out. In their size range, the newly excavated triopsid population exceed comparable occurrences from the Upper Triassic (Fig. 1). Based on the shape of the telson, all intact specimen belonging to the genus Triops. Although most of the head shield impressions probably represent exuviae, distinctive features e.g. the combined eyes and the dorsal organ, are visible in many specimens. Taphonomically distinguishing marks are the gut cast preservation and the peculiar folded marginal head shield zones. The new fossil triopsids from the Coburger Sandstein would also appear to display no profound differences to the morphologically similar Triops cancriformis.


Triops cancriformis, size variation
Fig. 1: Size range variation of triopsids from the Coburger Sandstein from Frankonia, Germany.
a) Parameters for the measurements.
b) Head shield width versus head shield length. Dotted lines represent data from Trusheim (1937) and Gore & Traverse (1986, J. Paleont. 60: 1086).
c) Intact specimens, anterior/telson length versus head shield length.





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Kelber, K.-P. (1998), Institute of Mineralogy, University of Würzburg:
Phytostratigraphische Aspekte der Makrofloren des süddeutschen Keupers.-
Documenta naturae, 117: 89-115; München.

Abstract
Four prominent fossil macroplant zones can be distinguished in the Keuper (Upper Triassic) of Southern Germany: Lower Keuper Flora ("Lettenkeuper", Ladinian), Schilfsandstein Flora (Carnian), Coburger Sandstein Flora (Carnian) and the Rhaetian Flora. Only a few fossil plant remains from the Gipskeuper (Carnian) and the Stubensandstein/Burgsandstein (Norian) support the present state of palaeobotanical knowledge.

Patterns in vascular land plant diversification of the Keuper are characterized by distinctive taxa that first appeared in the Triassic (modern mesophytic floral elements) and some survivors from the Palaeozoic (palaeophytic floral elements).

Lower Keuper and Schilfsandstein taphofloras from many localities in Southern Germany are mainly represented by horsetails of which Equisetites arenaceus forms the most dominant floral component. Palaeophytic floral elements are the equisetalean genera Schizoneura and Phyllotheca, the marattialean fern Danaeopsis, "Voltzia"-type conifers, the cycads and some Pteridospermopsida, particularly Lepidopteris and its fructifications. The salient evolutionary feature is the appearance of Bennettitales as testified by Pterophyllum from Lower Keuper and later floras, and culminating in the Schilfsandstein Flora. Modern leptosporangiate ferns of the genera Dictyophyllum and Clathropteris (Dipteridaceae) occur in the Schilfsandstein Flora for the first time. New finds indicate that conifers became highly diverse in the Coburger Sandstein plant beds. The sparsely distributed Rhaetian floras display a major shift to modern mesophytic floral composition. This flora includes Phlebopteris, Pachypteris ["Thinnfeldia"], Umkomasia, Nilsonia, Schizolepis, Stachyotaxus, and Palissya. "Voltzia"-type conifer elements and the peltasperm Lepidopteris disappear at the end of the Triassic.

New finds, especially from the Lower Keuper Flora (Schizoneura, Phyllotheca, Linguifolium, reticulate venation pattern, ?"Glossopteris", ?"Sagenopteris") suggest more uniform floral components between Euramerica and Gondwana than previously assumed. Phytostratigraphical work on macroplants in the Keuper Flora of Southern Germany is currently handicapped by insufficient taxonomic research as well as sampling deficiency for many Keuper sequences.

Concerning the evaluation of the end-Triassic floral mass extinction event and the subsequent vegetational recovery a "golden spike" situation is located adjacent to Coburg and Bayreuth in Northern Bavaria. Plant bearing localities of the former indistinguishable "Rhät-Lias-Grenzschichten" now have been properly defined as the Rhaetian and the successive Liassic plant beds on sedimentological and palynological grounds. Obviously there is no disruption or decline in species diversity neither in Rhaetian nor in Liassic taphofloras in this area.






Kelber, K.-P., & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. (1998):
Equisetites arenaceus from the Upper Triassic of Germany with evidence for reproductive strategies.-
Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 100: 1-26; Amsterdam.

Abstract
In situ triplet groups of asymmetrical ellipsoidal strobili of Equisetites arenaceus in different stages of maturity, borne at the end of straight equisetalean branches, are described from the Keuper (Upper Triassic) of southern Germany. Apart from the organization of the strobili, spores in situ are also described. The strobili are compared to other equisetalean strobili with in situ spores and to extant Equisetum material. An additional mode of vegetative reproduction by shed twigs indicating adventitious roots is proven. In authochtonous situations, dense packages of shed twigs built up patches of newly sprouted rhizome-layers. Moreover, we include Equisetites elegans Kräusel 1959 in E. arenaceus (Jaeger)Schenk and give an emended diagnosis for the species.





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Kelber, K.-P., Okrusch, M. & Nikel, S. (1997):
Exotische Kristallingerölle aus dem süddeutschen Schilfsandstein (Mittlerer Keuper, Trias).-
Exotic Crystalline Pebbles from the Schilfsandstein (Middle Keuper; Triassic) of Southern Germany.- N. Jb. Geol. Paläont., Abh., 206: 93-131; Stuttgart.

Abstract
At the Leippersberg Hill near Kottspiel (Northern Württemberg, Germany), the basal part of the Upper Triassic Schilfsandstein (Stuttgart group, km2) is developed as a conglomeratic sandstone that contains a variety of reworked rock fragments together with fragments of permineralized wood and sauropod bones. For the first time, exotic clasts of metamorphic and igneous rocks have been recorded, i.e. phyllites to quartz pyllites, albite gneisses and aplitic gneisses as well as cataclastic granites, tonalites and granite porphyries.

Microprobe analyses revealed that the phyllites and albite gneisses contain phengitic white micas testifying to metamorphism under elevated pressures. Combination of the garnet-phengite geothermometer with phengite geobarometer, applied to one sample of albite gneiss, yielded temperatures of 480-500 ºC and pressures of 13-14 kbar. A distinctly lower P-T combination of about 6 kbar and 330 ºC was estimated for an aplite-gneiss sample. These findings indicate a considerable regional extent or a marked metamorphic field gradient for the source region of the exotic clasts.

Several modes of long distance transport mechanism are discussed. Among these, we regard a transportation of entrapped rocks within root structures of floating trees as the best explanation, whereas a transport as gastroliths in vertebrates seems rather unlikely. Judging from the dominating Schilfsandstein river system, Fennoscandia or, more probably, the north- western part of the Bohemian Massif can be considered as possible source areas.




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Kelber, K.-P., & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. (1997):
A new Rhaetian flora from the neighbourhood of Coburg, (Germany) - preliminary results.-
Proceedings 4th. Europ. Palaeobot. Palynol. Conf. Heerlen 1994 (EPPC); Meded. Ned. Inst. Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO, 58: 105-113; Haarlem.

Abstract
Preliminary results from a new Rhaetian flora from Heilgersdorf near Coburg (Germany) are presented. Almost 20 natural taxa have been recognized so far, mostly on genus level. Specific determinations, possibly including new species, have still to be carried out. Genera of which one or more species have been recognized so far are: Lepidopteris including its male fructification Antholithus and the female Peltaspermum; Equisetites, Rhizomopteris, Todites, Cladophlebis, Phlebopteris, Dictyophyllum, Pachypteris (possibly with an Umkomasia), Nilsonia, Pseudoctenis, Pterophyllum, Taeniopteris, Stachyotaxus, Palissya, Schizolepis and Desmiophyllum. Apart from the fructifications mentioned above, several male and female strobili and a few types of seeds have been found of which the affinity remains to be detected. Coal as well as fusain and permineralized wood have also been recovered. This flora is the most diverse Rhaetian flora so far found in the Germanic Basin.




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Grauvogel-Stamm, L. & Kelber, K.-P. (1996):
Plant-insect interactions and coevolution during the Triassic in Western Europe.-
Paleontologica Lombardia, N. S. 5: 5-23, 31 fig.; Milano.

Abstract
A review of the Triassic plant-insect interactions of western Europe is presented with some new interpretations. Several new interactions are described and discussed. This study is based on the analysis and comparison of three Triassic ecosystems which are rich in both plant and insect remains: the Grès à Voltzia (Upper Buntsandstein) of the Vosges (France) which is early Anisian, the Lower Keuper of Franconia (Germany) and the Lettenkohle of Alsace (France) which are both Upper Ladinian.

Four kinds of interactions could be identified: feeding traces on plants, relations between the laying of insect eggs and host plants, parasitic relationships of galls and other growth abnormalities as well as a new fossil example of mimicry. A comprihensive account of plant-aided insect reproductive processes is given for the first time, which greatly extends the variety of fossil plant-insect interactions previously reported.

Among the numerous results, the oviposition habits of the Protodonata are demonstrated, showing that they inserted their eggs in the plant tissues like the present-day endophytic Odonata. The numerous traces of their eggs in the Ladinian horsetails of Franconia (Germany) suggest moreover that this group, which was particularly flourishing in Permo-Carboniferous times, was still well established in the Triassic. The discovery of mimetic Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) wings having an angiosperm-like venation and a leopard-like colouring led us to inquire into the significance for the process of plant-insect co-evolution. On the other hand, the floristic change in the Ladinian, with the emergence of the Cycadopsida, and the simultaneous appearance of numerous feeding traces on these new plants are evidence in favour of such a process. All these observations illustrate the dynamics of the Triassic ecosystems.




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Kelber, K.-P., Franz, L., Stachel, T., Lorenz, V. & Okrusch, M. (1993):
Plant fossils from Gross Brukkaros (Namibia) and their biostratigraphical significance.-
Communs geol. Surv. Namibia, 8 (1992/93): 57-66, Windhoek.

Abstract
A small collection of newly discovered plant macrofossils from Gross Brukkaros (Namibia) is examined in order to attempt a biostratigraphic age-bracketing. Two conifer shoots of Brachyphyllum sp. indicate a Permian or post-Permian age with respect to the first apperance of this form genus. The composition of a probable dicotyledonous leaflet and a most likely angiospermous flower as well as carpofossils which are very similar to those of angiosperms suggest a Cretaceous or post-Cretaceous age.










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