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Triassic Stratigraphy
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Triassic Charcoal
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips

! Palaeosols@
! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian@
! Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction@
! Permian Palaeobotany@
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
! Focused on the Evolution of Plants@


Triassic Palaeosols


R. Albert (2014): Die Entstehung und sedimentologische Bedeutung von Steinsalzkristallmarken im fossilen Beleg. PDF file, in German. Steinkern.de.

J.J. Beer (2005): Sequence stratigraphy of fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower part of the Chinle Formation, south central Utah, United States: paleoclimatic and tectonic implications. In PDF, thesis, Duluth, University of Minnesota. 169 p.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L.A. Buatois et al. (2016): The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. Abstract, The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology, 40: 179-263.
! See also here (in PDF).

David M. Cleveland et al. (2008): Pedogenic carbonate isotopes as evidence for extreme climatic events preceding the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: Implications for the biotic crisis? Abstract.

M.L. Crocker (2012): The dirt on paleosols: sedimentology and paleoclimate indicators within the upper triassic Chinle Formation, Paria, Utah. In PDF. Thesis, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah.

! R.F. Dubiel and S.T. Hasiotis (2011): Deposystems, paleosols, and climatic variability in a continental system: the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau, USA. In PDF. From River To Rock Record: The Preservation Of Fluvial Sediments And Their Subsequent Interpretation. SEPM Special Publication No. 97.

J. Enga (2015): Paleosols in the Triassic De Geerdalen and Snadd formations. In PDF, Master thesis, Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. See also here.

S.J. Fischer and S.T. Hasiotis (2018): Ichnofossil assemblages and palaeosols of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, south-eastern Utah (USA): Implications for depositional controls and palaeoclimate. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 88: 127-162. See also here.

M. Franz et al. (2019): The Schilfsandstein and its flora - arguments for a humid mid-Carnian episode? Journal of the Geological Society, 176: 133-148. See also here (in PDF).

N.C. Fraser and H.-D. Sues (2012): The beginning of the "Age of Dinosaurs": a brief overview of terrestrial biotic changes during the Triassic. Abstract, Earth and Environmental Science, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.

G.H. Mack et al. (1993): Classification of paleosols. Abstract, GSA Bulletin, 105: 129136.
See also here.

E. Nitsch (2015): 1. Der Lettenkeuper Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! E. Nitsch (2005): Paläoböden im süddeutschen Keuper. Abstract, (in German), Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen geologischen Vereins, Neue Folge, 87: 135-176.

D. Ortlam (1980): Erkennung und Bedeutung fossiler Bodenkomplexe in Locker- und Festgesteinen. PDF file, in German. Geol. Rdschau, 69: 581-593.

D. Ortlam (1974): Inhalt und Bedeutung fossiler Bodenkomplexe in Perm und Trias von Mitteleuropa. PDF file, in German. Geol. Rdschau, 63: 850-884.

! S.J. Prochnow (2005): Paleosols as an Indicator of Ancient Landscapes, Climates and Stratal Response during the Triassic: The Salt Anticline Region of Utah. In PDF; thesis, Baylor University. See also here (abstract) and there. PDF file, Dissertation.

Gregory J. Retallack, Evelyn S. Krull, and Scott E. Robinson, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene: Permian and Triassic paleosols and paleoenvironments of the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. Abstract, Antarctic Journal of the United States Review 1996.

G.J. Retallack (1999): Postapocalyptic greenhouse paleoclimate revealed by earliest Triassic paleosols in the Sydney Basin, Australia. Abstract, GSA Bulletin, 111: 52-70. See also here (in PDF.)

G.J. Retallack et al. (2002): PALEOSOL AND VERTEBRATE EXTINCTION ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE KAROO BASIN, SOUTH AFRICA. Abstract, Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, October 27-30, 2002, Denver, CO.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Greg Retallack, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene:
! Soilscapes of the Past. This set of published reconstructions of ancient landscapes and their soils provide an overview of the evolution of soils and landscapes through geological time. See also:
! Scientific Diagrams. Classification of paleosols into the U.S. soil taxonomy using field and petrographic characteristics.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L.H. Tanner et al. (2014): Pedogenic and lacustrine features of the Brushy Basin Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in Western Colorado: Reassessing the paleoclimate interpretations. In PDF.

L.H. Tanner and S.G. Lucas (2006): Calcareous paleosols of the Upper Triassic Chinle Group, Four Corners region, southwestern United States: Climatic implications. In PDF, Geological Society of America, Special Paper, 416.

A. Tourani et al. (2023): Characterization of the Carnian Pluvial Episode in the Argana Basin (Western High Atlas, Morocco): An approach based on sedimentology, clay mineralogy and paleosols. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2023.111720. See also here.

A.M. Trendell et al. (2013): Determining Floodplain plant distributions and populations using paleopedology and fossil root traces: Upper Triassic Sonsela Member of the Chinle Formation at Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. Abstract, Palaios.

Robert van Geldern & Michael Joachimski, Institut für Geologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, Germany: Stabile Isotope und Sedimentologie triassischer Paläoböden als Paläoenvironment- und Paläoklimaindikatoren. Abstract, Sediment'98, (in German).
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A.J. van Loon (2009): Soft-sediment deformation structures in siliciclastic sediments: an overview. I)n PDF, Geologos, 15: 355.
See also here.
"... various deformational processes, which are subdivided here into (1) endogenic processes resulting in endoturbations; (2) gravity-dominated processes resulting in graviturbations, which can be subdivided further into (2a) astroturbations, (2b) praecipiturbations, (2c) instabiloturbations, (2d) compagoturbations and (2e) inclinaturbations; and (3) exogenic processes resulting in exoturbations, which can be further subdivided into (3a) bioturbations with subcategories (3a) phytoturbations, (3a) zooturbations and (3a) anthropoturbations (3b) glaciturbations, (3c) thermoturbations, (3d) hydroturbations, (3e) chemoturbations, and (3f) eoloturbations. ..."

T. Vollmer (2005): Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles: New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin) PDF file (10.3 MB), Thesis, Universität zu Köln. See also here.











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Last updated July 13, 2023

















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