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The Carnian Pluvial Event
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips
! Lightning Strikes@
! Fossil Charcoal@
! Wound Response in Trees@
! Wildfire and Present Day Fire Ecology@
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian@
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction@
A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2014): Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications. In PDF, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 95: 68-174. See also here.
Abdalla Abu Hamad et al. (2013): Charcoal Remains from the Mukheiris Formation of Jordan - the First Evidence of Palaeowildfire from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Gondwana. In PDF, Jordan Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences.
A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012):
record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires:
Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel?
In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 96–97: 60–71.
See also here (abstract).
S. Archibald et al. (2018):
and geophysical feedbacks with fire in the Earth system. Open access,
Environmental Research Letters, 13.
See especially Box 4 (PDF page 11): Evolution of plant-fire feedbacks at geological timescales.
C.M. Belcher et al. (2010):
Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major
questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF. See also
(the slides). Go to PDF page 22: "East Greenland 200 Million years ago".
See also there (Linklist: Fire Safety Engineering in the UK: The State of the Art. University of Edinburgh).
Claire M. Belcher et al. (2010): Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 3: 426-429. See also here (abstract).
B.A. Byers et al. (2014): First known fire scar on a fossil tree trunk provides evidence of Late Triassic wildfire. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 411: 180-187. See also here.
D.S. Cardoso et al. (2018): Wildfires in the Triassic of Gondwana Paraná Basin. In PDF, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 82: 193–206. See also here.
CHAPMAN, Mary G., Astrogeology Team, U.S. Geol. Survey, Flagstaff, FRENCH, Bevan M., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C, KILLGORE, Marvin, Southwest Meteorite Lab, Payson, AZ, LAURETTA, Dante S., Lunar and Planetary Lab, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, LUCAS, Spencer G., New Mexico Museum of Nat History, Albuquerque, MCHONE, John F., Department of Geology, Arizona State Univ, Tempe, AZ, TANNER, Lawrence H., Geography and Geosciences, Bloomsburg Univ, Bloomsburg, WOLBACH, Wendy S., DePaul Univ, Chicago and ZEIGLER, Kate E., Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Univ of New Mexico, Albququerque: INVESTIGATING CAUSES OF WIDESPREAD WILDFIRE AND ASSOCIATED DINOSAUR DEATHS IN THE UPPER TRIASSIC SNYDER QUARRY SITE OF NEW MEXICO: PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Abstract, Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, October 27-30, 2002, Denver, CO.
! C.F.K. Diessel (2010): The stratigraphic distribution of inertinite. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 81: 251–268.
! I.J. Glasspool et al. (2015): The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system. In PDF, Frontiers in PlantScience. See also here.
H. Hagdorn et al. (2015):
Fossile Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper. - p. 359-385, PDF file, in German.
! Charcoal from the germanotype Lettenkohle (Ladinian). See especially "Wildfeuer im Ökosystem des Lettenkeupers" on PDF page 5.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").
P. Havlik et al. (2013): A peculiar bonebed from the Norian Stubensandstein (Löwenstein Formation, Late Triassic) of southern Germany and its palaeoenvironmental interpretation. Abstract, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 321-337.
! T. He and B.B. Lamont (2017): Baptism by fire: the pivotal role of ancient conflagrations in evolution of the Earth’s flora. In PDF, National Science Review, Volume 5: 237–254. See also here.
Jones, T. P., Ash, S. R., and Figueiral, I., 2002: Late Triassic charcoal from Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 188, Issues 3-4 , 5 December 2002, Pages 127-139.
K.-P. Kelber, (2007):
und paläobiologische Bedeutung der fossilen Hölzer aus dem süddeutschen
Keuper (Trias, Ladinium bis Rhätium).- In German. PDF file,
pp. 37-100; In: Schüßler, H. & Simon, T. (eds.):
Aus Holz wird Stein -
Kieselhölzer aus dem Keuper Frankens.-
! Go to PDF page 9: Charcoal from the germanotype Upper Triassic.
K.-P. Kelber (2001):
and taphonomy of charcoal from the Upper Triassic of southern Germany.
Abstract, 12th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, 26th of October 2001, Altlengbach, Austria.
See also here.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
K.-P. Kelber (1999): Der Nachweis von Paläo-Wildfeuer durch fossile Holzkohlen aus dem süddeutschen Keuper. In German. Abstract, 69. Jahrestagung der Paläontologischen Gesellschaft in Zürich vom 20.9.-26.9.1999; Terra Nostra, 99/8: 41; Zürich.
R. Kubik et al. (2015): Evidence of wildfires during deposition of the Upper Silesian Keuper succession, southern Poland. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 685-696.
M. Kumar et al. (2011):
plant remains from the Lashly
Formation of Allan Hills, Antarctica: Evidence of
forest fire during the Triassic Period. In PDF,
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here and there (in PDF).
! L. Marynowski et al. (2014): Molecular composition of fossil charcoal and relationship with incomplete combustion of wood. Abstract, Organic Geochemistry, 77: 22–31. See also here (in PDF).
L. Marynowski and B.R.T. Simoneit (2009): Widespread Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic wildfire records from Poland: Evidence from charcoal and pyrolytic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In PDF, Palaios. See also here (abstract).
H.I. Petersen and S. Lindström (2012): Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. In PDF.
M. Pole et al. (2018): Fires and storms—a Triassic–Jurassic transition section in the Sichuan Basin, China. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 98: 29–47. See also here (in PDF).
! M.K. Putz and E.L. Taylor (1996): Wound response in fossil trees from Antarctica and its potential as a paleoenvironmental indicator. PDF file, IAWA Journal, Vol. 17.A.C. Scott et al. (2014): Fire on Earth: An Introduction (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 434 pages). A comprehensive approach to the history, behaviour and ecological effects of fire on earth. Go to:
! A.C. Scott (2000): The Pre-Quaternary history of fire. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 164: 297–345. See also here (in PDF).
Wenjie Shen et al. (2011):
for wildfire in the Meishan section and implications
for Permian-Triassic events. PDF file,
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75: 1992-2006.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Yi Song et al. (2020):
of pyrolytic PAHs across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China:
Evidence of wildfire outside the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Abstract,
Earth-Science Reviews, 201. See also
"... Sharp increases in the abundances of pyrolytic PAHs normalized to total organic carbon were found during the Rhaetian Stage (R1 and R2) and at the Tr-J boundary. The ratios of pyrolytic PAHs (PPAHs) to methylated homologues document the combustion origin of PPAHs from methylated PAHs during these intervals of increased wildfire frequency. ..."
V. Soni and D. Singh (2013): Petrographic evidence as an indicator of volcanic forest fire from the Triassic of Allan Hills, South Victoria Land, Antarctica. In PDF, Current Science, 104.
L.H. Tanner and S.G. Lucas (2016): Stratigraphic distribution and significance of a 15 million-year record of fusain in the Upper Triassic Chinle Group, southwestern USA. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (in PDF).
D. Uhl et al. (2012): Wildfires in the Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic of the Southern Alps - The Late Permian of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area (Northern Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 118: 223-233. See also here.
D. Uhl and M. Montenari (2010):
as evidence of palaeo-wildfires in the Late Triassic of SW Germany.
Geological Journal, 46: 34-41.
See also here (in PDF).
Dieter Uhl et al. (2010): Evidence of paleowildfire in the early Middle Triassic (early Anisian) Voltzia Sandstone: The oldest post-Permian macroscopic evidence of wildfire discovered so far. Abstract, PDF file, Palaios, 25: 837-842. See also here.
! D. Uhl et al. (2008): Permian and Triassic wildfires and atmospheric oxygen levels. In PDF, 1st WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science and Enginering, Malta.
M.L. Wan et al. (2021): Wildfires in the Early Triassic of northeastern Pangaea: Evidence from fossil charcoal in the Bogda Mountains, northwestern China. In PDF, Palaeoworld.
K.E. Zeigler et al. (2005):
analysis of a fire-related Upper Triassic
vertebrate fossil assemblage from north-central New Mexico. PDF file;
New Mexico Geological Society, 56th Field Conference Guidebook, Geology of
the Chama Basin, 2005, p. 341-351.
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