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Douglas Allchin (1997): James Hutton and Coal. PDF file, Cadernos IG/UNICAMP, 7: 167-183.

! J. Alleon et al. (2017): Organic molecular heterogeneities can withstand diagenesis. Scientific Reports, 7.

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL:
! Coal Research Tutorial. Go to: What is Coalification?
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M. Bardet and A. Pournou (2017): NMR Studies of Fossilized Wood. Abstract, Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy, 90: 41–83. See also here and there (Google books).

D. Biello (2012), Scientific American: White Rot Fungi Slowed Coal Formation.

Carsten Büker, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen: Palaeo-temperature indicators and their geologic interpretation. About vitrinite reflectance.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.B. Cecil et al, (1985): Paleoclimate controls on late Paleozoic sedimentation and peat formation in the central Appalachian Basin (USA). In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 5: 195-230.
See also here.
Note fig. 9: Interpreted depositional settings of the Upper Freeport coal bed and associated rocks.

C.B. Cecil (2001): The coalification phase of coal systems. Abstract, GSA Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 2001.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! John C. Crelling, Coal Research Center and Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale: Petrographic Atlas of Coal and Carbon Compounds. The main purpose of this atlas is to show what coals, cokes, chars, carbons, graphites, and other natural and man-made carbonaceous materials look like under the optical microscope. All photomicrographs were taken in reflected white light with and without the use of a polarizer, an analyzer, and a retarder plate. In some cases the photomicrographs were taken in fluorescent light using ultra-violet illumination. Go to:
Coal Macerals Tutorial.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.A. D´Angelo et al. (2012): Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada). Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology.

! J.W. de Leeuw et al. (2005): Biomacromolecules of algae and plants and their fossil analogues. Abstract, Tasks for vegetation science, 41: 209-233. See also here (in PDF).

! W.A. DiMichele and T.L. Phillips 1994): Paleobotanical and paleoecological constraints on models of peat formation in the Late Carboniferous of Euramerica. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 106: 39-90.
See also here.

Earth Science Australia (by Paul Michna where no other author is indicated): Coal. See also:
Coal: all you really wanted to know. The concept of coal rank.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! V. Fernández et al. (2016): Cuticle Structure in Relation to Chemical Composition: Re-assessing the Prevailing Model. Open access, Front. Plant Sci., 31.

! The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations: Industrial charcoal making: Chapter 2. Wood carbonisation and the products it yields.
"... Carbonisation is a particular form of that process in chemical technology called pyrolysis that is the breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones by heating. ..."
! Worth checking out: 2.5 The stages in charcoal formation.

M. Frese et al. (2017): Imaging of Jurassic fossils from the Talbragar Fish Bed using fluorescence, photoluminescence, and elemental and mineralogical mapping. PLoS ONE 12(6): e0179029.
"... Closer inspection of a plant leaf (Pentoxylon australicum White, 1981) establishes fluorescence as a useful tool for the visualisation of anatomical details that are difficult to see under normal light conditions".

Larissa Gammidge, Department of Geology, University of Newcastle, Australia: Coal: an introduction. Scroll down to: "Concept of Coal Rank". The rank of a coal refers to the degree of coalification endured by the organic matter. See also: ! Atlas of coal macerals.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

GeoDZ (Lexikon Geografie, Lexikon Geologie, Lexikon Geodäsie, Topologie & Geowissenschaften, in German):
These links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.G. Hatcher et al. (1993): Reactions of Wood During Early Coalification, a Clue to the Structure of Vitrinite. PDF file.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Patrick G. Hatcher and David J. Clifford (1997): The organic geochemistry of coal: from plant materials to coal. Abstract, Organic Geochemistry, 27: 251-257, 259-274.

D.G. Henry et al. (2019): Raman spectroscopy as a tool to determine the thermal maturity of organic matter: Application to sedimentary, metamorphic and structural geology. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 198.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology, Coalification. PDF file.

! Ann G. Kim (2010): 1.1. The Formation of Coal. PDF file, in: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective. Edited by Glenn B. Stracher, Anupma Prakash and Ellina V. Sokol (Elsevier).

O.C. Kopp and L.A. Harris (1988): Are alternative coalification paths possible for terrestrial coal? Abstract, Geology, 16: 844-847.

J.G. Mendonça Filho et al.: Organic Facies: Palynofacies and Organic Geochemistry Approaches. In PDF.

Water Quality and Irrigation Management, Montana State University: The Coalification Process.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Mouraux et al. (2022): Assessing the carbonisation temperatures recorded by ancient charcoals for δ13C-based palaeoclimate reconstruction. Open access, Scientific Reports, 12.

! M.P. Nelsen et al. (2016): Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 2442-2447. See also here.

R.F. Sachsenhofer (1988): Das Inkohlungsbild ausgewählter alpiner Kohlenreviere: Zur Frage des Einflusses tektonischen Druckes auf die chemische Inkohlung. PDF file, in German.

E. Salmon et al. (2009): Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balance and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam. PDF file, Organic Geochemistry, 40: 500-509.

! J.D. Schiffbauer et al. (2012): Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments. In PDF, Geobiology, 10: 402-423.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner (2018): Fossilization, permineralization, coalification, carbonization and wet wood conservation. PDF file, pp. 183-192.
In: F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner:
! The Plant Stem. A Microscopic Aspect. Open access!

The Science and Mathematics Teaching Center, University of Wyoming: Coal. Go to: Coalification.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! P.F. van Bergen et al. (2004): Structural biomacromolecules in plants: what can be learnt from the fossil record. In: A.R. Hemsley and I. Poole (eds.): The Evolution of Plant Physiology. Provided by Google books.

! P.F. van Bergen et al. (1995): Resistant biomacromolecules in the fossil record. Abstract, Acta botanica neerlandica. See also here (in PDF).

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Carbonization. The term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon. (Carbonization differs from coalification).
Inkohlung (in German).

C.J. Williams et al. (2010): Fossil wood in coal-forming environments of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Chickaloon Formation. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 363-375.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H.-H. Xu et al. (2017): Unique growth strategy in the Earth’s first trees revealed in silicified fossil trunks from China. In PDF, PNAS, see also here

! E.L. Zodrow et al. (2010): Medullosalean fusain trunk from the roof rocks of a coal seam: Insight from FTIR and NMR (Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Canada). In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 82: 16-124. Lycophyte stump in situ on PDF page 8.
See also here (abstract).

! Erwin L. Zodrow et al. (2009): Compression-cuticle relationship of seed ferns: Insights from liquid-solid states FTIR (Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic, Canada-Spain-Argentina). Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology, 79: 61-73.

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