Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Evolution & Extinction / Focussed on the Fossil Record

Web Sites about Evolution
Insect Evolution
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Living Fossils
! Plant Evolution@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
! Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology@
! Geologic Time Scale@
! Teaching Documents about Evolution@
! Parasitic Plants@
The Gaia Hypothesis@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@

Focussed on the Fossil Record

H. Agic (2016): Fossil Focus: Acritarchs. In PDF, Palaeontology Online, 6: 1-13.

! J.F. Allen and W.F.J. Vermaas (2010): Evolution of Photosynthesis. PDF file, In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS), John Wiley & Sons.

J. Alroy et al. (2008): Phanerozoic Trends in the Global Diversity of Marine Invertebrates. In PDF, Science, 321. See also here.

J. Alroy et al. (2001): Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification. In PDF, PNAS, 98: 6261-6266.

S.M. Awramik (2006): Respect for stromatolites. In PDF, Nature, 441.

K.D. Baets et al. (2021): The fossil record of parasitism: Its extent and taphonomic constraints. In PDF, The Evolution and Fossil Record of Parasitism, pp. 1-50. See also here.

! Anna K. Behrensmeyer (1992; Google books): Terrestrial ecosystems through time.

! C. Beimforde et al. (2014): Estimating the Phanerozoic history of the Ascomycota lineages: combining fossil and molecular data. In PDF, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 78: 386-398. See also here.

S. Bengtson et al. (2017): Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae. Open Access, PLoS Biol., 15: e2000735.

! M.J. Benton et al. (2022): The Angiosperm Terrestrial Revolution and the origins of modern biodiversity. Free access, New Phytologist, 233: 2017–2035.
Note fig. 1: Evolution of hyperdiverse terrestrial life.
Fig. 3: Key stages in Earth history and angiosperm evolution through the Angiosperm Terrestrial Revolution.
Also worth checking out:
Flowering plants: an evolution revolution. (Univ. of Bristol, November 17, 2021).
How 'Flower Power' Quite Literally Transformed Earth Millions of Years Ago (by T. Koumoundouros, January 08,2022).

M.J. Benton et al. (2018): The Carnian Pluvial Episode and the origin of dinosaurs. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society. See also here.
"... the CPE [Carnian Pluvial Episode] marks a major macroecological shift in faunas. We focus on the long-recognised major burst in dinosaurian diversity, the DDE [Dinosaur Diversification Event], which corresponds in age to the CPE. The diversity and abundance of tetrapods through the Triassic indicate a major disjunction at exactly the CPE. This is shown by both skeletal and footprint data, and can be detected by use of novel computational means that seek to identify statistically significant breaks in lines of best fit. ..."

M. J. Benton et al. (2014): Review Models for the Rise of the Dinosaurs. In PDF, Current Biology 24. See also here.

Michael J. Benton (2010): The origins of modern biodiversity on land. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B.

! M.J. Benton (2010): Studying Function and Behavior in the Fossil Record. PDF file, PLoS Biology, 8: 1-5.
See also here.

! M.J. Benton et al. (2009): Calibrating and constraining the molecular clock. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).

M.J. Benton and B.C. Emerson (2007): How did life become so diverse? The dynamics of diversification according to the fossil record and molecular phylogenetics. PDF file, Palaeontology, 50: 23-40.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M.J. Benton and P.C.J. Donoghue (2007): Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life. In PDF. See also here. Molecular biology and evolution.

Michael Benton, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK: Accuracy of Fossils and Dating Methods (an original interview, American Institute of Biological Sciences).

Michael J. Benton (2001): Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Biodiversity on land and in the sea. PDF file, Geological Journal 36, 211-230.

M.J. Benton and D.A.T. Harper: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. Go to:
! Companion Website: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. On this website you can download the figures in jpeg format at standard resolution (96 dpi) for viewing on screen and at a higher resolution (300 dpi) for downloading. They can also be downloaded as a Powerpoint file for each chapter.
! See also here (in PDF).
For better navigation note the table of contents (in PDF).

M.J. Benton and P.N. Pearson (2001): Speciation in the fossil record. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16.

M.J. BENTON, M.A. WILLS, and R. HITCHIN, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Quality of the fossil record through time. Nature 403, 534 - 537 (2000).

! H. Beraldi-Campesi (2013): Early life on land and the first terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Ecological Processes, 2. See also here.
Note figure 1: Suggested chronology of geological, atmospheric, and biological events during the Hadean, Archean, and Paleoproterozoic eons.

! Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California, Berkeley (sponsored in part by Shell Offshore Inc.): Learning from the Fossil Record. This is a hypertext version of a book originally published by the Paleontological Society.

University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley: Explorations Through Time. A series of interactive modules (curriculum and classroom resources) that explore the history of life on Earth, while focusing on the processes of science. Each module contains suggested lesson plans and an extensive teacher’s guide.

A.C. Bippus et al. (2022): The Role of Paleontological Data in Bryophyte Systematics. Abstract, Journal of Experimental Botany.
"... Paucity of the bryophyte fossil record, driven primarily by phenotypic (small plant size) and ecological constraints (patchy substrate-hugging populations), and incomplete exploration, results in many morphologically isolated, taxonomically ambiguous fossil taxa. Nevertheless, instances of exquisite preservation and pioneering studies demonstrate the feasibility of including bryophyte fossils in evolutionary inference. ..."

B. Blonder et al. (2014): Plant Ecological Strategies Shift Across the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary. In PDF, PLoS Biol, 12.

S. Bonneville et al. (2020): Molecular identification of fungi microfossils in a Neoproterozoic shale rock. In PDF, Science Advances, 6: eaax7599.

! M.D. Brasier et al. (2016): Changing the picture of Earth´s earliest fossils (3.5–1.9 Ga) with new approaches and new discoveries. PNAS, 112: 4859-4864. See also here (in PDF).

M. Brasier (2015): Deep questions about the nature of early-life signals: a commentary on Lister (1673) "A description of certain stones figured like plants". In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A 373. See also here.

! M. Brasier et al. (2006): A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life. In PDF, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol Sci., 361: 887–902. See also here.

Brent H. Breithaupt (1992): The use of fossils in interpreting past environments. PDF file, Pages 147–158, in: Tested studies for laboratory teaching, Volume 13 (C. A. Goldman, Editor). Proceedings of the 13th Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.C. Briggs (2014): Invasions, adaptive radiations, and the generation of biodiversity. In PDF, Environmental Skeptics and Critics, 3: 8-16.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Excellent! Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
! Derek Briggs Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

N. Brocklehurst et al. (2018): Physical and environmental drivers of Paleozoic tetrapod dispersal across Pangaea. Open access, Nature Communications, 9.

L.A. Buatois et al. (2016): The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. Abstract, The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology, 40: 179-263.
! See also here (in PDF).

G.E. Budd (2008): The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 363: 1425–1434. See here.

R.J. Burnham (2008): Hide and Go Seek: What Does Presence Mean in the Fossil Record. Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 95: 51-71. See also here (in PDF).

E. Callaway (2015): Computers read the fossil record. Palaeontologists hope that software can construct fossil databases directly from research papers. In PDF, Nature Toolbox. See also here.

T. Cardona (2018): Early Archean origin of heterodimeric Photosystem I. In PDF, Heliyon, 4. See also here.

T. Cardona (2016): Reconstructing the Origin of Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Do Assembly and Photoactivation Recapitulate Evolution? Front. PlantSci., 7: 257.

! E.M. Carlisle et al. (2021): Experimental taphonomy of organelles and the fossil record of early eukaryote evolution. Open access, Science Advances, 7. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe9487 See also here (in PDF).

B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2012): Plant fossil record and survival analyses. In PDF, Lethaia, 45. See also here (abstract).

! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2013): The plant fossil record reflects just two great extinction events. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).

B. Cascales-Miñana and J.B. Diez (2012): The effect of singletons and interval length on interpreting diversity trends from the palaeobotanical record. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica.

B. Cavalazzi et al. (2021): Cellular remains in a ~3.42-billion-year-old subseafloor hydrothermal environment. Sci. Adv. 7, eabf3963 (2021). See also here (in PDF).
"... they can be considered the oldest methanogens and/or methanotrophs that thrived in an ultramafic volcanic substrate. ..."

! J.T. Clarke et al. (2011): Establishing a time-scale for plant evolution. PDF file, New Phytologist. See also here.

! C.J. Cleal and B. Cascales-Miñana (2021, start on PDF-page 39): Evolutionary floras - revealing large-scale patterns in Palaeozoic vegetation history. Journal of Palaeosciences, 70: 31-42.

! C. Cleal et al. (2021): Palaeobotanical experiences of plant diversity in deep time. 1: How well can we identify past plant diversity in the fossil record? Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 576.
See also here (in PDF).

J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson (2005): Ecology and Behaviour of Mesozoic Reptiles, The Mesozoic Environment. In PDF. See also here,

J.C. Coates et al. (2011): Plants and the Earth system - past events and future challenges. In PDF, New Phytologist, 89: 370-373.

E.J. Chaisson (2014): The Natural Science Underlying Big History. In PDF, The Scientific World Journal.
Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Eric J. Chaisson, Wright Center for Science Education: Cosmic evolution: from big bang to humankind. Based on a course taught at Harvard University. This site offers background information and resources to understand the origins of matter and life in our universe, known as cosmic evolution. Questions from how the universe began to how humans evolved are addressed, using an interdisciplinary approach between life, Earth, space, and physical sciences.
Website now publicly accessible by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Matthew Cobb, whyevolutionistrue: Excellent open access articles on the evolution of life on Earth - UPDATE 2.

! M. Coiro et al. (2019): How deep is the conflict between molecular and fossil evidence on the age of angiosperms? Free access, New Phytologist, doi: 10.1111/nph.15708.
"... Critical scrutiny shows that supposed pre-Cretaceous angiosperms either represent other plant groups or lack features that might confidently assign them to the angiosperms. ..."

! Committee on the Geologic Record of Biosphere Dynamics, National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (The National Academies Press): The Geological Record of Ecological Dynamics: Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future Environmental Change. 216 pages, 2005. Produced by a committee consisting of both ecologists and paleontologists, the report provides ecologists with background on techniques for obtaining and evaluating geohistorical information, and provides paleontologists with background on the nature of ecological phenomena amenable to analysis in the geological record. The report can be read online for free!

! F.L. Condamine et al. (2013): Macroevolutionary perspectives to environmental change. In PDF, Ecology letters.

! Richard Cowen (web pages were first created by D.J. Eernisse for Biology 404: Evolution at CSUF): History of Life (4th Edition, 2005), Web Links by Chapter. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA: History of Life, Third Edition. Go to: Preservation and Bias in the Fossil Record.

A. Currie (2019): Paleobiology and philosophy. Open access, Biology & Philosophy, 34.

K. De Baets and D.T.J. Littlewood (2015): The Importance of Fossils in Understanding the Evolution of Parasites and Their Vectors. Advances in Parasitology, 90: 1–51. ! See also here (in PDF).

O. De Clerck et al. (2012): Diversity and Evolution of Algae: Primary Endosymbiosis. In PDF, Advances in Botanical Research, 64.

! L.E.V. Del-Bem (2018): Xyloglucan evolution and the terrestrialization of green plants. Free access, New Phytologist, 219: 1150–1153.

Senatskommission für Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): Dynamische Erde – Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften.
8.1 - Die Evolution von Atmosphäre und Ozeanen. In German.

! J. De Vries and J.M. Archibald (2018): Plant evolution: landmarks on the path to terrestrial life. Free access, New Phytologist, 217: 1428-1434.

J. de Vries et al. (2018): Embryophyte stress signaling evolved in the algal progenitors of land plants. In PDF, PNAS, 115. See also here (abstract), and there (in German).

Susan De Wolf (2010): Mass Evolution Events. PDF file, Harvard Science Review.

The Digital Atlas of Ancient Life (DAoAL), managed by the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York.
The goal of the Digital Atlas of Ancient Life project is to provide a free resource to help individuals identify and better understand fossil species from particular regions and time intervals.
Note the resources for teachers: Classroom lesson plans, activities, and associated materials that relate to either the Neogene or Ordovician Atlas. All of these resources may be freely accessed and downloaded.

! William A. DiMichele et al. (2008): The so-called "Paleophytic-Mesophytic" transition in equatorial Pangea. Multiple biomes and vegetational tracking of climate change through geological time. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268: 152-163. See also here (abstract).

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2004): Long-term stasis in ecological assemblages: evidence from the fossil record. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 35: 285-322. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Dirzo and P.H. Raven (2003): Global state of biodiversity and loss. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 28.

! P.C.J. Donoghue et al. (2021): The evolutionary emergence of land plants. In PDF, Current Biology, 31: R1281-R1298.
See also here.
"... The oldest possible fossil evidence for land plants occurs as late Cambrian cryptospores, but their irregular arrangements and occurrence in ‘packets’ of multiple spore-like bodies surrounded by synoecosporal walls has led to algal interpretations ..."
! Note figure 4: Timescale of streptophyte phylogeny and the origin of land plant novelties.

! P.C.J. Donoghue and Z. Yang (2016): The evolution of methods for establishing evolutionary timescales. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 371.See also here (abstract).

! P.C.J. Donoghue and M.J. Benton (2007): Rocks and clocks: calibrating the Tree of Life using fossils and molecules. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

A. Dornburg et al. (2011): Integrating Fossil Preservation Biases in the Selection of Calibrations for Molecular Divergence Time Estimation. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 60: 519-527.
Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.M. Dunhill et al. (2016): Dinosaur biogeographical structure and Mesozoic continental fragmentation: a network-based approach. In PDF, Journal of Biogeography.

G. Escarguel et al. (2011): Biodiversity is not (and never has been) a bed of roses! In PDF, Comptes Rendus Biologies.

C. Faist, Geohorizon: Geochronologie (in German). All in a nutshell about Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.

M.A. Fedonkin (2003): The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record. In PDF, Paleontological Research, 7: 9-41. See also here.

A.G. Fischer et al. (2004): Cyclostratigraphic approach to Earths history: An introduction. In PDF.

! W.W. Fischer et al. (2016): How did life survive Earth's great oxygenation? In PDF, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 31: 166–178.

M. Foote and D.M. Raup (2010): Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa. In PDF, Paleobiology, 22: 121-140.

David Ford, Canopy Dynamics Lab, School of Environmental and Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA:
! Biol220 TAs. Botany lecture notes (Powerpoint presentations). See especially:
The Importance of Plants, their origins and ways of life.
Plant evolution timeline on Powerpoint slide 11, 18 and 22!

J.M.R. Fürst-Jansen et al. (2020): Evo-physio: on stress responses and the earliest land plants. Free access, Journal of Experimental Botany, 71: 3254–3269.

! P.G. Gensel (2021): When did terrestrial plants arise? Abstract, Science, 373: : 736-737.
"... There has been a discrepancy in the time of land plant origination between molecular clock estimations (based on genes and RNA) and fossil record estimates (based on morphology). On page 792 of this issue, Strother and Foster (6) describe fossilized spores whose characteristics raise the possibility that land plants arose by co-opting algal genes, along with acquiring de novo genes, and that the former would account for the molecular clock predating the fossil record. ..."

! P.G. Gensel (2008): The earliest land plants. In PDF, The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 39: 459-477.
See also here.

Stephen Jay Gould Archive (sponsored by Art Science Research Laboratory): Cyber Library, Harvard Course:
! B16: History of Earth and Life. A kittenish website. Difficult to set a link, click "Stephen Jay Gould" on the right hand side. Go to:
! Lab 1: The Invertebrate Phyla,
! Lab 2: The Fossil Record,
! Lab 3: Communities through Time, and
! Lab 4: Variation and Evolution (PDF files). See also:
B16: History of Earth and Life, Source Books.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.R. Gradstein and H. Kerp (2012): A Brief History of Plants on Earth. Google books, The Geologic Time Scale 2012. See also here (Table of contents, Elsevier).

L.E. Graham (2019): Digging deeper: why we need more Proterozoic algal fossils and how to get them. Free access, Journal of phycology, 55: 1–6.

J. Gray and W. Shear (1992): Early life on land. In PDF, American Scientist.

S. Guindon (2020): Rates and Rocks: Strengths and Weaknesses of Molecular Dating Methods. Open access, Frontiers in Genetics, 11.
"... molecular dating will undoubtedly keep playing a crucial role in biology in the future. Our understanding of important phenomena such as species diversification or dispersal, population migration and demography, or the molecular signature resulting from environmental changes, depends on our ability to date past evolutionary events. The wealth of available techniques to perform this task provides a powerful set of tools to make progress in this direction. ..."

! S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (2009): Discovering the Timetree of Life. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life.
! See here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.B. Hedges (2009): Life. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life.
! See here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.B. Hedges (2004): A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life. BMC evolutionary biology.

! S.M. Holland (2016): The non-uniformity of fossil preservation. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 371. See also here (abstract).

S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (2009): Discovering the Timetree of Life. PDF file, (see here).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.B. Hedges (2009): Life. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.F. Hoffman et al. (2017): Snowball Earth climate dynamics and Cryogenian geology-geobiology. In PDF, Science Advances, 3. See also here.

B. Holgado and M. Suñer (2018): Palaeodiversity and evolution in the Mesozoic world. In PDF, Journal of Iberian Geology, 44: 1–5. See also here.

M.J. Hopkins et al. (2018): The inseparability of sampling and time and its influence on attempts to unify the molecular and fossil records. Free access, Paleobiology, 44: 561–574.
"... Although neither the molecular record nor the fossil record are perfect, the two records bear independent limitations, and what is missing from one is often available in the other. We must deal with the different and sometimes complex relationships between time and sampling to take full advantage of the complementary nature of the two records. ..."

D. Jablonski and N.H. Shubin (2015): The future of the fossil record: Paleontology in the 21st century. In PDF, PNAS, see also here.

! D. Jablonski (2007): Scale and hierarchy in macroevolution. PDF file, Palaeontology, 50: 87-109.

D. Jablonski (2008): Biotic interactions and macroevolution: extensions and mismatches across scales and levels. PDF file, Evolution, 62: 715-739.

David Jablonski, Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago (hosted by aics research, inc., Lecture of the Week, Lectures and Conferences recorded in QCShow format): Part I: Planetary-scale Patterns; The Dynamics of Global Biodiversity: Insights from the Fossil Record. Lecture, 35 min., requires QCShow Player. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

David Jablonski, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago: The interplay of physical and biotic factors in macroevolution. PDF file, In: A. Lister and L. Rothschild, eds., Evolution on Planet Earth: The impact of the physical environment. New York: Academic Press, 235-252; 2003.

JB.C. Jackson and D.H. Erwin (2006): What can we learn about ecology and evolution from the fossil record? PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution. See also here.

J.B.C. Jackson and K.G. Johnson (2001): Measuring Past Biodiversity. In PDF, Science, 293.

E.J. Javaux and K. Lepot (2018): The Paleoproterozoic fossil record: Implications for the evolution of the biosphere during Earth's middle-age. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 176: 68-86.

Daniel Jeffares and Anthony Poole (an original article): Were Bacteria the First Forms of Life on Earth? Human cells can reveal evolutionary history because they contain molecular fossils, exhibit mechanisms that were in development when life began, and indicate that ancient organisms may be more complex than first thought.
Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.A. Karr and M.E. Clapham (2015): Taphonomic biases in the insect fossil record: shifts in articulation over geologic time. In PDF, Paleobiology.

J.F. Kasting and J.L. Siefert (2002): Life and the evolution of Earth´s atmosphere. In PDF, Science.

! M. Alan Kazlev et al.: Palaeos. A website about the history of life on Earth. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Earth History.

B.P. Kear et al. (2016): An introduction to the Mesozoic biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic territories. In PDF.

M. Kearney (2002): Fragmentary taxa, missing data, and ambiguity: mistaken assumptions and conclusions. PDF file, Systematic biology, 51: 369-381.

! P. Kenrick et al. (2012): A timeline for terrestrialization: consequences for the carbon cycle in the Palaeozoic. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367: 519-536.
Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.M. Kidwell (2013): Time-averaging and fidelity of modern death assemblages: building a taphonomic foundation for conservation palaeobiology. Free access, Palaeontology, 56: 487–522.

! S.M. Kidwell and S.M. Holland (2002): The Quality of the Fossil Record: Implications for Evolutionary Analyses. PDF file, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33: 561-588. See also here.

Susan M. Kidwell and Karl W. Flessa: THE QUALITY OF THE FOSSIL RECORD: Populations, Species, and Communities.- Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 1996 24: 433-464. Full Online Access via Annual Reviews, Go to Annual Reviews Search Page (Biomedical Sciences), Search for "Kidwell" (Field Author, Last Name).

! A.H. Knoll and M.A. Nowak (2017): The timetable of evolution. In PDF, Science Advances, 3. See also here.

A.H. Knoll and M.J. Follows (2016): A bottom-up perspective on ecosystem change in Mesozoic oceans. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B, 283: 20161755. See also here.

! A.H. Knoll (2013): Systems Paleobiology. In PDF, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 125. About paleobiology and its important role in understanding how the Earth system works.

K. Koldas (2021): Charred Fossils Provide Clues about Early Terrestrialization. ColbyNews.

M. Kowalewski and R.K. Bambach (2008): The limits of paleontological resolution. In PDF, High-resolution approaches in stratigraphic paleontology. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.C. Labandeira (2018, starting on PDF page 65): The global transition from a Mesozoic-aspect to a post-Mesozoic-aspect world: major patterns of ecological and evolutionary change in plant–insect interactions. Abstract, 13th Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany. In: Terra Nostra, 2018/1.

! C.C. Labandeira and J.J. Sepkoski (1993): Insect diversity in the fossil record. PDF file, Science.

J. Laurie et al. (2009): Living Australia (in PDF). Earth history in Australia.

! Michel Laurin (2012): Recent progress in paleontological methods for dating the Tree of Life. In PDF, Frontiers in Genetics, 3.

T.M. Lenton et al. (2016): Earliest land plants created modern levels of atmospheric oxygen. Free access, PNAS, 113.

! T.M. Lenton and S.J. Daines (2016): Matworld - the biogeochemical effects of early life on land. In PDF, New Phytologist.

! K. Lepot (2020): Signatures of early microbial life from the Archean (4 to 2.5 Ga) eon. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 209. See also here.

Harold L. Levin, Washington University, St. Louis: The Earth Through Time. Book announcement. Go to: Seventh Edition, Chapter 12, Life of the Mesozoic. Website by Pamela J. W. Gore, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA.

! C.V. Looy et al. (2014): The late Paleozoic ecological-evolutionary laboratory, a land-plant fossil record perspective. In PDF, The Sedimentary Record, 12: 4-18. See also here.

C.C. Loron et al. (2019): Early fungi from the Proterozoic era in Arctic Canada. Abstract, Nature, 570: 232–235. See also here (in PDF), and there (review, in German).

S.G. Lucas (2021): Nonmarine Mass Extinctions. Paleontological Research 25: 329-344. See also here.

A.O. Marron et al. (2016): The Evolution of Silicon Transport in Eukaryotes. In PDF, Mol. Biol. Evol. See also here.

! W.F. Martin and J.F. Allen (2018): An algal greening of land. Free access, Cell, 174: 256-258. See also here.
Note figure 1: Streptophyte Algae and the Rise of Atmospheric Oxygen.

! E. Martinetto et al. (2018): Worldwide temperate forests of the Neogene: Never more diverse? Abstract, in PDF. 10th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference, University College Dublin, Ireland.
See also here.

C.R. Marshall (2019): Using the Fossil Record to Evaluate Timetree Timescales. Open access, Front Genet., 10.

P.J. Mayhew et al. (2008): A long-term association between global temperature and biodiversity, origination and extinction in the fossil record. In PDF, Proc Biol Sci., 275: 47-53.

G.R. McGhee et al. (2013): A new ecological-severity ranking of major Phanerozoic biodiversity crises. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 370: 260-270.

S. McLoughlin and B.P. Kear (2014): Gondwanan Mesozoic biotas and bioevents. Abstract.

Space Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: GLOBAL CHANGE I. The University of Michigan's Global Change Curriculum offers an innovative approach in undergraduate science and social science education as part of the Program in the Environment. In three interdisciplinary, team-taught courses the topic of Global Change from physical and human perspectives are examined. The courses are aimed at first and second year students who want to understand the historical and modern aspects of Global Change. Go to: Emergence of Complex Life; The Fossil Record; Punctuated Equilibrium (Allan).

! B.J.W. Mills et al. (2021): Spatial continuous integration of Phanerozoic global biogeochemistry and climate. Free access, Gondwana Research, 100: 73–86.

M. Moczydlowska et al. (2011): Proterozoic phytoplankton and timing of chlorophyte algae origins. Open access, Palaeontology, 54: 721–733.

H. Morlon et al. (2011): Reconciling molecular phylogenies with the fossil record. In PDF, PNAS, 108: 16327-16332.

S.J. Mojzsis et al. (1996): Evidence for life on Earth before 3,800 million years ago. In PDF, Nature, 384.

J. Murienne et al. (2015): A living fossil tale of Pangaean biogeography. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 281. See also here.

! A.D. Muscente et al. (2017): Exceptionally preserved fossil assemblages through geologic time and space. Abstract, Gondwana Research, 48: 164-188. See also here (in PDF).

! NATURE, Nature Debates: Andrew Smith, Department of Palaeontology, the Natural History Museum, London: Is the fossil record adequate? This debate introduces the topic and the conflicting viewpoints that surround it.

Henry Alleyne Nicholson (! 1876): The Ancient Life History of the Earth. A Project Gutenberg EBook. Including some line drawings of plants.

Y. Nie et al. (2020): Accounting for uncertainty in the evolutionary timescale of green plants through clock-partitioning and fossil calibration strategies. In PDF, Syst. Biol., 69: 1–16. See also here.
"... By taking into account various sources of uncertainty, we estimate that crown-group green plants originated in the Paleoproterozoic–Mesoproterozoic (1679.7–1025.6 Ma), crown-group Chlorophyta and Streptophyta originated in the Mesoproterozoic–Neoproterozoic (1480.0–902.9 Ma and 1571.8–940.9 Ma), and crown-group land plants originated in the Ediacaran to middle Ordovician (559.3– 459.9 Ma). ..."

! K.J. Niklas (2015): Measuring the tempo of plant death and birth. Open access, New Phytologist.

! N. Noffke et al. (2013): Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia. Astrobiology, 13: 1103–1124.

W.R. Norris, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM:
The Challenges of Life on Land. Lecture notes, powerpoint presentation. See also here (in PDF).

! L.R. Novick et al. Depicting the tree of life in museums: guiding principles from psychological research. In PDF, see also here.

! S.L. Olson et al. (2018): Earth: Atmospheric Evolution of a Habitable Planet. PDF file, In: Deeg H., Belmonte J. (eds.) Handbook of Exoplanets. Springer. See also here.
Worth checking out: Figure 2, co-evolution of life and surface environments on Earth.

! Wolfgang Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: The Evolution of the Atmosphere of our Planet Earth. In PDF. About the the origin of earth and the early atmosphere, the role of biosphere and the carbon-cycle and the atmospheric evolution through time.

W. Oschmann (2006): Evolution und Sterben der Dinosaurier. In PDF, Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 93, 345, 117-143. PDF file, in German.

W. Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Paläontologie - Eine Zeitreise. Phasen der Evolution des Systems Erde: Es gibt keinen Stillstand (in German).

Geobiology, Department of Earth Sciences, Oxford University: Questioning the evidence for Earth's oldest fossils.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Palaeontologia Electronica: Fossil Calibration Database. The Fossil Calibration Database is a curated collection of well-justified calibrations. They also promote best practices for justifying fossil calibrations and citing calibrations properly. Raising the Standard in Fossil Calibration! See also:
D.T. Ksepka et al. (2015): The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Resource for Divergence Dating. Abstract, Systematic Biology.

J.F. Parham et al. (2012): Best Practices for Justifying Fossil Calibrations. In PDF, Syst Biol., 61: 346-359. See also here (abstract).

J.L. Payne et al. (2020): The evolution of complex life and the stabilization of the Earth system. Open access, Interface Focus, 10: 20190106.

M.W. Pennell et al. (2014): Is there room for punctuated equilibrium in macroevolution? Trends in ecology & evolution, 29: 23-32.
See also here.

! Alex L. Pigot et al. (2012): Speciation and Extinction Drive the Appearance of Directional Range Size Evolution in Phylogenies and the Fossil Record. Free access, PLoS Biol., 10: e1001260. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001260
See also here.

John Pojeta and Dale A. Springer, American Geological Institute AGI, (in cooperation with the Paleontological Society): Evolution and the Fossil Record. This non-technical introduction to evolution aims to help the general public gain a better understanding of one of the fundamental underlying concepts of modern science. Discussion topics are geologic time; change through time; Darwin's theory of evolution; evolution as a mechanism for change; the nature of species; the nature of theory; paleontology, geology, and evolution; and determining the age of fossils and rocks. The Online booklet contains straightforward definitions as well as discussions of complex ideas. Navigate using the left-hand toolbar. There is also a PDF printable version available.

P David Polly, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN: Historical Geology. Life through time. Lecture notes. Topics are paleontology, geologic time, biological evolution, plate tectonics, ancient environments, and climate change, principles of interpreting earth history from geological data, etc. Go to:
Lecture 15: Paleobiology, and Lecture 21: Mesozoic 2: Terrestrial environments and extinction. Lecture slides (PDF files).

S.M. Porter (2004): The fossil record of early eukaryotic diversification. In PDF, Paleontological Society Papers, 10.

T.B. Quental, C.R. Marshall (2010): Diversity dynamics: molecular phylogenies need the fossil record. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

C.M.Ø. Rasmussen et al. (2017): Onset of main Phanerozoic marine radiation sparked by emerging Mid Ordovician icehouse. Sci. Rep., 6.

S. Ratti et al. (2011): Did Sulfate Availability Facilitate the Evolutionary Expansion of Chlorophyll a+c Phytoplankton in the Oceans? In PDF, Geobiology 9, no. 4: 301–312. See also here (abstract).

! J.A. Raven (2018): How long have photosynthetic organisms been aggregating soils? Free access, New Phytologist, 219: 1139–1141.

R.R. Reisz and J. Müller (2004): Molecular timescales and the fossil record: a paleontological perspective. In PDF, Trends in Genetics.

Joachim Reitner, Yang Qun, Wang Yongdong and Mike Reich (eds., 2013): Palaeobiology and Geobiology of Fossil Lagerstätten through Earth History. In PDF, See also here. Abstract Volume. A Joint Conference of the "Paläontologische Gesellschaft" and the "Palaeontological Society of China", Göttingen, Germany, September 23-27, 2013. See also there.

G.J. Retallack (2021): Great moments in plant evolution. See also here (in PDF).
Please notice figure 1.

G.J. Retallack (2013): Ediacaran life on land. In PDF, Nature, 493: 89–92.
See also here (Spaceref), and there Xiao et al. (2014).

J.D. Richey et al. (2021): Modeled physiological mechanisms for observed changes in the late Paleozoic plant fossil record. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 562.
"... (1) The existence of pCO2 and precipitation thresholds for loss of physiological viability that provide a mechanism for replacement of wet-adapted lycopsids and medullosans by marattialean tree ferns, which were tolerant of periodic drought, and the subsequent dominance of seasonally dry-adapted cordaitaleans and conifers. ...
(2) Under drier conditions, the combination of higher drought tolerance and primary productivity for marattialean tree ferns, conifers, and cordaitaleans provided an ecophysiological advantage over lycopsids and medullosans. ...
although the shift to more drought-tolerant plants in the Late Pennsylvanian and early Permian could have led to increased biomass and surface runoff, their ability to affect climate was likely limited by aridity and changes in vegetation density. ..."

! R.A. Rohde and R.A. Muller (2005): Cycles in Fossil Diversity. In PDF, Nature, 434, 208-210. See also here and there (abstract).

! C.V. Rubinstein and V. Vajda (2019): Baltica cradle of early land plants? Oldest record of trilete spores and diverse cryptospore assemblages; evidence from Ordovician successions of Sweden. Free access, GFF, DOI: 10.1080/11035897.2019.1636860.

! B.R. Ruhfel et al. (2014): From algae to angiosperms - inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes. In PDF, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14. See also here.

J. Rust (2007): Die Bedeutung von Fossilien für phylogenetische Rekonstruktionen. In German (PDF file). Go to PDF page 75. In: Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M.A. Salamon et al. (2018): Putative Late Ordovician land plants. Free Access, New Phytologist, 218: 1305–1309.

H. Schneider (2007): Plant morphology as the cornerstone to the integration of fossil and extant taxa in phylogenetic systematics. In PDF, go to PDF page 65. In: Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.W. Schopf (2006): Fossil evidence of Archaean life. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B 361: 869–885.

J. William Schopf, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, the Molecular Biology Institute, and the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) University of California, Los Angeles: Cradle of Life: The Discovery of Earth's Earliest Fossils (Princeton University Press). Book announcement, including table of contents and chapter "Darwin´s Dilemma - Breakthrough to the Ancient Past". See also: Oldies but Goodies? (by Adam J.R. Kent, Geotimes, Highlights 2003, Geochemistry), and Just pure chemistry? (by Dagmar Röhrlich, Deutschlandfunk). New discussions about the oldest fossils (in German).

! A.C. Scott (1984): The early history of life on land. In PDF, Journal of Biological Education, 18. See also here.
Note figs. 5 and 6: Rconstructions of Silurian and Devonian plants.

! A.W.R. Seddon et al. (2014): Looking forward through the past: identification of 50 priority research questions in palaeoecology. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 102: 256-267. See also here.

! P.A. Selden (2016): Land Animals, Origins of. In PDF. In: Kliman, R. M. (ed.): Encyclopedia of evolutionary biology. Volume 2: 288-295. Oxford, Academic Press.
About the colonization of the land habitat from the sea by plants and animals.

M.-A. Selosse et al. (2015): Plants, fungi and oomycetes: a 400-million year affair that shapes the biosphere. New Phytologist. 10th New Phytologist Workshop on the "Origin and evolution of plants and their interactions with fungi", London, UK, September 2014.

! J.J. Sepkoski (1998): Rates of speciation in the fossil record. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 353: 315-326.

G.R. Shi and J.B. Waterhouse (2010): Late Palaeozoic global changes affecting high-latitude environments and biotas: an introduction. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298: 1-16. See also here (in PDF).

! P.W. Signor III and J.H. Lipps (1982): Sampling bias, gradual extinction patterns and catastrophes in the fossil record. In PDF, Geological Society of America. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! D. Silvestro et al. (2015): Revisiting the origin and diversification of vascular plants through a comprehensive Bayesian analysis of the fossil record. In PDF, New Phytologist, 207: 425-436.

! E. Strickson et al. (2016): Dynamics of dental evolution in ornithopod dinosaurs. In PDF, Scientific Reports, 6. See also here (abstract).

P.K. Strother et al. (2021): A possible billion-year-old holozoan with differentiated multicellularity. Open access, Current Biology, 31: 2658-2665.e2

Paul K. Strother, Weston Observatory of Boston College, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Weston: Origin and Evolution of Life on Planet Earth.
This course is being designed to use the www in lieu of a textbook. To use this website most effectively, go to the lecture notes and click on a specific lecture topic. This will bring up lecture notes or a content outline (if available) and additional www links to specific topics covered in the course lecture.
Website now publicly accessible by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Strullu-Derrien (2014): The earliest wood and its hydraulic properties documented in c. 407-million-year-old fossils using synchrotron microtomography. Abstract, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 175: 423-437.

! Roger Summons and Tanja Bosak, MIT Opencourseware, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Geobiology. An introduction about the parallel evolution of life and the environment. Life processes are influenced by chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and the solid earth. In turn, life can influence chemical and physical processes on our planet. This course explores the concept of life as a geological agent and examines the interaction between biology and the earth system during the roughly 4 billion years since life first appeared. Go to:
Lecture Notes. See especially: Theories Pertaining to the Origin of Life. In PDF.

Der Tagesspiegel: Anthropozän - Fallout und Plastik markieren das Menschenzeitalter. In German, Ralf Nestler, May 01, 2015.

D.W. Taylor and H. Li (2018): Paleobotany: Did flowering plants exist in the Jurassic period? eLife, 7: e43421.
"... we infer that Nanjinganthus shows substantial similarity to predicted models of ancestral characters and Early Cretaceous angiosperms, so the evidence suggests that it is a Jurassic flowering plant. ..."

T.N. Taylor et al. (2015): Fungal Diversity in the Fossil Record. In PDF, see also here (abstract).

Teaching Biology, Random Posts on Biological Topics (by Marc Srour, Enalia Physis Environmental Research Center, Cyprus): Taxonomic Bias in the Fossil Record: Is it really an issue?

! A.M.F. Tomescu (2021): Mysteries of the bryophyte–tracheophyte transition revealed: enter the eophytes. Free access, New Phytologist, Note fig. 1: Timeline and evolutionary hypothesis for early land plants. Worth checking out:
! D. Edwards et al. 2022a): Piecing together the eophytes–a new group of ancient plants containing cryptospores. Free access, New Phytologist, 233: 1440–1455.
! D. Edwards et al. 2022b): Earliest record of transfer cells in Lower Devonian plants. Free access, New Phytologist, 233: 1456–1465.

! A.M.F. Tomescu et al. (2016): Microbes and the fossil record: selected topics in paleomicrobiology. Abstract, in: Hurst C. (ed.) Their World: A Diversity of Microbial Environments. Advances in Environmental Microbiology, vol 1: 69-169. See also here (in PDF).

! U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA: Geolex. Geolex is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names.

S. Varela et al. (2015): paleobioDB: an R package for downloading, visualizing and processing data from the Paleobiology Database. In PDF, Ecography, 38: 419-425.

! G.J. Vermeij (2016): Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life. PLoS ONE, 11.

G.J. Vermeij (2015): Forbidden phenotypes and the limits of evolution. In PDF, Interface Focus 5: 20150028.

M.J. Watson and D.M. Watson (2020): Post-Anthropocene Conservation. Open access, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

T. Watson (2020): These bizarre ancient species are rewriting animal evolution. Nature.

Helmut Weissert Geologie, ETH Zürich: Evolution der Biosphäre. Bilder aus der Erdgeschichte. PDF file, in German.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! N.J. Wickett et al. (2014): Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. In PDF, PNAS 111, see also here.

Wikibooks, an open content textbooks collection that anyone can edit:
History and Origin of Life.

! Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: High School Earth Science.
Contributed by John Benner et al. Worth checking out:
Evidence About Earth´s Past.
Earth´s History.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Timeline of the evolutionary history of life.

! J.W. Williams and S.T. Jackson (2007): Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. In PDF, Front. Ecol. Environ., 5: 475-482.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Origin of life
Category:Events in the geological history of Earth
Great Oxygenation Event.
Große Sauerstoffkatastrophe (in German).

R. Williams (2021): Discovered: Fossilized Spores Suggestive of Early Land Plants. The Scientist.

S. Williams (2017): The Weird Growth Strategy of Earth´s First Trees. The Scientist » News & Opinion » Daily News.
"Ancient fossils reveal how woodless trees got so big: by continuously ripping apart their xylem and knitting it back together".

S. Xiao and Q. Tang (2018): After the boring billion and before the freezing millions: evolutionary patterns and innovations in the Tonian Period. In PDF, Emerging Topics in Life Sciences, 2: 161–171. See also here,

Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History: Earth Timeline. Powerpoint presentation.

! H.S. Yoon et al. (2004): A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes. PDF file, Mol. Biol. Evol., 21: 809-818. See also here.

! J. Zalasiewicz et al. (2008): Are we now living in the Anthropocene? In PDF.

Z. Zhou and M.T. Antunes (2013): Terrestrial Mesozoic stratigraphy. In PDF, Ciências da Terra (UNL), 18; Lisboa. See also here.

V. Zimorski et al. (2019): Energy metabolism in anaerobic eukaryotes and Earth's late oxygenation. In PDF, Free Radical Biology and Medicine. See also here.
Note fig. 1: Summary of oxygen accumulation of earth history.

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