Charcoal & Coal Petrology /
Wildfire and Present Day Fire Ecology
! Wound Response in Trees@
! Teaching Documents about Ecology@
! The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle@
! Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@
A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012):
record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires:
Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel?
In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 96–97: 60–71.
See also here (abstract).
S. Archibald et al. (2018):
and geophysical feedbacks with fire in the Earth system. Open access,
Environmental Research Letters, 13.
See especially Box 4 (PDF page 11): Evolution of plant-fire feedbacks at geological timescales.
M. Barthel et al. (1998): Brennende Berge - Flöz- und Haldenbrand-Gesteine als Matrix fossiler Pflanzen-Abdrücke und als Objekte der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. PDF file, in German.
C.M. Belcher and V.A. Hudspith (2017): Changes to Cretaceous surface fire behaviour influenced the spread of the early angiosperms. New Phytologist, 213: 1521–1532.
C.M. Belcher (2016): The influence of leaf morphology on litter flammability and its utility for interpreting palaeofire. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 371. See also here.
C.M. Belcher et al. (2013):
A 450-Million-Year History of Fire. Abstract. See also:
C.M. Belcher (ed.): Fire Phenomena and the Earth System: An Interdisciplinary Guide to Fire Science (John Wiley & Sons). PDF file.
Table of contents on PDF page 7, Foreword on PDF page 11.
See also here.
! C.M. Belcher et al. (2010): Baseline intrinsic flammability of Earth´s ecosystems estimated from paleoatmospheric oxygen over the past 350 million years. In PDF, PNAS, 107.
C.M. Belcher et al. (2010): Burning Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF. See also here (the slides), and there (Linklist: Fire Safety Engineering in the UK: The State of the Art. University of Edinburgh).
J.R.W. Benicio et al. (2019): Recurrent palaeo-wildfires in a Cisuralian coal seam: A palaeobotanical view on highinertinite coals from the Lower Permian of the Parana´ Basin, Brazil. Open access, PLoS ONE, 14: e0213854.
E.W. Bergh (2012):
postfire record of element
deposition and cycling in the Kogelberg
sandstone fynbos mountain ecosystem of the
Western Cape, South Africa. Abstract,
Thesis, Department of Geological Sciences,
University of Cape Town.
See also here and there.
bigchalk: HIGH SCHOOL & BEYOND > Science > Earth Sciences > Environmental Studies > Wildfires.
! M.B. Bodí et al. (2014): Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 130: 103-127- See also here and there.
M.B. Bodí et al. (2014): Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 130: 03–127.
W.J. Bond (2014): Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems. In PDF, Front. Plant Sci., 5. See also here.
W.J. Bond and A.C. Scott (2010): Fire and the spread of flowering plants in the Cretaceous. In PDF, New Phytologist, 188: 1137-1150.
! W.J. Bond and J.E. Keeley (2005): Fire as a global "herbivore": the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Abstract, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20.
W.J. Bond et al. (2005): The global distribution of ecosystems in a world without fire. PDF file, New Phytologist, 165: 525-538.
Kevin Bonsor, howstuffworks: How Wildfires Work.
E.M. Bordy et al. (2020):
the Pliensbachian–Toarcian Karoo
firewalkers: Trackways of quadruped and
biped dinosaurs and mammaliaforms. Open access,
PLoS ONE 15: e0226847.
Note fig 13: Wildfire reconstruction of the Highlands ichnosite at the Pliensbachian–Toarcian boundary.
! David M.J.S. Bowman et al. (2009): Fire in the Earth System. PDF file, Science, 324: 481-484. See also here (abstract).
B.A. Byers et al. (2014): First known fire scar on a fossil tree trunk provides evidence of Late Triassic wildfire. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).
! L. Caon et al. (2014): Effects of wildfire on soil nutrients in Mediterranean ecosystems. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 139: 47–58. See also here.M. Chazan (2017): Toward a Long Prehistory of Fire. Open access, Current Anthropology, 58.
J.H.C. Cornelissen et al. (2017): Are litter decomposition and fire linked through plant species traits? In PDF, New Phytologist, 216: 653–669.
W.K. Cornwell et al. (2009):
traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed?
PDF file, Global Change Biology, 15: 2431-2449.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
! Walter L. Cressler (2001): Evidence of Earliest Known Wildfires. Abstract, PALAIOS, 16: 171-174.
! M.D. Crisp et al. (2011): Flammable biomes dominated by eucalypts originated at the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Open access, Nature Communications.
G.M. Davies et al. (2016): The peatland vegetation burning debate: keep scientific critique in perspective. A response to Brown et al. and Douglas et al. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B, 371.
Discovery Online: Wildfire. Fire facts.
! S.H. Doerr and C. Santín (2016): Global trends in wildfire and its impacts: perceptions versus realities in a changing world. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 371. See also here (in PDF).
The Ecological Society of America (ESA):
ESA, a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization of scientists promote ecological science by improving communication among ecologists. Fact Sheets. Go to:
! Fire Ecology (In PDF).
These expired link are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham,
Surrey, UK: Research activities,
History and impact of fire: Pre-Quaternary, and
History and impact of fire: Recent.
H. El Atfy et al. (2019):
occurrence of palaeo-wildfires during deposition of the Bahariya Formation (early Cenomanian)
of Egypt. Open access,
Journal of Palaeogeography, 8.
See also here (in German).
! H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2001): Fire-prone plant communities and palaeoclimate of a Late Cretaceous fluvial to estuarine environment, Pecínov quarry, Czech Republic. PDF file, Geol. Mag., 138: 563-576.
A. Feurdean and I. Vasiliev (2019): The contribution of fire to the late Miocene spread of grasslands in eastern Eurasia (Black Sea region). Open access, Scientific Reports, 9.
! Fire Effects Information System (FEIS), USDA Forest Service: FEIS summarizes and synthesizes research about living organisms in the United States — their biology, ecology, and relationship to fire. Go to: Plant Species Life Form. Up-to-date information about fire effects on plants.
M. Flannigan et al. (1998): Fire Weather: Past, Present and Future. PDF file.
Gill, A.M., Moore, P.H.R. and Martin, W.K. (1994), NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville: Bibliography of Fire Ecology in Australia. Including fire science and fire management.
GEsource (GEsource is managed by CALIM, the Consortium of Academic Libraries in Manchester, which comprises: the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University Library, UMIST Library, University of Salford Library, and Manchester Business School Library). This is a free online catalogue of high quality Internet resources in geography and environmental science. See and navigate from here. Resources are selected, catalogued and indexed by researchers and other specialists in their respective fields. Go to: Wildfires.
! I.J. Glasspool et al. (2015): The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system. In PDF, Frontiers in PlantScience. See also here.
Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC). The Global Fire Monitoring Center monitors, forecasts and archives information on vegetation fires (forest fires, land-use fires, smoke pollution) at global level.
Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) / Fire Ecology Research Group, Missoula, Montana:
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The GFMC provides the bibliography index of literature on fire and related disciplines and studies (by J.G. Goldammer, H. Page and V.V. Furyaev). These lists are taken from monographs and other publications prepared by the Fire Ecology Research Group over the last years.
Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) Fire Ecology Research Group Freiburg, Germany. Go to: Fire in Ecosystems of Boreal Eurasia, Forest Fires in Boreal Ecosystems: History and Patterns. A bibliography.
H.D. Grissino-Mayer (2016):
as a Once-Dominant Disturbance Process
in the Yellow Pine and Mixed Pine-Hardwood
Forests of the Appalachian Mountains. In PDF. In: Greenberg, C.H. &
Collins, B.S. (eds.) Natural Disturbances and Historic Range of Variation. Type, Frequency,
Severity, and Post-disturbance Structure in Central Hardwood Forests USA, pp. 123–146.
Please take notice: Fire-scarred Mountain pines in fig. 6.2, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7!
Douglas J. Hallett and Robert C. Walker (2000): Paleoecology and its application to fire and vegetation management in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. PDF file, Journal of Paleolimnology, 24: 401-414.
Ben Harder, Science News Online: Wildfire Below: Smoldering peat disgorges huge volumes of carbon.
! S.P. Harrison et al. (2010): Fire in the Earth system. PDF file, In: Dodson, J. (ed.), Changing Climates, Earth Systems and Society. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 21-48.
Christoph Hartkopf-Fröder, Geologischer Dienst Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld: Das Erbe des Feuers: Was sagen schwarze Steine über die Umwelt der letzten 360 Millionen Jahre? PDF file, in German. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
T. He et al. (2019): Fire as a key driver of Earth's biodiversity. In PDF, Biological Reviews. See also here.
! T. He and B.B. Lamont (2017): Baptism by fire: the pivotal role of ancient conflagrations in evolution of the Earth´s flora. National Science Review. See also here (in PDF).
T. He et al. (2016): A 350-million-year legacy of fire adaptation among conifers. Abstract, Journal of Ecology, 104: 352–363. See also here (in PDF).
Y. Hu et al. (2018): Review of emissions from smouldering peat fires and their contribution to regional haze episodes. Open access, International Journal of Wildland Fire, 27: 293-312.
T. He et al. (2012): Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous. Free access, New Phytologist, 194: 751–759. See also here (in PDF).
V.A. Hudspith et al. (2015): Latest Permian chars may derive from wildfires, not coal combustion. Reply, in PDF, Geology, 43.
V.A. Hudspith et al. (2014): Latest Permian chars may derive from wildfires, not coal combustion. In PDF, Geology, 42: 879-882. See also here (abstract).
! V. Iglesias et al. (2014): Reconstruction of fire regimes through integrated paleoecological proxy data and ecological modeling. Front Plant Sci, 5.
International Association of Wildland Fire. The International Association of Wildland Fire is a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to facilitate communication in the global wildland fire community.
! T.P. Jones and W.G. Chaloner (1991): Fossil charcoal, its recognition and palaeoatmospheric significance. Abstract.
A.T. Karp et al. (2018): Grassland fire ecology has roots in the late Miocene. In PDF, PNAS, 115.
! J.E. Keeley et al. (2011): Fire as an evolutionary pressure shaping plant traits. PDF file, Trends in Plant Science, 16.
Bruce M. Kilgore, Professional Support, Western Regional Office, National Park Service, San Francisco: The Ecological Role of Fire in Sierran Conifer Forests Its Application to National Park Management. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Ann G. Kim (2010): 1.1. The Formation of Coal. PDF file, in: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective. Edited by Glenn B. Stracher, Anupma Prakash and Ellina V. Sokol (Elsevier).
B.B. Lamont et al. (2020): Fire as a selective agent for both serotiny and nonserotiny over space and time. In PDF, Critical Reviews in Plant Science. See also here.! B.B. Lamont and T. He (2017): Fire-proneness as a prerequisite for the evolution of fire-adapted traits. In PDF, Trends in plant science, 22: 278-288. See also here.
B.B. Lamont and T. He (2012): Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous. In PDF, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12. See also here.
C.P.S. Larsen, findarticles.com., from Ecology, January 01 1998: An 840-year record of fire and vegetation in a boreal white spruce forest.
! T.M. Lenton (2001): The role of land plants, phosphorus weathering and fire in the rise and regulation of atmospheric oxygen. In PDF, Global Change Biology, 7: 613-629.
E.R. Locatelli (2014): The exceptional preservation of plant fossils: a review of taphonomic pathways and biases in the fossil record. PDF file, In: M. Laflamme et al. (eds.): Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization. The Paleontological Society Papers, 20.
Colin J. Long et al. (2010): The effects of fire and tephra deposition on forest vegetation in the Central Cascades, Oregon. PDF file, Quaternary Research.S. Longyi et al. (2012): Paleo-fires and Atmospheric Oxygen Levels in the Latest Permian: Evidence from Maceral Compositions of Coals in Eastern Yunnan, Southern China. Abstract.
C.V. Looy (2013): Natural history of a plant trait: branch-system abscission in Paleozoic conifers and its environmental, autecological, and ecosystem implications in a fire-prone world. Abstract, Paleobiology, 39: 235-252.
! M. Lu et al. (2021): A synthesis of the Devonian wildfire record: Implications for paleogeography, fossil flora, and paleoclimate. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 571. See also here (in PDF).
L. Luthardt et al. (2018):
growth disturbances in an early Permian calamitalean – traces of a lightning strike?
Abstract, Palaeontographica Abteilung B, 298: 1-22.
! "... The special injury of the calamitalean described herein [...] exhibits an elongated to triangular shape, a central furrow, a scar-associated event ring of collapsed to distorted tracheids, and was ultimately overgrown by callus parenchyma. We suggest that this scar most likely was caused by a lightning strike ..."
L. Marynowskia et al. (2010): First multi-proxy record of Jurassic wildfires from Gondwana: Evidence from the Middle Jurassic of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
C. Mays et al. (2017): Polar wildfires and conifer serotiny during the Cretaceous global hothouse. In PDF, Geology, 45: 1119-1122. See also here.
! K.K. McLauchlan et al. (2020): Fire as a fundamental ecological process: Research advances and frontiers: Free access, Journal of Ecology, 108: 2047–2069.
Thomas Meixner and Peter M. Wohlgemuth: Climate Variability, Fire, Vegetation Recovery, and Watershed Hydrology. PDF file.
R. Moench and J. Fusaro, Colorado State University: Soil Erosion Control after Wildfire.
K. Narendran (2001): Forrest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. Resonance, 6: 34-41. See also here.
! NASA, Earth Observatory. The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet. The focus is on Earth's climate and environmental change. By activating the glossary mode, you can view each page with special terms highlighted that, when selected, will take you to the appropriate entry in the glossary. Use the full-text search engine, or go to: Global Fire Monitoring. See also datasets and images about: 1 km2 fires, and 4 km2 fires, Excellent!
! National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI): International Multiproxy Paleofire Database (IMPD). The Fire History Database (IMPD) is an archive of fire history data derived from natural proxies. The database includes data from tree scars and establishment data, and charcoal in sediment records. Worth checking out: Introduction to Fire History Reconstruction In PDF).
I.C. Osterkamp et al. (2017):
of wood anatomical characters of selected species of
Araucaria during artificial charring: implications for palaeontology. In PDF,
Acta Botanica Brasilica.
See also here and there (abstract).
"Above a charring temperature of 300 °C cell walls of all three taxa became homogenized, colour changed to black and a silky sheen developed, comparable to observations from previous studies on different taxa".
! J.G. Pausas et al. (2017): Flammability as an ecological and evolutionary driver. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 105: 289–297.
J.G. Pausas and E. Ribeiro (2017): Fire and plant diversity at the global scale. In PDF, Global Ecol Biogeogr., 26: 889–897. See also here.
! J.G. Pausas et al. (2015): Towards understanding resprouting at the global scale. In PDF, New Phytologist.
J.G. Pausas (2015): Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines. In PDF, Trends in Plant Science.
! J.G. Pausas and J.E. Keeley (2014): Evolutionary ecology of resprouting and seeding in fire-prone ecosystems. In PDF, New Phytologist.
! J.G. Pausas and B. Moreira (2012): Flammability as a biological concept. In PDF, New Phytologist, 194: 610-613.
! J.G. Pausas and J.E. Keeley (2009): A burning story: the role of fire in the history of life. PDF file, BioScience, 59: 593-601.
J.G. Pausas and M. Verdú (2005): Plant persistence traits in fire-prone ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin: a phylogenetic approach. In PDF, Oikos, 109: 196-202.
H.I. Petersen and S. Lindström (2012): Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. In PDF.
! N. Pinter and S.E. Ishman (2008): Impacts, mega-tsunami, and other extraordinary claims. In PDF, GSA today.
S.F. Piper et al. (2018): Fire in the Moor: Mesolithic Carbonised Remains in Riverine Deposits at Gleann Mor Barabhais, Lewis, Western Isles of Scotland. Journal of the North Atlantic, 35: 1-22. See also here.
! M.K. Putz and E.L. Taylor (1996): Wound response in fossil trees from Antarctica and its potential as a paleoenvironmental indicator. PDF file, IAWA Journal, Vol. 17.
Stephen J. Pyne, findarticles.com., from Whole Earth, December 22 1999: The Long Burn.(history of fire ecology).
S.M. Rimmer et al. (2015): The rise of fire: Fossil charcoal in late Devonian marine shales as an indicator of expanding terrestrial ecosystems, fire, and atmospheric change. In PDF, American Journal of Science, 315: 713-733.
Paul Rincon, BBC News Online: Fossils reveal oldest wildfire.
! B.E. Robson et al. (2015): Early Paleogene wildfires in peat-forming environments at Schöningen, Germany. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 437: 53-62. See also here.
! C.I. Roos et al. (2016): Living on a flammable planet: interdisciplinary, cross-scalar and varied cultural lessons, prospects and challenges. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 371. See also here.
Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London: Wildfire in Deep time.
C. Santín et al. (2016): Towards a global assessment of pyrogenic carbon from vegetation fires. Global Change Biology, 22.A.C. Scott et al. (2017): Interpreting palaeofire evidence from fluvial sediments: a case study from Santa Rosa Island, California, with implications for the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis. In PDF, Journal of Quaternary Science,32: 5-47. See also here.
A.C. Scott et al. (2016): The interaction of fire and mankind: Introduction. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc.. B, 371. See also here (table of contents).A.C. Scott et al. (2014): Fire on Earth: An Introduction (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 434 pages). A comprehensive approach to the history, behaviour and ecological effects of fire on earth. Go to:
! A.C. Scott (2009): Forest Fire in the Fossil Record. In PDF. In: Cerdà, A., 814 Robichaud, P. (eds). Fire Effects on Soils and Restoration Strategies. Science 815 Publishers Inc. New Hampshire. See also here (Google books).
Andrew C. Scott and Ian J. Glasspool (2006): The diversification of Paleozoic fire systems and fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen concentration. PDF file, PNAS, 103: 10861-10865. See also here.
! A.C. Scott (2000): The Pre-Quaternary history of fire. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 164: 297–345. See also here (in PDF).
Andrew C Scott, Research Group in Plant Palaeobiology, Applied Palaeobotany, Palynology and the Study of Fossil Fuels, Geology Department, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey: History and impact of fire: Pre-Quaternary.
Wenjie Shen et al. (2011):
for wildfire in the Meishan section and implications
for Permian-Triassic events. PDF file,
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75: 1992-2006.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A. Smith and E.K. Strand (2018): Recognizing Women Leaders in Fire Science: Revisited. Open access, MDPI.
Yi Song et al. (2020):
of pyrolytic PAHs across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China:
Evidence of wildfire outside the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Abstract,
Earth-Science Reviews, 201. See also
"... Sharp increases in the abundances of pyrolytic PAHs normalized to total organic carbon were found during the Rhaetian Stage (R1 and R2) and at the Tr-J boundary. The ratios of pyrolytic PAHs (PPAHs) to methylated homologues document the combustion origin of PPAHs from methylated PAHs during these intervals of increased wildfire frequency. ..."
V. Soni and D. Singh (2013): Petrographic evidence as an indicator of volcanic forest fire from the Triassic of Allan Hills, South Victoria Land, Antarctica. In PDF, Current Science, 104.
W.T. Summers et al. (2011):
of Knowledge: Fire History and Climate Change. Abstract.
See also here. In PDF, slow download. Table of contents on PDF page 5.
Worth checking out:
Chapter 5 (PDF page 57): Change, Variability, Pattern and Scale.
Pattern and Scale in Fire History (PDF page 57).
Tall Timbers Research Station: E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database. Use this database as a unique resource for locating a broad range of fire-related information. Literature on control of wildfires as well as applications of prescribed burning is included.
! Tall Timbers Research Station: Thesaurus. This thesaurus is a list of words and phrases used to describe the topics of the citations in the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Database. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J.L. Torero (2013): Starting on PDF page 21:
An Introduction to Combustion in Organic Materials. PDF file in:
Belcher, C.M. (ed.): Fire Phenomena and the Earth System: An Interdisciplinary Guide to Fire Science. (John Wiley & Sons) See also here.
D. Uhl and A. Jasper (2021): Wildfire during deposition of the “Illinger Flözzone” (Heusweiler-Formation, “Stephanian B”, Kasimovian–Ghzelian) in the Saar-Nahe Basin (SW-Germany). Open access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 101:9–18.
! D. Uhl et al. (2008): Permian and Triassic wildfires and atmospheric oxygen levels. PDF file.
University World News (August 08, 2010): New technique estimates past oxygen levels.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory: Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). FEIS provides up-to-date information about fire effects on plants and animals. The database contains synoptic descriptions, taken from current English-language literature of almost 900 plant species and about 100 animal species on the North American continent. The emphasis of each synopsis is fire and how it affects each species.
U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, Reston, VA: Wildfires.
V. Vajda et al. (2020): End-Permian (252 Mya) deforestation, wildfires and flooding—An ancient biotic crisis with lessons for the present. Free access, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 529.
A. Viana-Soto et al. (2017): Assessment of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery Using Fire Severity and Geographical Data in the Mediterranean Region (Spain). In PDF, Environments, 4. See also here.
Lluís Vilar, Universitat de Girona:
The effect of
fire on flora and vegetation.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
S.I. Vogel et al. (2011): The Effects of Fire on Lycopodium digitatum strobili. In PDF, Jeffersoniana, 27: 1-9.
S. Wang et al. (2021):
fire-resistant angiosperms. In PDF, preprint,
See also here.
"... both preserved as inclusions in Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (~99 Ma). These specialized flower structures, named Phylica piloburmensis sp. nov. and Eophylica priscastellata gen. et sp. nov., were adapted to surviving frequent wildfires, providing the earliest evidence of fire-resistance in angiosperms. ..."
R. Whitau et al. (2018): Home Is Where the Hearth Is: Anthracological and Microstratigraphic Analyses of Pleistocene and Holocene Combustion Features, Riwi Cave (Kimberley, Western Australia). Free access, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 25: 739–776.
C. Whitlock and C. Larsen (2001):
as fire proxy. PDF file,
In: Smol, J.P., Birks, H.J.B. and Last,
W.M. (eds): Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments: Volume 3:
Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
H.-H. Xu et al. (2017): Unique growth strategy in the Earth’s first trees revealed in silicified fossil trunks from China. In PDF, PNAS, see also here
K.E. ZEIGLER, A.B. HECKERT, and S.G. LUCAS:
Taphonomic analysis of a fire-related Upper Triassic
vertebrate fossil assemblage from north-central New Mexico. PDF file;
New Mexico Geological Society, 56th Field Conference Guidebook, Geology of
the Chama Basin, 2005, p.341-351.
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