Evolution & Extinction /
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Web Sites about Evolution
Focussed on the Fossil Record
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Early Triassic Floras@
Insight into the Triassic World@
! Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
The Gaia Hypothesis@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012):
record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires:
Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel?
In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 96–97: 60–71.
See also here (abstract).
The primary mission of Albertiana is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among members of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy and the Triassic community at large. Articles and announcements are posted here in a blog-style format and archived (by volume) as fully-formatted pdf issues at year end.
In its new hybrid digital form, Albertiana publishes peer-reviewed original research articles, literature reviews, meeting announcements and commentary relevant to the Triassic community and in particular the development of Triassic stratigraphy and its time scale.
Still available: Albertiana on SUNY Cortland´s webserver (website edited by Wolfram Kuerschner, Oslo). E-Albertiana is formated in Adobe Portable document format (PDF), issues are available for download. See also:
! Geobiology.cn: Albertiana (PDF files). Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana. Excellent!
Andrew Alden, About.com Guide: The Permian-Triassic Extinction.
T.J. Algeo et al. (2015): Global review of the Permian–Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery: Part II. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 149.
T.J. Algeo et al. (2015): Global review of the Permian–Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery: Part II. Accessible abstracts of some articles. Earth-Science Reviews, 149. Edited by Zhong-Qiang Chen, Thomas Algeo and Dave Bottjer.
AlphaGalileo Foundation (an independent source of news from science): Did past climate change encourage tree-killing fungi? (August 06, 2011).
M.S. Barash (2012): Mass extinction of ocean organisms at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary: Effects and causes. In PDF, Oceanology, 52.
B. Baresel et al. (2017): Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms. Sci. Rep., 7.
G. Bechly and R. Stockar (2011): The first Mesozoic record of the extinct apterygote insect genus Dasyleptus (Insecta: Archaeognatha: Monura: Dasyleptidae) from the Triassic of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland). In PDF, Palaeodiversity 4: 23–37.
! L. Becker et al. (2000): Fullerenes: An extraterrestrial carbon carrier phase for noble gases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS). See also here (abstract).
! G. Benedix (2007): Phenomena and causes of the end-Permian biotic crisis. In PDF.
! Michael J. Benton and Richard J. Twitchett (2003): How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18.
M. Benton et al. (2002):
Permian and Triassic Red Beds and the Penarth Group of Great Britain,
introduction. In PDF,
Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 24, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
See especially PDF page 3: "Mass Extinctions".
See also here.
! Michael Benton, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol:
The end-Permian crisis.
New Scientist vol 178 issue 2392 - 26 April 2003, page 38. See also:
Reprints by Michael J. Benton (PDF files).
Michael J. Benton (2010): The origins of modern biodiversity on land. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B.
Phil Berardelli, Science now: The Fungus That Ate the World.
A. Bercovici et al. (2015): Terrestrial paleoenvironment characterization across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China. In PDF, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 98: 225-246. See also here.
! R.A. Berner et al. (2007): Oxygen and evolution. In PDF, Science, 316.
Robert A. Berner (2002): Examination of hypotheses for the Permo-Triassic boundary extinction by carbon cycle modeling. PDF file, PNAS, 99: 4172-4177. See also here.
! B.A. Black et al. (2012): Magnitude and consequences of volatile release from the Siberian Traps. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 317-318: 363-373. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! D.P.G. Bonda and S.E. Grasby (2016): On the causes of mass extinctions. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, See also here (in PDF).
! D.P.G. Bond and P. Wignall (2014): Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions: An update. PDF file, in: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
! D.J. Bottjer et al. (2008): Understanding mechanisms for the end-Permian mass extinction and the protracted Early Triassic aftermath and recovery. In PDF, GSA Today, 18.
Samuel A. Bowring, Douglas H. Erwin, and Yukio Isozaki: The tempo of mass extinction and recovery: The end-Permian example. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (PNAS, The National Academy of Sciences). 1999, 96(16): 8827-8828.
U. Brand et al. (2012): The end-Permian mass extinction: A rapid volcanic CO2 and CH4-climatic catastrophe. In PDF, Chemical Geology, 322-323: 121-144.
Helen Briggs, BBC News (2005): Palaeozoic World, Permian Extinction Event.
The Bristol Palaeobiology Research Group ,
Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK:
! The Permo-Triassic mass extinction and its aftermath.
The palaeofiles. Articles
here have all been
prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol:
The end-Permian mass extinction.
Robert Roy Britt (2006): Giant Crater Found: Tied to Worst Mass Extinction Ever. See also here (Science Daily).
! S.D. Burgess et al. (2014): High-precision timeline for Earth´s most severe extinction. In PDF, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111. See also here.
Andrew M. Bush, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT: Book review, Science 31 March 2006: Vol. 311. no. 5769, pp. 1868 - 1869: Crime Scene Investigation--Permian. concerning "Extinction - How Life on Earth Nearly Ended 250 Million Years Ago", by Douglas H. Erwin Princeton University Press, 2006; 306 pp.
! D.J. Button et al. (2017): Mass extinctions drove increased global faunal cosmopolitanism on the supercontinent Pangaea. In PDF, Nature Communications, 8. See also here.
CARTAGE (Central Array of Relayed Transaction for the Advance of General Education), Lebanon: CARTAGE is a knowledge database and a school network. Paleobotany. Some articles. Go to: Is there a floral break in the Permian? Now via wayback machine.
B. Cascales-Miñana et al. (2015): A palaeobotanical perspective on the great end-Permian biotic crisis. Abstract.
! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2013): The plant fossil record reflects just two great extinction events. Abstract.
B. Cascales-Miñana et al. (2013): What is the best way to measure extinction? A reflection from the palaeobotanical record. Abstract.
! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2012): Plant fossil record and survival analyses. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 71-82. See also here (abstract).
! Zhong-Qiang Chen et al. (2014): State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Global review of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery: Part I. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003):
during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2.
Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file,
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375.
Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.
! M.O. Clarkson et al. (2016): Dynamic anoxic ferruginous conditions during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery. Nature Communications, 7.
S. Collins (2015): New Clues to a Mass Extinction: Colby Geologist Robert Gastaldo and Student Researchers unearth Evidence that contradicts prevailing Models about ancient Die-offs. In PDF, Colby Magazine, 104.
Clare Davies et al. (2010): Deposition in the Kuznetsk Basin, Siberia: Insights into the Permian-Triassic transition and the Mesozoic evolution of Central Asia. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 307-322.
Deutschlandfunk (a German radio station): An Sauerstoffmangel eingegangen. Easy to understand information about the Permian/Triassic mass extinction aftermath and thin air (with statements of Robert Berner, Robert Dudley, Raymond Huey, Peter Ward). In German. You can also listen to this article ("Audio on demand"). See also Gasping for Air in the Permian (Science magazine, April 2005).
! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. PDF file, Geobiology, 7: 200-226.
! William A. DiMichele et al. (2008): The so-called "Paleophytic-Mesophytic" transition in equatorial Pangea. Multiple biomes and vegetational tracking of climate change through geological time. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268: 152-163. See also here (abstract).
DiMichele, William A.: EVOLUTIONARY AND PALEOECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF TERRESTRIAL FLORAL CHANGES IN THE LATE PALEOZOIC TROPICS. 1999 GSA Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado; The Geological Society of America (GSA).
dmoz, open directory project:
Science: Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Extinction.
Dan Dorritie, Berkeley Echo Lake Camp: Killer in our midst. Go to: Early Triassic Aftermath 1 and Early Triassic Aftermath 2.
Earth System Processes - Global Meeting (June 24-28, 2001) Edinburgh: Session No. T7 Tuesday, June 26, 2001; Global Change in the Late Paleozoic. Abstracts.
A.M.T. Elewa (2008):
Permian mass extinction (article starts on PDF page 71).
In: A.M.T. Elewa (ed): Mass Extinction (table of contents, Springer).
! D.H. Erwin (Rubey Colloquium Paper): Impact at the Permo-Triassic Boundary: A Critical Evaluation. PDF file, ASTROBIOLOGY, Volume 3, Number 1, 2003. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! D.H. Erwin et al. (2002): End-Permian mass extinctions: A review. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).
! D.H. Erwin (1996): The mother of mass extinctions. In PDF, Scientific American.
C.B. Foster and S.A. Afonin: Abnormal pollen grains: an outcome of deteriorating atmospheric conditions around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 162(4): 653-659; 2005.
Thomas Galfetti et al. (2007): Smithian-Spathian boundary event: Evidence for global climatic change in the wake of the end-Permian biotic crisis. PDF file, Geology, 35: 291-294. See also here (abstract).
R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2015): Is the vertebrate-defined Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, the terrestrial expression of the end-Permian marine event?. In PDF, Geology.
! R.A. Gastaldo and J. Neveling (2014): Comment on: "Anatomy of a mass extinction: Sedimentological and taphonomic evidence for drought-induced die-offs at the Permo–Triassic boundary in the main Karoo Basin, South Africa" by R.M.H. Smith and J. Botha-Brink, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 396:99-118. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2013): Latest Permian paleosols from Wapadsberg Pass, South Africa: Implications for Changhsingian climate. In PDF, GSA Bulletin.
R.A. Gastaldo and J. Neveling (2012): Reply: The terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary event is a nonevent. In PDF.
Robert A. Gastaldo et al. (2005): Taphonomic Trends of Macrofloral Assemblages Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary, Karoo Basin, South Africa. PDF file, Palaios. See also here ("Tales of Extinction and Recovery", Smithsonian).
GASTALDO, Robert A., ADENDORFF, Rose, BAMFORD, Marion, LABANDEIRA, Conrad, NEVELING, Johann, and SIMS, Hallie: TAPHONOMIC TRENDS OF MACROFLORAL ASSEMBLAGES ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE KAROO BASIN, SOUTH AFRICA. Abstract, 2004 Denver Annual Meeting (November 7-10, 2004).
R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1996): Out of the Icehouse into the Greenhouse: A Late Paleozoic Analog for Modern Global Vegetational Change. In PDF. See also here.
The Geological Society of London, Geology News: Buckyballs to extinction, and Spaceballs! (April 13, 2000), and Just Bucky? How many coincidental double whammies can life (and we) take? (March 8, 2001). The extraterrestrial gases were found trapped inside buckyballs in the thin layer of clay that formed from the fallout of an asteroid impact.
A.V. Goman'kov (2005): Floral Changes across the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Abstract.
Anna Goodwin, Jon Wyles and Alex Morley, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: The palaeofiles, The end-Permian mass extinction. Go to: What life was present, Vascular plants.
N. Ghosh et al. (2015): Catastrophic environmental transition at the Permian-Triassic Neo-Tethyan margin of Gondwanaland: Geochemical, isotopic and sedimentological evidence in the Spiti Valley, India. In PDF, Gondwana Research.
S.E. Grasby et al. (2015): Progressive environmental deterioration in northwestern Pangea leading to the latest Permian extinction. In PDF, GSA Bulletin, 127: 1331-1347.
S.E. Grasby et al. (2011): Catastrophic dispersion of coal fly ash into oceans during the latest Permian extinction. Abstract, Nature Geoscience, 4: 104-107. See also here (in PDF).
J.F. Harrison et al. (2010): Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B, 277: 1937-1946.
! P.A. Hochuli (2016): Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic Boundary sections. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 144:48-50. See also here (in PDF).
! P.A. Hochuli et al. (2016): Severest crisis overlooked - Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Scientific Reports.
! Peter A. Hochuli et al. (2010): Rapid demise and recovery of plant ecosystems across the end-Permian extinction event. PDF file, Global and Planetary Change.
! P.A. Hochuli (2016): Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic boundary sections. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change.
P.A. Hochuli et al. (2010): Multiple climatic changes around the Permian-Triassic boundary event revealed by an expanded palynological record from mid-Norway. Abstract, GSA Bulletin, 122: 884-896.
Christa-Ch. Hofmann, Institute of Palaeontology, University of Vienna: Pollen and spores tell nearly everything...- and often nothing. Abstract, The International Plant Taphonomy Meeting 2002, Bonn, Goldfuss Museum, Institute of Paleontology, Germany. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Hillel J. Hoffmann, National Geographic Magazine: The Permian Extinction. See also the National Geographic web version.
B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 335.
! Yin Hongfu et al. (2001): The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic Boundary. In PDF.
Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum (named for now retired Dr.
Ken Hooper, a Carleton University micropaleontologist)
Department of Earth Sciences,
Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada).
The principle objective of this museum is to provide a state-of-the-art summary of items of
geological interest, emphasizing areas currently being studied by students and research faculty.
For some special topics you may navigate from here or from there (The archives).
! The End-Permian Mass Extinction.
! Extinctions: Cycles of Life and Death Through Time.
! Mass Extinctions Of The Phanerozoic Menu.
! Evolution & Extinction.
Raymond B. Huey and Peter D. Ward: Hypoxia, Global Warming, and Terrestrial Late Permian Extinctions. Science, Vol 308, Issue 5720, 398-401; 2005.
! P.M. Hull and S.A.F. Darroch (2013): Mass extinctions and the structure and function of ecosystems. PDF file, in: A.M. Bush, S.B. Pruss, and J.L. Payne (eds.): Ecosystem Paleobiology and Geobiology, The Paleontological Society Short Course, October 26, 2013. The Paleontological Society Papers, 19.
P.M. Hull et al. (2015): Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems. In PDF, Nature, 528: 345-351.
International Commission on Stratigraphy.
G. Iacono-Marziano et al. (2012): Gas emissions due to magma-sediment interactions during flood magmatism at the Siberian Traps: Gas dispersion and environmental consequences. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
! Yukio Isozaki (2009): Integrated "plume winter" scenario for the double-phased extinction during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition: The G-LB and P-TB events from a Panthalassan perspective. PDF file, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36: 459-480.
Y. Isozaki (2009): Illawarra Reversal: The fingerprint of a superplume that triggered Pangean breakup and the end-Guadalupian (Permian) mass extinction. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 15: 421-432.
! Y. Isozaki (1997): Permo-Triassic boundary superanoxia and stratified superocean: records from lost deep sea. In PDF.
D. Jablonski (2005): Mass extinctions and macroevolution. In PDF, Paleobiology, 31: 192-210.
Yu Jianxin (2008): Floras and the evolutionary dynamics across the Permian-Triassic boundary nearby the border of Guizhou and Yunnan, South China. Abstract (PDF file).
! Y.G. Jin et al. (2000): Pattern of Marine Mass Extinction Near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in South China. In PDF, Science, 289.
! M.M. Joachimski et al. (2012): Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology, 40: 195-198. See also here (in PDF).
Richard Kaczor, Emporia State University: How Plate Tectonics Affected the Permian Extinction of Organic Life. See also here.
K. Kaiho et al. (2016): Effects of soil erosion and anoxic–euxinic ocean in the Permian–Triassic marine crisis. In PDF, Heliyon, 2.
! Sandra L. Kamo et al. (2003): Rapid eruption of Siberian flood-volcanic rocks and evidence for coincidence with the Permian-Triassic boundary and mass extinction at 251 Ma. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 214: 75-91.
Kelber, K.-P. (2003):
Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren.
PDF file (17 MB!), in German.
Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events.
pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.):
Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
Please take notice of figure 9 (PDF page 10): A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergii and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch.
G. Keller and A.C. Kerr (2014): Foreword. From Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
Hans Kerp: Permian floras: where does it begin, where does it end? Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.
Richard A. Kerr, Science magazine, April 2005: Gasping for Air in the Permian. Thin air may have forced animals down from higher latitudes 250 million years ago, crowding them into the lowlands and possibly helping along the largest extinction in the history of the planet, according to a study of Science. See also here.
Richard A. Kerr: Fossil Count Suggests Biggest Die-Off Wasn't Due to a Smashup. Science, Vol 307, Issue 5708: 335, 2005.
David L. Kidder and Thomas R. Worsley: Causes and consequences of extreme Permo-Triassic warming to globally equable climate and relation to the Permo-Triassic extinction and recovery. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 203, Issues 3-4, (2004), Pages 207-237.
KIDDER, David L. and WORSLEY, Thomas R., Geological Sciences, Ohio Univ, Athens: DID THE END-PERMIAN EXTINCTION DELAY TRIASSIC RECOVERY BY AFFECTING THE EARTH SYSTEM? Abstract.
KIDDER, David L. and WORSLEY, Thomas R., Geological Sciences, Ohio Univ, Athens: Storms in the Late Permian and early Triassic. Abstract.
J.T. Kiehl and C.A. Shields (2005): Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. In PDF, Geology, 33: 757-760.
D. Klärner (2016), Frankfurter Allgemeine (FAZ):
schicksalhaften Wälder. In German.
About P.A. Hochuli et al. (2016): Severest crisis overlooked ...
Anne Kleinhenz, University of Dayton: Permian-Triassic Extinction. "The Mother of all Extinctions". Powerpoint presentation.
A.H. Knoll (2012):
Paleobiology. In PDF. See also
here (vimeo.com), or
! A.H. Knoll et al. (2007): Paleophysiology and end-Permian mass extinction. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256: 295-313.
A.H. Knoll et al. (1996): Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Science, 273.
H.W. Kozur and R.E. Weems (2011): Detailed correlation and age of continental late Changhsingian and earliest Triassic beds: Implications for the role of the Siberian Trap in the Permian-Triassic biotic crisis? Abstract.
! H.W. Kozur, Budapest, Hungary: Problems for Evaluation of the Scenario of the Permian-Triassic Boundary Biotic Crisis and of Its Causes. Abstract, Geologia Croatica, 51/2, 135-162, Zagreb, 1998.
V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2009): Paleofloristic evidence of climate change near and beyond the Permian-Triassic boundary. PDF file, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 284: 326-336.
V. Krassilov and A. Shuklina (2007): Terrestrial biotic crises: paleobotanical record and interpretation. In PDF.
E.S. Krull et al.: d13Corg chemostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Maitai Group, New Zealand: evidence for high-latitudinal methane release. PDF file, New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 2000, Vol. 43: 21-32.
S. Lidgard et al. (2009): The search for evidence of mass extinction. In PDF, Natural history, 118: 26-32.
Bruce S. Lieberman and Roger Kaesler (2010):
Evolution and the Fossil Record. Book announcement (Wiley-Blackwell),
including table of contents.
The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.
! Available in PDF from here. See especially:
PDF page 38: "Taphonomy."
PDF page 74: "Introduction to Evolution."
! PDF page 123: "Extinctions: The Legacy of the Fossil Record."
! PDF page 137: "The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences."
PDF page 227: "Life, Climate, and Geology."
PDF page 236: "Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind."
PDF page 242: "Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology."
Xulong Lai et al. (2008): Palaeoenvironmental change during the end-Guadalupian (Permian) mass extinction in Sichuan, China. In PDF.
! C.V. Looy et al. (2001): Life in the end-Permian dead zone. PNAS, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98: 7879-7883.
C.V. Looy et al. (1999): 1Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University; 2Paleobotany Laboratory, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville: The delayed resurgence of equatorial forests after the Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis. PNAS, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96: 13857-13862.
N. MacLeod (2014): The geological extinction record: History, data, biases, and testing. Abstract, from: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
! Jennifer C. McElwain and Surangi W. Punyasena (2007): Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22: 548-557. See also here (abstract).
Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin:
Climate change and mass extinction: What
can we learn from 200 million year old
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G.R. McGhee et al. (2013): A new ecological-severity ranking of major Phanerozoic biodiversity crises. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 370: 260-270.
! G.R. McGhee et al. (2004): Ecological ranking of Phanerozoic biodiversity crises: ecological and taxonomic severities are decoupled. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211: 289-297.
T. McKie and P.M. Shannon (2011): Comment on "The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri Tethyan domain scale: Palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications" by S. Bourquin, A. Bercovici, J. López-Gómez, J. B. Diez, J. Broutin, A. Ronchi, M. Durand, A. Arché, B. Linol and F. Amour. [Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 299: 265-280]. Abstract.
! I. Metcalfe and Y. Isozaki (2009): Current perspectives on the Permian-Triassic boundary and end-Permian mass extinction: Preface. In PDF, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36: 407-412.
Per Michaelsen (2002): Mass extinction of peat-forming plants and the effect on fluvial styles across the Permian-Triassic boundary, northern Bowen Basin, Australia. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 179: 173-188. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
S. Miller (2014): The public impact of impacts: How the media play in the mass extinction debates. PDF file, in: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
George Monbiot, Dissident Voice (an internet newsletter): Shadow of Extinction - Only Six Degrees Separate Our World from the Cataclysmic End of an Ancient Era. " ... The goal of Dissident Voice is to provide hard hitting, thought provoking and even entertaining news and commentaries on politics and culture that can serve as ammunition in struggles for peace and social justice ..." !
! R. Mundil et al. (2001): Timing of the Permian-Triassic biotic crisis: implications from new zircon U/Pb age data (and their limitations). In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 187: 131-145.
M.P. Nelsen et al. (2016): Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production. In PDF, PNAS, 113. See also here (abstract).
Stephen A. Nelson, Department of Geology, Tulane University. New Orleans, LA: Natural Disasters, Meteorites, Impacts, and Mass Extinction.
! J. Neveling et al. (2016): A Review of Stratigraphic, Geochemical, and Paleontologic Data of the Terrestrial End-Permian Record in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. In PDF. In: B. Linol and M.J. de Wit (eds.), Origin and Evolution of the Cape Mountains and Karoo Basin, Regional Geology Reviews.
A.J. Newell et al. (2010): Disruption of playa-lacustrine depositional systems at the Permo-Triassic boundary: evidence from Vyazniki and Gorokhovets on the Russian Platform. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 167: 695-716.
K.J. Niklas (2015): Measuring the tempo of plant death and birth. In PDF, New Phytologist.
H. Noroozpour et al. (2013): Permo-Triassic Deposits of Shorjestan Area, Central Iran: The Palynological Report of the Greatest Phanerozoic Disaster in Iran. In PDF.
! D.E. Ogden and N.H. Sleep (2012): Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 59-62. See also here.
Stephen B. Parsons,
Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA:
Laboratory Solution Sets.
Life of the Late Paleozoic Era. Powerpoint presentation.
! J.L. Payne and M.E. Clapham (2012): End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century? In PDF, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40: 89-111. See also here (New York Times feature).
! J.L. Payne et al. (2004): Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction. In PDF, Science, 305, Issue 5683: 506-509. See also here (abstract).
PBS, Alexandria, Virginia (PBS is a private, non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the US 349 public television stations): Evolution. This online course is intended to deepen the understanding of evolution with extensive content-rich materials, interactive exercises, primary source readings and in depth exploration of scientific concepts. Go to: Permian-Triassic Extinction. In this video segment geologist Peter Ward shows rock layers laid down during the Permian and Triassic periods.
M.R. Pearson et al. (2013): Reconstructing the diversity of early terrestrial herbivorous tetrapods. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 372: 2-49.
Shanan E. Peters, University of Wisconsin-Madison: Sepkoski's Online Genus Database. The purpose of this database is to allow users to easily search and summarize Sepkoski's global genus compendium on the basis of Evolutionary Fauna, Phylum, or Class.
H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004):
The complexity of
Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.
H.W. Pfefferkorn, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA: Commentary: Recuperation from Mass Extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96.
A.G. Ponomarenko (2006): Changes in terrestrial biota before the Permian-Triassic ecological crisis. Abstract.
Poreda R.J. and Becker L.: Fullerenes and Interplanetary Dust at the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Astrobiology, 1 January 2003, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 75-90(16).
R. Prevec et al. (2009): Portrait of a Gondwanan ecosystem: A new late Permian fossil locality from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 454-493. See also here (PDF file).
! G. Racki (2012): The Alvarez impact theory of mass extinction; limits to its applicability and the "great expectations syndrome". In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. See also here (abstract).
G. Racki and P.B. Wignall (2005) Late Permian double-phased mass extinction and volcanism: an oceanographic perspective. In PDF.
Michael R. Rampino (2010): Mass extinctions of life and catastrophic flood basalt volcanism. PDF file, PNAS, 107: 6555-6556. See also here.
! P.M. Rees (2002): Land-plant diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Geology, 30: 827-830. See also here (abstract).
Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Permian Phytogeography and Climate Inference. Downloadable PowerPoint Presentation, Nonmarine Permian Symposium. 18 MB!
P. McAllister Rees, Alfred M. Ziegler, Mark T. Gibbs, John E. Kutzbach, Pat J. Behling, and David B. Rowley: Permian Phytogeographic Patterns and Climate Data/Model Comparisons. PDF file.
McGowan, Alistair J., &
Ziegler, Alfred M.:
PATTERNS OF GLOBAL PLANT DIVERSITY,
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE IN THE PERMIAN AND TRIASSIC.- Abstract, Summit 2000, 2000 GSA Annual Meeting, Reno, Nevada;
The Geological Society of America (GSA).
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Gregory J. Retallack et al. (2011): Multiple Early Triassic greenhouse crises impeded recovery from Late Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).
! Gregory J. Retallack et al. (2011): Multiple Early Triassic greenhouse crises impeded recovery from Late Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).
G.J. Retallack and A.H. Jahren (2008): Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events. PDF file, Journal of Geology, 116: 1-20.
G.J. Retallack et al. (2006): Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land. PDF file, GSA Bulletin, 118: 1398-1411.
! G.J. Retallack et al. (2006): Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land. In PDF, Geological Society of America Bulletin. See also here.
G.J. Retallack (2005): Permian greenhouse crises. PDF file, in: Lucas, S.G. and Zeigler, K.E. (eds.): The Nonmarine Permian, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin No. 30.
Gregory J. Retallack et al. (2002): PALEOSOL AND VERTEBRATE EXTINCTION ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE KAROO BASIN, SOUTH AFRICA. Abstract, Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, October 27-30, 2002, Denver, CO.
G.J. Retallack (1999): Postapocalyptic greenhouse paleoclimate revealed by earliest Triassic paleosols. PDF file, Geological Society of America Bulletin. See also here (abstract).
G.J. Retallack and E.S. Krull (1999):
ecological shift at the Permian-Triassic
boundary in Antarctica. In PDF,
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Gregory J. Retallack et al. (1996): Global coal gap between Permian-Triassic extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 108: 195-207.
G. J. Retallack (1995): Permian-Triassic Life Crisis on Land. Abstract, Science, 267: 77-80.
! R.A. Rohde and R.A. Muller (2005): Cycles in Fossil Diversity. In PDF, Nature, 434, 208-210. See also here and there (abstract).
! Mark Ridley, The Times Literary Supplement, No. 5238, August 22, 2003, page 28: Clues to catastrophe. Book review.
Peter D. Roopnarine et al. (2007): Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 274: 2077-2086. See also here.
Ronny Rößler (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.): Das Perm - Farnwälder, Glutwolken und Salzwüsten. In German. Full article available here (PDF file).
D.H. Rothman et al. (2014): Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle. In PDF, PNAS, 111.
Sarda Sahney and Michael J Benton (2008): Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time. Proc. R. Soc. B, 275: 759-765. See also here (PDF file).
! A. Saunders and M. Reichow (2009): The Siberian Traps and the End-Permian mass extinction: a critical review. In PDF, Chinese Science Bulletin, 54: 20-37. See also here.
E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2014):
history across the Permian–Triassic boundary in Pakistan (Amb section, Salt Range).
Gondwana research, 27: 911-924.
See also here, and there (in PDF).
! E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2013): Evidence for atmospheric carbon injection during the end-Permian extinction. In PDF, Geology, 41: 579-582.
! E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2012): Extinguishing a Permian World. In PDF, Geology, 40: 287-288. See also here.
E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al.: Terrestrial ecosystems during and following the end-Permian mass extinction - or from spore spike to spore spike. In PDF.
M. Schobben et al. (2013): Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Gondwana Research.
Scinexx: Vulkangase schuld an größtem Massenaussterben (in German).
Steve Self, Hawaii Center for Volcanology, University of Hawaii, and Mike Rampino, Earth and Environmental Science Program, New York University (The Geological Society of London): FLOOD BASALTS, MANTLE PLUMES and MASS EXTINCTIONS.
M.A. Sephton et al. (2015): Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis? IN PDF, Geology, 43: 159-162. See also here, and there.
M.A. Sephton et al. (2011): Chemical constitution of a Permian-Triassic disaster species. Abstract, Geology, 37: 875-878.
! M.A. Sephton et al. (2005): Catastrophic soil erosion during the end-Permian biotic crisis. In PDF.
Megan Sever, Geotimes, Highlights 2005; Paleontology: The "Great Dying" debate.
D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): On Permian and Triassic Insect Faunas in Relation to Biogeography and the Permian–Triassic Crisis. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, 42: 15-31.
D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): Insect recovery after the Permian/Triassic crisis. In PDF, Alavesia, 2: 125-131.
D.E. Shcherbakov, Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia: Permian Faunas of Homoptera (Hemiptera) in Relation to Phytogeography and the Permo-Triassic Crisis. Paleontological Journal, Vol. 34, Suppl. 3, 2000, pp. S251-S267.
Shu-zhong Shen et al. (2011):
the End-Permian Mass Extinction. In PDF,
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (abstract).
Shu Zhong Shen et al. (2006): End-Permian mass extinction pattern in the northern peri-Gondwanan region. In PDF, Palaeoworld, 15: 3-30.
Wenjie Shen et al. (2011): Evidence for wildfire in the Meishan section and implications for Permian-Triassic events. PDF file, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75: 1992-2006.
! G.R. Shi and J.B. Waterhouse (2010): Late Palaeozoic global changes affecting high-latitude environments and biotas: an introduction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298: 1-16.
R.M.H. Smith and J. Botha-Brink (2014): Anatomy of a mass extinction: Sedimentological and taphonomic evidence for drought-induced die-offs at the Permo-Triassic boundary in the main Karoo Basin, South Africa. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 396. See also here (abstract).
S.V. Sobolev et al. (2011): Linking mantle plumes, large igneous provinces and environmental catastrophes. In PDF.
A.K. Srivastava and D. Agnihotri (2010): Dilemma of late Palaeozoic mixed floras in Gondwana. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).
S.M. Stanley (2016):
of the magnitudes of major marine mass
extinctions in earth history. In PDF,
freely available online through the PNAS open access option.
See also here.
"... that the great terminal Permian crisis eliminated only about 81% of marine species, not the frequently quoted 90–96%. Life did not almost disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been asserted."
S.M. Stanley and X. Yang (1994): A Double Mass Extinction at the End of the Paleozoic Era. Abstract.
! M.B. Steiner et al. (2003): Fungal abundance spike and the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Supergroup (South Africa). In PDF.
STEINER, Maureen B., ESHET, Yoram, RAMPINO, Michael, and SCHWINDT, Dylan M.: SIMULTANEOUS PERMO-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL MASS EXTINCTIONS: THE GLOBAL FUNGAL SPIKE DISCOVERED IN THE KAROO SUPERGROUP (SOUTH AFRICA). Abstract, GSA Annual Meeting, Boston, November 5-8, 2001.
Vince Stricherz, UW Today (University of Washington, Seattle, WA):
oxygen likely made "Great Dying" worse, greatly delayed recovery.
About some results of Peter Ward and Raymond Huey, University of Washington.
"... nearby populations of the same species were cut off from each other because even low-altitude passes had insufficient oxygen to allow animals to cross from one valley to the next. ..."
"... it appears the greatly reduced oxygen actually created impassable barriers that affected the ability of animals to move and survive ..."
! Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic Life on Land: The Great Transition. Google books.
Y. Sun et al. (2017): Evidence of widespread wildfires in a coal seam from the middle Permian of the North China Basin. In PDF, Lithosphere. See also here.
Y. Sun et al. (2012): Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic. In PDF, Science 338. See also here.
H. Svensen et al. (2009): Contact metamorphism, halocarbons, and environmental crises of the past. PDF file, Environ. Chem., 6: 466-471.
Richard J. Twitchett (2007): Lilliput effect in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 252: 132-144.
! D. Uhl et al. (2008): Permian and Triassic wildfires and atmospheric oxygen levels. In PDF, 1st WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science and Enginering, Malta.
D. Uhl et al. (2008): Evidences for the Permian-Triassic Wildfire Event. In PDF.
! Vivi Vajda and Stephen McLoughlin (2007): Extinction and recovery patterns of the vegetation across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary - a tool for unravelling the causes of the end-Permian mass-extinction. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 144: 99-112.
B. van de Schootbrugge and P.B. Wignall (2016):
tale of two extinctions: converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios. Abstract,
Geological Magazine, 153.
"There is substantial evidence to suggest that very similar kill mechanisms acted upon late Permian as well as Late Triassic ecosystems, strengthening the hypothesis that the ultimate causes of the mass-extinction events were similar".
Han van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al.: Vegetation successsion through the end-Permian ecologic crisis. (Powerpoint presentatation). See also here. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.
C. Virgili (2008): The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 34: 123-158.
H. Visscher et al. (2011):
virulence at the time of the end-Permian biosphere crisis?
Abstract, Geology, 39: 883-886, or
Fungi helped destroy forests during mass extinction 250 million years ago. By Robert Sanders, UC Berkely News Center, August 5, 2011.
Forest-killing fungi could multiply in a warming world. By Bob Berwyn, August 8, 2011.
! H.C. Visscher, C.V. Looy, M.E. Collinson, H. Brinkhuis, J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, W.M. Kürschner, & M.A. Sephton, (2004): Environmental Mutagenesis during the End-Permian Ecological Crisis. PDF file, Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA.
H. Visscher et al. (1996): The terminal Paleozoic fungal event: Evidence of terrestrial ecosystem destabilization and collapse. PDF file, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93: 2155-2158.
Wang Ziqiang and Zhang Zhiping (1998): Gymnosperms on the eve of the terminal Permian mass extinction in North China and their survival strategies. In PDF, Chinese Science Bulletin, 43: 889-897.
P.D. Ward et al. (2011): The terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary event bed is a nonevent: COMMENT. In PDF.
P.D. Ward (2006): Impact from the Deep. Scientific American.
Peter D. Ward et al. (2005): Abrupt and Gradual Extinction Among Late Permian Land Vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. In PDF, Science, 307: 709-714. See also here (abstract).
David Whitehouse, BBC News: Asteroid destroyed life 250m years ago. Researchers believe that particular fullerenes are extraterrestrial because the gases trapped inside have an unusual ratio of isotopes that indicate they were made in the atmosphere of a star that exploded before our Sun was born.
P.B. Wignall and B. van de Schootbrugge (2016): Middle Phanerozoic mass extinctions and a tribute to the work of Professor Tony Hallam. In PDF, Geological Magazine. See also here (abstract).
! P.B. Wignall (2001): Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 53: 1-33. See also here.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Permian-Triassic extinction event.
! Siberian Traps.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Triassic first appearances
! Category:Triassic plants
! A.M.E. Winguth (2016): Changes in productivity and oxygenation during the Permian-Triassic transition. Geology, 44: 783–784.
WordIQ.com: Definition of Fullerene.
Laura Wright, Geotimes: P/T extinction explained.
Shucheng Xie et al. (2011):
blooms tied to volcanism during the 5 m.y. Permo-Triassic biotic crisis: Reply. In PDF,
Geology. See especially:
Shucheng Xie et al. (2010): Cyanobacterial blooms tied to volcanism during the 5 m.y. Permo-Triassic biotic crisis.
Conghui Xiong and Qi Wang (2011): Permian-Triassic land-plant diversity in South China: Was there a mass extinction at the Permian/Triassic boundary? PDF file, Paleobiology, 37: 157-167.
H.F. Yin and H.J. Song (2013): Mass extinction and Pangea integration during the Paleozoic– Mesozoic transition. Sci. China Ser., D, 56: 1791–1803. See also here (in PDF).
H. Yin et al. (2007):
protracted Permo-Triassic crisis and multi-episode extinction
around the Permian-Triassic boundary. In PDF,
Global and Planetary Change.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J. Yu et al. (2015), starting on PDF page 48: Vegetation changeover across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Southwest China. Extinction, survival, recovery and palaeoclimate: a critical review. In PDF, abstract, Agora Paleobotanica, A tribute to Bernard Renault, Autun.
! J. Yu et al. (2015): Vegetation changeover across the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Southwest China: Extinction, survival, recovery and palaeoclimate: A critical review. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here (summary by David De Vleeschouwer).
H. Zhang et al. (2015): The terrestrial end-Permian mass extinction in South China. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov,
Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia:
Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings
during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere (PDF file).
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2001, pp. 340-363. Translated from Stratigrafiya.
Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2001, pp. 29-54.
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