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Douglas Allchin (1997): James Hutton and Coal. PDF file, Cadernos IG/UNICAMP, 7: 167-183.

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL:
! Coal Research Tutorial. Go to: What is Coalification?
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M. Bardet and A. Pournou (2017): NMR Studies of Fossilized Wood. Abstract, Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy, 90: 41–83. See also here and there (Google books).

D. Biello (2012), Scientific American: White Rot Fungi Slowed Coal Formation.

Carsten Büker, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen: Palaeo-temperature indicators and their geologic interpretation. About vitrinite reflectance.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Blaine Cecil (2001): The coalification phase of coal systems. Abstract.

! John C. Crelling, Coal Research Center and Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale: Petrographic Atlas of Coal and Carbon Compounds. The main purpose of this atlas is to show what coals, cokes, chars, carbons, graphites, and other natural and man-made carbonaceous materials look like under the optical microscope. All photomicrographs were taken in reflected white light with and without the use of a polarizer, an analyzer, and a retarder plate. In some cases the photomicrographs were taken in fluorescent light using ultra-violet illumination. Go to:
Coal Macerals Tutorial.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.A. D´Angelo et al. (2012): Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada). Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology.

! J.W. de Leeuw et al. (2005): Biomacromolecules of algae and plants and their fossil analogues. Abstract, Tasks for vegetation science, 41: 209-233. See also here (in PDF).

Earth Science Australia: Coal: all you really wanted to know. The concept of coal rank.

M. Frese et al. (2017): Imaging of Jurassic fossils from the Talbragar Fish Bed using fluorescence, photoluminescence, and elemental and mineralogical mapping. PLoS ONE 12(6): e0179029.
"... Closer inspection of a plant leaf (Pentoxylon australicum White, 1981) establishes fluorescence as a useful tool for the visualisation of anatomical details that are difficult to see under normal light conditions".

Larissa Gammidge, Department of Geology, University of Newcastle, Australia: Coal: an introduction. Scroll down to: "Concept of Coal Rank". The rank of a coal refers to the degree of coalification endured by the organic matter. See also: ! Atlas of coal macerals.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.G. Hatcher et al. (1993): Reactions of Wood During Early Coalification, a Clue to the Structure of Vitrinite. PDF file.

! Patrick G. Hatcher and David J. Clifford (1997): The organic geochemistry of coal: from plant materials to coal. Abstract, Organic Geochemistry, 27: 251-257, 259-274.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology, Coalification. PDF file.

! Ann G. Kim (2010): 1.1. The Formation of Coal. PDF file, in: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective. Edited by Glenn B. Stracher, Anupma Prakash and Ellina V. Sokol (Elsevier).

Otto C. Kopp and Lawrence A. Harris: Are alternative coalification paths possible for terrestrial coal? Abstract, Geology, 16: 844-847.

J.G. Mendonça Filho et al.: Organic Facies: Palynofacies and Organic Geochemistry Approaches. In PDF.

Water Quality and Irrigation Management, Montana State University: The Coalification Process.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.F. Sachsenhofer (1988): Das Inkohlungsbild ausgewählter alpiner Kohlenreviere: Zur Frage des Einflusses tektonischen Druckes auf die chemische Inkohlung. PDF file, in German.

E. Salmon et al. (2009): Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balance and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam. PDF file, Organic Geochemistry, 40: 500-509.

! J.D. Schiffbauer et al. (2012): Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments. In PDF, Geobiology, 10: 402-423.

The Science and Mathematics Teaching Center, University of Wyoming: Coal. Go to: Coalification.

! P.F. van Bergen et al. (2004): Structural biomacromolecules in plants: what can be learnt from the fossil record. In: A.R. Hemsley and I. Poole (eds.): The Evolution of Plant Physiology. Provided by Google books.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Carbonization (Carbonization differs from coalification).
Inkohlung (in German).

C.J. Williams et al. (2010): Fossil wood in coal-forming environments of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Chickaloon Formation. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 363-375.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! E.L. Zodrow et al. (2010): Medullosalean fusain trunk from the roof rocks of a coal seam: Insight from FTIR and NMR (Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Canada). In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 82: 16-124. Lycophyte stump in situ on PDF page 8.
See also here (abstract).

! Erwin L. Zodrow et al. (2009): Compression-cuticle relationship of seed ferns: Insights from liquid-solid states FTIR (Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic, Canada-Spain-Argentina). Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology, 79: 61-73.

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Last updated March 07, 2017

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