Evolution & Extinction, Links for Palaeobotanists
Links for Palaeobotanists

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Evolution & Extinction

Categories
Web Sites about Evolution
Focussed on the Fossil Record
The Molecular Clock and/or/versus the Fossil Record
Insect Evolution
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Living Fossils
! Teaching Documents about Evolution@
! Phylogeography@
! Focused on the Evolution of Plants@
! Articles in Palaeobotany@
! The Gaia Hypothesis@
! Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@















Home / Evolution & Extinction / Web Sites about Evolution


Categories
Focussed on the Fossil Record
The Molecular Clock and/or/versus the Fossil Record
Insect Evolution
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Living Fossils
! Teaching Documents about Evolution@
! Focused on the Evolution of Plants@
! Articles in Palaeobotany@
! The Gaia Hypothesis@
! Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@


Web Sites about Evolution


About.com: Education > Biology > Evolution, and Education > Geology > Fossils, Time and Evolution.

Academic Info. An annotated educational subject directory. Go to: Sciences > Biology > Evolution.

ActionBioscience.org (American Institute of Biological Sciences): ActionBioscience.org is a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience. Go to:
! Evolution: Fact and Theory (by Richard E. Lenski). See also: Issues in Evolution. A link directory.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! AG EvoBio, Germany. Evolution in Biology, Culture and Society (in German). See especially: The annotated link directories Publications and Videos. Excellent! Also worth checking out:
! EvoBioBlog (by Arbeitsgemeinschaft Evolution in Biologie, Kultur und Gesellschaft, in German).

John Alroy, Smithsonian Institution´s Department of Paleobiology: Lefalophodon: A History of Evolutionary Biology Web Site.
This page is an informal guide to the history of evolutionary biology from about 1800 to about 1950.
This expired link is still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The American Museum of Natural History, New York: Darwin. November 19, 2005 - May 29, 2006. The most in-depth exhibition ever mounted on Charles Darwin, the highly original thinker, botanist, geologist, and naturalist, and his theory of evolution. See also here (C. Driessen, Kölnische Rundschau, November 18, 2005; in German).

American Scientist (Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society):
Natural Selection for Everyone (by Douglas Erwin, National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, December 2006).
Articles in category:
Evolutionary Theory. An asterisk denotes content restricted to members and subscribers.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

H. Aptyka et al. (2022): Effects of situated learning and clarification of misconceptions on contextual reasoning about natural selection. Open access, Evolution: Education and Outreach, 15.

! J.E. Armstrong and J. Jernstedt, The Botanical Society of America, St. Louis:
Botanical Society of America's Statement on Evolution.
See also here.

! S. Asche et al. (2023): What it takes to solve the Origin (s) of Life: An integrated review of techniques. Free access, arXiv.
! Note figure 1: Comprehensive array of experimental and computational techniques, along with conceptual bridges, which are primarily utilised in OoL studies.
"... We review the common tools and techniques that have been used significantly in OoL [origin(s) of life] studies in recent years.
[...] it spans broadly — from analytical chemistry to mathematical models — and highlights areas of future work ..."

F.J. Ayala, Walter M. Fitch, and Michael T. Clegg (eds.; 2000): Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins. Online book, National Academy of Sciences (2000).
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here

Nicholas H. Barton et al. (2007), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Evolution. Go to:
! Table of Contents. For each chapter, there are links to figures and tables, to discussion topics and to notes. See also:
! Evolution Figures. The images that are available for online use can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate chapter. See especially:
! Evolution Figures: Chapter 10.

E.G. Beck, Zentrale für Unterrichtsmedien im Internet e.V. (ZUM Internet e.V.): Evolution. Lecture notes (in German).

! C.M. Belin and B. Kisida (2012): Science Standards, Science Achievement, and Attitudes about Evolution. In PDF.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! R.B.J. Benson et al. (2021): Biodiversity across space and time in the fossil record. Free access, Current Biology, 31: R1225-R1236.
Note figure 3: Distribution of geographic and environmental sampling in the marine and terrestrial fossil records.
"... it will be impossible to directly estimate total global biodiversity from fossil data, principally because the fossil record is not complete enough
[...] the fossil record provides the only dataset that might allow us to put constraints on this important question, using information from exceptional, well-sampled but spatially and temporally restricted windows. These windows provide the best information on local, regional and environmental diversity levels, and how they vary in space ..."

! M.J. Benton (2015): Exploring macroevolution using modern and fossil data. Proc. R. Soc. B 282. See also here Michael J. Benton (2010): The origins of modern biodiversity on land. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B.

M.J. Benton and D.A.T. Harper: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. Go to:
! Companion Website: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. On this website you can download the figures in jpeg format at standard resolution (96 dpi) for viewing on screen and at a higher resolution (300 dpi) for downloading. They can also be downloaded as a Powerpoint file for each chapter.
! See also here (in PDF).
For better navigation note the table of contents (in PDF).

Michael J. Benton, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol:
Evidence of evolutionary transitions. Electronic publication on the ActionBioscience.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California, Berkeley (with support provided by the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute:
Welcome to the Evolution Wing. Explore the theory of evolution and learn about the history of evolutionary thought.
! Understanding Evolution - your one-stop choice for information on evolution. Understanding Evolution is a non-commercial, education website, teaching the science and history of evolutionary biology. This site is here to help you understand what evolution is, how it works, how it factors into your life, how research in evolutionary biology is performed, and how ideas in this area have changed over time. Excellent! Go to:
! What is evolution and how does it work? Detailed explanations of the mechanisms of evolution and the history of life on Earth.
See especially:
! History of Evolutionary Thought. Biographies of some of the key players in evolutionary thought over the last 300 years.

! The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley:
Understanding Science. Understanding Science provides a free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works. An excellent resource, especially for teachers!
Don't miss to go to the Resource library.

! R.A. Berner et al. (2007): Oxygen and evolution. In PDF, Science, 316.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! BioDeepTime:
This project seeks to address one of the central challenges in biodiversity science by compiling and harmonizing ecological time series from modern and fossil sources to investigate how biological dynamics and drivers vary across timescales ranging from months to millions of years. Note likewise here.
Please take notice:
! J. Smith et al. (2023): BioDeepTime: A database of biodiversity time series for modern and fossil assemblages. Open access, Global Ecol Biogeogr.
Note table 1: Approximate temporal grain (the amount of time represented in a sample) for time series, number of time series and number of samples from source databases included in BioDeepTime.
"... The BioDeepTime database enables integrated biodiversity analyses across a far greater range of temporal scales than has previously been possible. It can be used to provide critical insights into how natural systems will respond to ongoing and future environmental changes as well as new opportunities for theoretical insights into the temporal scaling of biodiversity dynamics ..."

Biologie-Schule.de:
! Die Evolution.
Lecture notes, in German.

! BiologyBrowser (produced by Thomson Scientific). This is a free web site offering resources for the life sciences information community. Go to: Evolutionary Biology.

Biology Online. Information in the Life Sciences. Go to: Tutorials > Genetics and Evolution.

Biopedia an openfree bioinfomation encyclopedia: Evolution.

Charles Blinderman, and David Joyce, Clark University: The Huxley File. Thomas Henry Huxley's publications. The English biologist has been occasionally named "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.

C. Kevin Boyce (2010): The evolution of plant development in a paleontological context. PDF file, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13: 102-107.

! Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden:
What is Paleobotany?. Also worth checking out:
Plant Evolution & Paleobotany. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Paleobotany Short-Course. Lecture notes.
Paleobotany Overview; Life moves to land.
Plant classification.
Rise of Seed Plants.
Rise of flowering plants.
Excellent!

! P.J. Bowler (2009): Darwin's originality. In PDF, Science, 323: 223-226. See also here.

! M. Brasier et al. (2006): A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life. In PDF, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol Sci., 361: 887–902. See also here.

J.C. Briggs (2014): Invasions, adaptive radiations, and the generation of biodiversity. In PDF, Environmental Skeptics and Critics, 3: 8-16.

! L. Bromham and D. Penny (2003):&xnbsp; The modern molecular clock. Nature Reviews Genetics, 4: 216–224.
See also here.
"... The evolutionary dates measured by molecular clocks have been controversial, particularly if they clash with estimates taken from more traditional sources such as the fossil record.
[...] The molecular clock — a relatively constant rate of accumulation of molecular differences between species — was an unexpected discovery that has provided a window on the mechanisms that drive molecular evolution. ..."

! M.C. Brundrett (2002): Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. In PDF, New phytologist, 154: 275-304. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Neil Buckley, Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY: Bio 102 General Biology II Class Notes. Powerpoint presentations.
Website still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

R.J.A. Buggs (2021): The origin of Darwin’s “abominable mystery”. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 108: 22–36.

! N.J. Butterfield (2007): Macroevolution and macroecology through deep time. In PDF, Palaeontology, 50: 41–55. See also here.

T. Cardona (2016): Reconstructing the Origin of Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Do Assembly and Photoactivation Recapitulate Evolution? Front. PlantSci., 7: 257.

Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago

Alison Campbell, Penelope Cooke, Kathrin Cass and Kerry Earl, School for Science and Engineering, The University of Waikato, New Zealand: Evolution for teaching. This website has been developed to provide a web based resource for use by secondary teachers, especially in the science fields of evolution and geological time. Go to: Frequently Asked Questions. See also: Plant Evolution, and The Evolution of Life. Information about the evolution of life on Earth. Go to: Glossary.

! Miguel Chavez: The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive. Access to many articles and books, e.g. via Library, and Books. Excellent!

Citable reviews in the life sciences (Wiley). Go to:
Evolution & Diversity of Life.

C.J. Cleal and B. Cascales-Miñana (2014): Composition and dynamics of the great Phanerozoic Evolutionary Floras. Abstract.

! Matthew Cobb, whyevolutionistrue: Excellent open access articles on the evolution of life on Earth - UPDATE 2.

S. Conway Morris (1993): The fossil record and the early evolution of the Metazoa. PDF file, Nature, 361: 219–225.
See also here.

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Studying Evolution. Mini-essays and sub-sections concerning evolution.

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Comparing Plant and Animal Evolution.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! P.R. Crane and A.B. Leslie (2013): Major Events in the Evolution of Land Plants. In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution.
1. Phylogenetic framework.
2. Origin and diversification of land plants.
3. Origin and diversification of vascular plants.
4. Origin and diversification of seed plants.
5. Origin and diversification of flowering plants.
6. Innovation in the land plant body.
7. Innovation in land plant reproduction.
8. Co-evolution with animals.
9. Patterns of extinction.
See also here, and there (Google books).

P.R. Crane et al. (2010): Darwin and the Evolution of Flowers. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 365: 347-350.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! W.L. Crepet and K.J. Niklas (2009): Darwin´s second "abominable mystery": Why are there so many angiosperm species? Open access, American Journal of Botany, 96: 366-381.

! J.A. Cunningham et al. (2016): The origin of animals: can molecular clocks and the fossil record be reconciled? Open access, Bioessays, 39. See also here (in PDF).
Note figure 1: Summary of major Ediacaran and early Cambrian fossil assemblages.
! Figure 2. The mismatch between the fossil and molecular clock records of early animal evolution.
"... Molecular clocks estimate that animals originated and began diversifying over 100 million years before the first definitive metazoan fossil evidence in the Cambrian. However, closer inspection reveals that clock estimates and the fossil record are less divergent than is often claimed.
[...] A considerable discrepancy remains, but much of this can be explained by the limited preservation potential of early metazoans and the difficulties associated with their identification in the fossil record.

Charles Darwin, 1859: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray. 502 pp. Available from Project Gutenberg.

! R. Dawkins (1996): The blind watchmaker: Why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design. In PDF, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-393-31570-3. See likewise here.
! Note also here (Wikipedia entry).

! Richard Dawkins (1986): The Blind Watchmaker. In PDF. Also available here.
See also "Watchmaker analogy" in Wikipedia and "The Blind Watchmaker" headword there.
See also the book reviews in Amazon.

Deutschlandradio (a German broadcasting channel):
Vom Vergrößerungsglas bis zu lebenden Schildkröten. (by Max Boehnel, November 18, 2005; in German). The big Darwin exhibition, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

S. Díaz and Y. Malhi (2022): Biodiversity: Concepts, patterns, trends, and perspectives. Free access, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 47: 31-63.

Ezequiel A. Di Paolo, School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences, University of Sussex Brighton, UK: Artificial Life Bibliography of On-line Publications. This is a list of on-line publications actually related to the field of artificial Life. Most of the papers listed here have been or will be published in some form. On-line versions may often differ from printed versions. Go to: Evolutionary Biology.

dmoz: Science > Biology > Evolution.

! T. Dobzhansky (1973): Nothing in Biology Makes Sense except in the Light of Evolution. In PDF, The American Biology Teacher, 35: 125-129. See also here (Google books).

! M. Dohrmann and G. Wörheide (2017): Dating early animal evolution using phylogenomic data. Open access, Scientific reports, 7.
! Note Figure 4: Time-calibrated phylogeny of animals.

! P.C.J. Donoghue and Z. Yang (2016): The evolution of methods for establishing evolutionary timescales. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 371.See also here (abstract).

! P.C.J. Donoghue and M.J. Benton (2007): Rocks and clocks: calibrating the Tree of Life using fossils and molecules. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
See also here.
! Note figure 2: Concordance of palaeontological data, phylogenetic hypotheses, macroevolutionary events and molecular clock.

F.S. Dunn et al. (2022): A crown-group cnidarian from the Ediacaran of Charnwood Forest, UK. Open access, Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6: 1095–1104.
"... Phylogenetic analyses recover Auroralumina as a stem-group medusozoan and, therefore, the oldest crown-group cnidarian. Auroralumina demonstrates both the establishment of the crown group of an animal phylum and the fixation of its body plan tens of millions of years before the Cambrian diversification of animal life. ..."
Worth checking out:
Lifting the veil on the oldest-known animals (by M. Laflamme, Nature News and Views, September 13, 2022).
"... Gaps in the fossil record mean that the origins of ancient animals such as jellyfish and corals have remained a mystery. Now, a long-awaited fossil discovery reveals key features of this group during the early stages of its evolution. A fossil from the Ediacaran period sheds light on early cnidarians. ..."

Freeman Dyson, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ. (Technology Review): The Darwinian Interlude. Carl Woese´s point of view about the post-Darwinian era.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! N. Eldredge and S.J. Gould (1972): Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism. PDF file. In: Schopf, T.J.M. (ed.) Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco, 82-115. See also here.

K.C. Elliott et al. (2016): Conceptions of Good Science in Our Data-Rich World. In PDF, Bioscience, 66: 880–889. S ee also here.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:
Evolution.

Funded by the National Science Foundation and hosted by Indiana University: ENSIWEB - Evolution and Nature of Science. ENSIWEB is a collection of classroom lessons to help biology teachers more effectively teach basic concepts in the areas of evolution and the nature of science. See the EVOLUTION LESSONS.

D.H. Erwin (2009): Climate as a driver of evolutionary change. PDF file, Current Biology, 19: R575-R583.

G. Escarguel et al. (2011): Biodiversity is not (and never has been) a bed of roses! In PDF, Comptes Rendus Biologies.

European Society for Evolutionary Biology (ESEB): The objectives of the ESEB are to support the study of organic evolution and the integration of those scientific fields that are concerned with evolution: molecular and microbial evolution, behaviour, genetics, ecology, life histories, development, paleontology, systematics and morphology.

E. Margaret Evans et al. (2010): A Conceptual Guide to Natural History Museum Visitors Understanding of Evolution. PDF file, Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

EvoBioBlog, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Evolution in Biologie, Kultur und Gesellschaft (AG Evolutionsbiologie). In German.

Evolution: Education and Outreach.
Evolution: Education and Outreach addresses the question of why we should care about evolution by exploring the practical applications of evolutionary principles in daily life and the impact of evolutionary theory on culture and society throughout history. Targeting K-16 students, teachers and scientists alike, the journal presents articles to aid members of these communities in the teaching of evolutionary theory.

Evolution (Blackwell, published for the Society for the Study of Evolution). A publication devoted to the study of organic evolution and the integration of the various fields of science concerned with evolution.

The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program investigates Earth´s land biotas throughout their 400 million year history. Their goal is to understand how terrestrial ecosystems have been structured and how they change over geologic time. Using the fossil record, ETE scientists study the characteristics of ecological communities and the changing dynamics of ecosystems. Go to:
ETE Relational Database and ETE DataNet.
The ETE relational database is now partially united with the Paleobiology Database Project´s (PBDB) relational database. All primary database functions (queries, entries and updates) are available through the PBDB home page. The new combined database compiles information from the terrestrial and marine record, but lacks some of the data fields present in the original ETE database.

M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College, Phoenix, Arizona:
! On-Line Biology Book. Table of Contents. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:
! The modern view of evolution.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

FAZ-NET (Frankfurter Allgemeine, a German newspaper): Mutter Natur? Dass ich nicht lache (July 08, 2008, in German)

M.A. Fedonkin (2003): The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record. In PDF, Paleontological Research, 7: 9-41. See also here.

The Field Museum, Chicago: All about Evolution. About the importance and some misconceptions of evolution.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.T. Flannery-Sutherland et al. (2022): Global diversity dynamics in the fossil record are regionally heterogeneous. Open access, Nature Communications, 13.

W.J. Foster et al. (2022): Machine learning identifies ecological selectivity patterns across the end-Permian mass extinction. Free access, Paleobiology, 2022: 1–15. See also here.
Worth to visit: Forscher finden Survival-Faktoren. In German, Der Spiegel, March 03, 2022.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Historical Geology. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture.
! Go to: The Origin and Evolution of Life. Powerpoint presentation.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

W.A. Friedman (2020): Darwin in the garden: Engaging the public about evolution with museum collections of living objects. Open access, Plants, People, Planet, 2: 294–301.
"... Polls continue to show distressingly high percentages of people around the world do not accept that evolution has occurred.
[...] It is time for botanical gardens and arboreta around the world to commit to leveraging their living collections of museum objects to explain and demonstrate the roles of mutation, variation, and selection in the evolutionary process. In doing so, much could be accomplished to increase scientific literacy at a societal level.

William Friedman et al., Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder: Molecular and Organismal Research in Plant History, MORPH. MORPH, an NSF research coordination network, fosters cross-disciplinary interactions between organismic and molecular plant biologists studying the evolution of morphological diversity to promote a modern synthesis in plant evolutionary developmental biology. Go to: Publications.

Douglas Futuyma, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook:
Natural Selection: How Evolution Works (an ActionBioscience.org original interview, American Institute of Biological Sciences).
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! D.J. Futuyma and A.A. Agrawal (2009): Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores. In PDF.

The Geological Society of America (GSA): Evolution and Creationism, Sites describing and/or promoting evolution. An annotated link list. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik (GfBS). Society for Biological Systematics.

! Steven Goldsmith, Austin College, Sherman, TX:
Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. and Systematics. For a fundamental understanding of the conceptual framework that biologists use to make sense of the complexity and diversity of organisms. Note e.g.:
! Natural Selection. Powerpoint presentation.

S.J. Gould, (2002): The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Belknap, 1464 pp., 45.90 Euro, ISBN 0-674-00613-5.
Read an excerpt of this book (in PDF format).
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

The Stephen Jay Gould Archive.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) was among the best known and widely read scientists of the late 20th century. See also: Geotimes, May 2002: In Memoriam: Stephen Jay Gould.

! S.J. Gould (1994): Tempo and Mode in the Macroevolutionary Reconstruction of Darwinism. In: Fitch, W.M. And Ayala, F.J. (eds.):
! Tempo And Mode In Evolution: Genetics And Paleontology 50 Years After Simpson. Open access! National Academies Press (US); Washington (DC).

Walton A. Green et al. (2011): Does extinction wield an axe or pruning shears? How interactions between phylogeny and ecology affect patterns of extinction. PDF file, Paleobiology, 37: 72-91.

Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group. Understanding the Diversity of Plants. The purpose of the "Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group" is to facilitate or initiate interaction between distinct research groups that have independent foci yet entail some aspect of green plant phylogeny or systematics. Visit the Phylogenetics Resources.

! T.R. Gregory (2008): Understanding evolutionary trees. Abstract Evolution: Education and Outreach, 1: 121–137. See also here (in PDF).

! Andrew Grimshaw (2001): The Adventures of Punctuated Equilibria. A Struggle for Authority in the Evolutionary Sciences. PDF file, thesis, Deakin University.

The Guardian, UK (Guardian Unlimited):
How Darwin won the evolution race (by Robin McKie, June 22, 2008).
Blogging Darwin. The Origin of Species: Over 149 years, Darwin's theory of evolution has withstood attacks far better than many other scientific theories (by Adam Rutherford, February 09, 2008).

Michael Gudo, Morphisto Evolutionsforschung und Anwendung GmbH (in German).
Die Frankfurter Evolutionstheorie. See especially:
www.evolutionswissenschaft.de Forum Evolution (in German).
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Guindon (2020): Rates and Rocks: Strengths and Weaknesses of Molecular Dating Methods. Open access, Frontiers in Genetics, 11.
"... molecular dating will undoubtedly keep playing a crucial role in biology in the future. Our understanding of important phenomena such as species diversification or dispersal, population migration and demography, or the molecular signature resulting from environmental changes, depends on our ability to date past evolutionary events. The wealth of available techniques to perform this task provides a powerful set of tools to make progress in this direction. ..."

B. Hallgrímsson and B.K. Hall (2011): Epigenetics: linking genotype and phenotype in development and evolution. In PDF. See also here (Google books).

Ken Harding, Evolution Education Resource Center (a Paleo Ring site): Evolution for beginners.

Colin Harris, UK: Geology Shop. A link directory (introductory website slow loading), comprising over 70 individual web pages. Go to:
Evolution and the fossil record.

T. He et al. (2019): Fire as a key driver of Earth's biodiversity. In PDF, Biological Reviews. See also here.

! S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (2009): Discovering the Timetree of Life. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life.
! See here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.B. Hedges (2009): Life. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life.
! See here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Scott A. Heckathorn, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA:
Biodiversity lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See especially:
The Evolution of Populations.
The Origin of Species.
Introduction to Animal Evolution.

Simon Heitzinger (2023): Entwicklung eines Unterrichtskonzepts im Kontext von Fehlvorstellungen im Evolutionsunterricht. PDF file, in German. Master thesis, Pädagogische Hochschule Oberösterreich.
See also here.

R.S. Hermann et al. (2020): Understanding of Evolution Law among K–12 Public School Teachers. Free access, The American Biology Teacher, 82: 86-92.

! S.M. Holland (2016): The non-uniformity of fossil preservation. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 371. See also here (abstract).

D. Hopp, AG Evolutionsbiologie im VBIO:
Der Fall Danuvius guggenmosi (in German). Muss die Menschheitsgeschichte umgeschrieben werden?

S. Horenstein (2012): Paleontology and Evolution in the News. In PDF, Evo. Edu. Outreach, 5: 171-178. PDF page 4: Darwin Specimens Found After 150 Years!

G. Hunt (2010): Evolution in fossil lineages: paleontology and The Origin of Species. PDF file, The American Naturalist, 176. See likewise here.

! J.B.C. Jackson and D.H. Erwin (2006): What can we learn about ecology and evolution from the fossil record? PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
See also here.

D. Jablonski and S.M. Edie (2023): Perfect storms shape biodiversity in time and space. Free access, Evolutionary Journal of the Linnean Society, 2.
"... Many of the most dramatic patterns in biological diversity are created by “Perfect Storms” —rare combinations of mutually reinforcing factors that push origination, extinction, or diversity accommodation to extremes. These patterns include the strongest diversification events [...] This approach necessarily weighs contributing factors, identifying their often non-linear and time-dependent interactions ..."

D. Jablonski (2008): Biotic interactions and macroevolution: extensions and mismatches across scales and levels. PDF file, Evolution, 62: 715-739.

! D. Jablonski (2007): Scale and hierarchy in macroevolution. PDF file, Palaeontology, 50: 87-109.

! M.E. James et al. (2023): Replicated Evolution in Plants. Open access, Annual Review of Plant Biology, 74: 697-725.
"...Similar traits and functions commonly evolve in nature. Here, we explore patterns of replicated evolution across the plant kingdom and discuss the processes responsible for such patterns.
[...] The term replicated evolution can be used to encompass both convergence and parallelism ..."

Tonya Johnson, 8th grade Life Science, Pine View School: Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.

G.M. Jones et al. (2023): Fire-driven animal evolution in the Pyrocene. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.
See also here.
"... Fire is an important evolutionary force that exerts strong selective pressure on many domains of life on Earth, including animals ..."

Thomas Junker, Fakultät für Biologie, Universität Tübingen: Geschichte der Evolutionstheorie (in German). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Thomas Junker, Birgit Klaus and Dennis Wilms, Planet Wissen (German broadcasting service WDR, SWR and BR-alpha; December 2009): Charles Darwin (in German). Videos available via YouTube. Easy to understand information (in German), go to:
! Part 4 (beginning about 7:26: information on creationism and intelligent design),
! Part 5 (information on creationism and intelligent design), and
Part 6.

M. Kimura (book written 1924–94): My Thoughts on Biological Evolution. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., 2020.
"... In the book, Kimura first summarizes the development of evolutionary theory since Lamarck and Darwin. He then shows how the search for mechanisms of evolution developed into population genetics and describes how the study of molecular evolution matured by taking in the fruits of molecular biology. ..."
Please note. Tracing the Course of Evolution. (in PDF).

S. Kinnebrock and H. Bilandzic (2023): Stories about Villains, Mad Scientists and Failure. In PDF, start on PDF page 303. Routledge Studies in the Philosophy of Science. In: K. Zachmann et al. (eds): Evidence Contestation: Dealing with Dissent in Knowledge Societies.

! C. King (2022):
Exploring Geoscience across the globe. In PDF (42 MB), Excellent!
Provided by The International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO). Chapters that may be of interest:
Chapter 3.2 (starting on pdf-page 30): e.g. Relative dating, Absolute dating.
Chapter 4.1.2.2 (starting on pdf-page 56): e.g. Sedimentary processes.
Chapter 4.3 (starting on pdf-page 115): e.g. Atmospheric change.
Chapter 4.4.1 (starting on pdf-page 122): e.g. Evolution.

P. Kuschmierz et al. (2021): European first-year university students accept evolution but lack substantial knowledge about it: a standardized European cross-country assessment. Open access, Evolution: Education and Outreach,14: 1–22.
"... despite European countries’ different cultural backgrounds and education systems, European first-year university students generally accept evolution. At the same time, they lack substantial knowledge about it, even if they are enrolled in a biology-related study program. ..."

U. Kutschera (2011): From the scala naturae to the symbiogenetic and dynamic tree of life. Free access, Biology Direct, 6: 33.

! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also here (in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.

M. Lange and M. Winkelheide, Deutschlandfunk: Jenseits der Gene. Wie die Epigenetik die Biologie revolutioniert (in German).

! Michel Laurin (2012): Recent progress in paleontological methods for dating the Tree of Life. In PDF, Frontiers in Genetics, 3.

Reinhold Leinfelder, Institute of Geological Sciences, Free University, Berlin:
Darwin. Er hat sogar aus dem Staubwischen eine Wissenschaft gemacht! Interview with Reinhold Leinfelder (Berliner Zeitung, February 2009, by Lilo Berg and Frank Junghähnel; in German).
! Ach du lieber Darwin. Comments ande discussions about evolution (in German).

! Richard E. Lenski (website by American Institute of Biological Sciences): Evolution: Fact and Theory. About the major patterns of change in nature, how these changes occur and the fossil and genetic evidence of change.

! T.M. Lenton (1998): Gaia and natural selection. Abstract, Nature, 394. See also here (in PDF).

! K. Lepot (2020): Signatures of early microbial life from the Archean (4 to 2.5 Ga) eon. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 209. See also here.

Estelle Levetin and Karen McMahon, University of Tulsa (McGraw-Hill Companies): Plants and Society. McGraw-Hill has worked to create a variety of tools and resources to accompany the third edition. Go to: Web Links, Chapter 8: Plant Systematics and Evolution.

! Jere H. Lipps, University of California, Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, CA: The Decline of Reason? About science and anti-science.

The Natural History Museum, London: Nature online, Evolution.

! R. López-Antoñanzas et al. (2022): Integrative Phylogenetics: Tools for Palaeontologists to Explore the Tree of Life. Open access, Biology, 11: 1185. https://doi.org/10.3390/ biology11081185.
"... The statistical techniques mentioned above have only begun to be applied to questions in palaeontology over the past decade but have found extensive applications in phylogenetic comparative analysis, quantitative genetics, and ecology. Complementary methodologies that combine morphological and molecular approaches can provide novel answers to broad evolutionary and deep-time questions ..."

! J. Losos (2013): What Is Evolution? In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution. See also here.

J.B. Losos et al. (2013): Evolutionary Biology for the 21st Century. In PDF, PLoS Biol 11. See also here.

! Jonathan B. Losos and D. Luke Mahler (2010): Chapter 15, Adaptive radiation: the interaction of ecological opportunity, adaptation, and speciation. PDF file. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.C. Love et al. (2022): Evolvability in the fossil record. Free access, Paleobiology, 48: 186–209.

Macrovolution.net. A website by Gene McCarthy, focusing on biology and evolutionary theory.

Wayne P. Maddison & David R. Maddison: Mesquite. Mesquite is software for evolutionary biology, designed to help biologists analyze comparative data about organisms.

Brenda Maddox, Times Online: The whole world in his hand. Book review: THE RICHNESS OF LIFE by Stephen Jay Gould, 646 pp

! MAdLand — Molecular Adaptation to Land: Plant Evolution to Change.
The MAdLand community has made contributions to publicly available data resources for plant (evolutionary) biology and expanded the list of organismal systems accessible for research. Note the statement of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) for the established Priority Programme SPP 2237. Worth checking out:
MAdLand Publications.
The interactive and downloadable Plant Evolution Poster.
Exhibition posters "Grün, Steine, Erde. Unsere Welt im Wandel" (in German, by M. Schreiber and S. Gould).

C.R. Marshall (2019): Using the Fossil Record to Evaluate Timetree Timescales. Open access, Front Genet., 10.

! C.R. Marshall (2017): Five palaeobiological laws needed to understand the evolution of the living biota. In PDF, Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1.

! C.V. McLelland (2008): Nature of Science and the Scientific Method. PDF file, The Geological Society of America.
This article promotes understanding of the nature of science and how the scientific method is used to advance science, focusing in particular on the Earth sciences. It also includes talking points for those who would like help explaining the nature of science to others who have developed misconceptions.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Axel Meyer, Die Zeit, Germany: The master of why - Ernst Mayr. An obituary, in German. See also here (Christian Schwägerl, FAZ).

Keith B. Miller, Department of Geology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS: Taxonomy, Transitional Forms, and the Fossil Record.
This expired link is still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Kenneth R. Miller, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island: Evolution Resources.

! D.B. Mills et al. (2022): Eukaryogenesis and oxygen in Earth history. In PDF, Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6: 520–532. See also here.
Note especially: Fig. 3: Correlated fossil, molecular and geochemical timeline.
"... these results temporally, spatially and metabolically decouple the earliest stages of eukaryogenesis from the oxygen content of the surface ocean and atmosphere. Rather than reflecting the ancestral metabolic state, obligate aerobiosis in eukaryotes is most probably derived, having only become globally widespread over the past 1 billion years as atmospheric oxygen approached modern levels. ..."

R. Monastersky, The Chronicle of Higher Education: Fossils vs. the Formula, When Physicists Tried to Explain Evolution, Biologists Cried Foul. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B.R. Moore et al. (2016): Critically evaluating the theory and performance of Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionarymixtures. In PDF, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 113: 9569–9574.
"... the inability to correctly compute the likelihood or to correctly specify the prior for rate-variable trees precludes the use of Bayesian approaches for testing hypotheses regarding the number and location of diversification-rate shifts using BAMM."

MORPH (supported by the National Science Foundation, website hosted by University of Colorado, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology). A research coordination network to promote a modern synthesis in plant evolutionary developmental biology. The MORPH RCN fosters cross-disciplinary interactions between organismic and molecular plant biologists studying the evolution of morphological diversity.

! L.S. Nadelson and K.K. Hardy (2015): Trust in science and scientists and the acceptance of evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8.

! The National Academy of Sciences (NAS):
Teaching about Evolution and THE Nature of Science.
These contributions may help teachers introduce the concepts of evolution, particularly if they are reluctant to teach the topic because of pressures from special-interest groups.
See also here (in PDF).

The National Academies: The National Academies perform an unparalleled public service by bringing together committees of experts in all areas of scientific and technological endeavor. Go to: Evolution Resources From the National Academies. This Web page is designed to provide easy access to books, position statements, and additional resources on evolution education and research.

National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), Warrenton, VA.
Recommended Resources.
NABT has created a searchable table of online Peer-Recommended Resources. You can filter by category and audience to get just what you need when you need it. Note escecially:
! Evolution.
! Ecology/Environment.
! General Biology.

National Center for Science Education (NCSE), Oakland, CA. NCSE provides information dedicated to keeping evolution in the science classroom and creationism out.
! A peek at Eternal Ephemera. Introduction of Niles Eldredge´s "Eternal Ephemera: Adaptation and the Origin of Species from the Nineteenth Century Through Punctuated Equilibria and Beyond" (Columbia University Press, 2015). See also:
! Free evolution and climate change book downloads! Free evolution book excerpts on the NCSE web site (often complete chapters).

NATURE, Nature Debates: Andrew Smith, Department of Palaeontology, the Natural History Museum, London: Is the fossil record adequate? This debate introduces the topic and the conflicting viewpoints that surround it.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B.D. Ness (ed., 2002): Magill's Encyclopedia of Science: Plant Life, Volume 2. In PDF. See also here.

Neue Zürcher Zeitung, February 16, 2005: How perfect are adaptions? About pan-adaptionism (in German).

The New York Times (registration procedure might be required):
From a Few Genes, Life’s Myriad Shapes (by CAROL KAESUK YOON, June 26, 2007).

! L.R. Novick et al. Depicting the tree of life in museums: guiding principles from psychological research. In PDF, see also here.

L. Olsson et al. (2010): Evolutionary developmental biology: its concepts and history with a focus on Russian and German contributions. In PDF, Naturwissenschaften, 97: 951-969.

! K.E. Omland et al. (2008): Tree thinking for all biology: the problem with reading phylogenies as ladders of progress. In PDF, BioEssays, 30: 854–867.
See also here.

! Dennis O'Neil, Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marcos, California: Early Theories of Evolution. 17th-19th Century Discoveries that Led to the Acceptance of Biological Evolution. Go to:
Evidence of Evolution,
Synthetic Theory of Evolution. An introduction to modern evolutionary concepts and theories. See also:
The Basic Principles of Genetics. An introduction to Mendelian Genetics.

W. Oschmann (2006): Evolution und Sterben der Dinosaurier. In PDF, Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 93, 345, 117-143. PDF file, in German.

! Oxford Bibliographies.
Oxford Bibliographies offers exclusive, authoritative research guides. Combining the best features of an annotated bibliography and a high-level encyclopedia, this cutting-edge resource directs researchers to the best available scholarship across a wide variety of subjects. Go to:
History of Evolutionary Thought, 1860–1925 (by Garland E. Allen).
Darwinism (by Michael Ruse).
Evolution (by Andrew Berry).
Contemporary Evolution (by Andrew P. Hendr and, Michael T. Kinnison).
Stasis (by Scott Lidgard and Melanie Hopkins).
Mass Extinction (by Paul B. Wignall).
Creationism (by Michael Ruse).

! K. Padian (2008): Darwin's enduring legacy. In PDF, Nature, 451: 632-634. See also here and there.

! The Paleobiology Database (PBDB).
PBDB is a public database of paleontological data that anyone can use, maintained by an international non-governmental group of paleontologists. The Paleobiology Database has been supported by many grants over the years, mostly from the National Science Foundation. You may navigate from the
Paleobiology Database Guest Menu or check out the
Frequently Asked Questions. Please also note the detailed and excellent tutorial:
! M.D. Uhen et al. (2023): Paleobiology Database User Guide Version 1.0 Free access, PaleoBios, 40: 1-56. See also here (in PDF).

J.L. Payne et al. (2020): The evolution of complex life and the stabilization of the Earth system. Open access, Interface Focus, 10: 20190106.

! Panda´s Thumb. This is "a blog that discusses evolutionary biology and the creation-evolution controversy from a scientific perspective" (Wikipedia).
Go to: Links.
Snapshot saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.W. Pennell et al. (2014): Is there room for punctuated equilibrium in macroevolution? Trends in ecology & evolution, 29: 23-32.
See also here.

College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University.
! The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

A.J. Petrosino et al. (2015): Decentralized thinking and understanding of evolution in K-12 evolution education. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8.

! Alex L. Pigot et al. (2012): Speciation and Extinction Drive the Appearance of Directional Range Size Evolution in Phylogenies and the Fossil Record. Free access, PLoS Biol., 10: e1001260. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001260
See also here.

A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 216.

Donald R. Prothero, Department of Geology, Occidental College, Los Angeles:
PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM AT TWENTY: A PALEONTOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE. A historical overview. From Skeptic Magazine vol. 1, no. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 38-47 (The Skeptics Society, Altadena, CA). Comprises chapters like "The Birth of Punk Eek", "Stasis, Landscapes, and Polyhedra", "Species Sorting and Macroevolution", etc. Explore the excellent Bibliography.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS, a private, nonprofit corporation, whose members are America´s public TV stations):
NOVA. This is one of the highest rated science series on television and the most watched documentary series on public television. Go to: Evolution.

! D.L. Rabosky et al. (2017): Is BAMM flawed? Theoretical and practical concerns in the analysis of multi-rate diversification models. In PDF, Syst. Biol., 66: 477–498. See also here.

John Rennie (editor in chief of Scientific American): 15 Answers to Creationist Nonsense.
Opponents of evolution want to make a place for creationism by tearing down real science, but their arguments don't hold up.

James L. Reveal, Paul J. Bottino and Charles F. Delwiche, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland: The 1858 Darwin-Wallace Paper.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! David N. Reznick and Robert E. Ricklefs (2009): Darwin´s bridge between microevolution and macroevolution. PDF file, Nature, 257. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Mark Ridley (2004): Evolution (Third edition). In PDF. 786 pages, Blackwell Publishing company. See likewise here (Google books), or there.
Note especially:
Chapter 1.3, "A short history of evolutionary biology", Start at PDF-page 33.
! Part 5, Macroevolution. Chapter 18, "The History of Life", Start at PDF-page 558.
About plant evolution note:
Chapter 3, "The Evidence for Evolution", Start at PDF-page 43.
Chapter 14, "Speciation", Start at PDF-page 416.
Chapter 19, "Evolutionary Genomics", Start at PDF-page 591.

M. Ridley (2003): Evolution (third edition). Book announcement. With book illustrations, an image gallery and downloadable chapters (PDF files), please take notice:
! Chapter 4: Natural Selection and Variation.
! Chapter 13: Species Concepts and Intraspecific Variation.
! Chapter 20: Evolutionary Developmental Biology.
Also worth checking out: Classic Texts. This website provides you with twenty classic texts from the history of evolutionary biology.

! R.A. Rohde and R.A. Muller (2005): Cycles in Fossil Diversity. In PDF, Nature, 434, 208-210. See also here and there (abstract).

M. Romano (2015): Reviewing the term uniformitarianism in modern Earth sciences. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 148: 65–76.
See likewise here.

C. Román-Palacios et al. (2022): The origins of global biodiversity on land, sea and freshwater. In PDF, Ecology letters, 25: 1376-1386.
See also here.
"... Most plant and animal species are terrestrial, although these habitats cover only ~28% of Earth's surface.
[...] Freshwater habitats have relatively high richness and exceptional phylogenetic diversity given their tiny area (2%). ..."
[...] most marine species are descended from marine ancestors and most terrestrial species from freshwater ancestors. ..."

Gar Rothwell and Ruth Stockey (instructors), Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR:
! Fossil History of Plants. Lecture notes, excellent.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Jes Rust (2006), starting on PDF page 75: Die Bedeutung von Fossilien für phylogenetische Rekonstruktionen. PDF file, in German. Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, 1. Themenheft Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen: Der Stellenwert der Morphologie in der heutigen Phylogenetische Systematik. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.R. Schachat and C.C. Labandeira (2021): Are Insects Heading Toward Their First Mass Extinction? Distinguishing Turnover From Crises in Their Fossil Record. In PDF, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 114: 99–118. See also here.

H. Schneider, (2006), starting on PDF page 65: Plant morphology as the cornerstone to the integration of fossil and extant taxa in phylogenetic systematics. PDF file, in German. Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, 1. Themenheft Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen: Der Stellenwert der Morphologie in der heutigen Phylogenetische Systematik.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Science magazine (published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, with assistance of Stanford University's HighWire Press. Go To: Science Collections, Evolution. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Michon Scott: Strange Science. The rocky road to modern Paleontology and Biology. This website is an eclectic collection of old illustrations and information about the history of palaeontology or biology. Superby done! See especially:
! What is Evolution? See also:
Biographies. Biographies of some of the people whose work has led to what we know today in palaeontology and evolution.

Eugenie Scott, National Center for Science Education, BioForum, Access Excellence:
! Evolution. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Moderator: Eugenie Scott, (National Center for Science Education), Access Excellance, BioForum 2: Evolution. BioForum is a series of lectures, presented by California Academy of Sciences, in which scientists share their research results with high school biology teachers.

D.H. Scott (1909): Darwin and Modern Science: The Palaeontological Record: Plants. In: A.C. Seward (ed.): Darwin and Modern Science. Edited by A. C. Seward, website hosted by "The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! P.A. Selden (2016): Land Animals, Origins of. In PDF. In: Kliman, R. M. (ed.): Encyclopedia of evolutionary biology. Volume 2: 288-295. Oxford, Academic Press.
About the colonization of the land habitat from the sea by plants and animals.

D. Sepkoski and M. Ruse (2009): Introduction: Paleontology at the High Table. In PDF, starting on PDF-page 14. In: Sepkoski, D. and Ruse, M. (eds.): The Paleobiological Revolution: Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleontology (University of Chicago Press). See also here.

! J.J. Sepkoski (1998): Rates of speciation in the fossil record. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 353: 315-326.

T. Servais et al. (2023): No (Cambrian) explosion and no (Ordovician) event: A single long-term radiation in the early Palaeozoic. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 623.
Note figure 1: Overview of the major terminologies used in studies of early Palaeozoic (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian) biodiversity, including the Cambrian ‘Explosion’ and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification ‘Event,’ and stratigraphical position of some of the most significant Konservat-Lagerstätten.
Figure 3: Early Palaeozoic species richness curves of the three major biostratigraphical groups.

! M.U. Smith (2010): Current status of research in teaching and learning evolution: II. Pedagogical issues. In PDF, Science & Education, 19: 539–571.
See also here.

Charles H. Smith, Western Kentucky University: The Alfred Russel Wallace Page. Wallace is recognized as one of history's most important naturalists (as the "other man") in the development of the theory of natural selection. Full-text of some of Wallace's published writings and full-text of some interviews Wallace gave.

! Society for the Study of Evolution.
The objectives of the Society for the Study of Evolution are the promotion of the study of organic evolution and the integration of the various fields of science concerned with evolution. Go to: The Stephen Jay Gould Prize.

Spektrum.de Spektrum Akademischer Verlag:
Online Lexika. A variety of searchable Encyclopedias (in German). Go to:
! Lexikon der Geowissenschaften.
! Lexikon der Biologie.
! Kompaktlexikon der Biologie. Biology knowledge in a nutshell. See for instance:
Evolution.

! Stanley C. Spencer, SA Associates, Inc., Riverside, CA: Evolution Research News. The academic guide to evolution news and research. This extensive resource site is a research tool for biologists, students, and teachers, covering natural selection, origin of life, phylogenetics, and all other aspects of evolutionary biology, as well as darwinism, creationism, intelligent design (ID), and associated controversies.

Startlocal, Australia:
Guide to Evolution / Paleontology

! W. Steffen et al, (2020): The emergence and evolution of Earth System Science. In PDF, Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 1: 54–63.
See also here. "... ESS [Earth System Science] has produced new concepts and frameworks central to the global-change discourse, including the Anthropocene, tipping elements and planetary boundaries. Moving forward, the grand challenge for ESS is to achieve a deep integration of biophysical processes and human dynamics to build a truly unified understanding of the Earth System ..."

R.A. Stockey et al. (2009): Introduction to the Darwin special issue: The abominable mystery. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 96: 3-4.

The Talk.Origins Archive: Talk.origins is a Usenet newsgroup devoted to the discussion and debate of biological and physical origins. This archive is a collection of articles and essays, most of which have appeared in talk.origins.

D. Tautz (2006), starting on PDF page 09: Morphologie versus DNA-Sequenzen in der Phylogenie-Rekonstruktion. PDF file, in German. Species, Phylogeny and Evolution 1. Themenheft Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen: Der Stellenwert der Morphologie in der heutigen Phylogenetische Systematik.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Telegraph.co.uk (The Telegraph Media Group):
Darwin´s Ghosts by Rebecca Stott: review (by Gillian Beer, May 07, 2012).

J.C. Thackray et al. (1990): History of Palaeontology. (in PDF). In: D.E.G. Briggs and P.R. Crowther: Palaeobiology, a Synthesis.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P. Thagard and S. Findlay (2010): Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection. In PDF, Science & Education.

Douglas Theobald, TalkOrigins Archive: Evidences for Macroevolution, Part 1: The Unique Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

A.S. Thorpe et al. (2011): Interactions among plants and evolution. Free access, Journal of Ecology, 99: 729-740.

! Bruce H. Tiffney, UC Santa Barbara: What is Science? Tracking the course of evolution.

! A.M.F. Tomescu and G.W. Rothwell (2022): Fossils and Plant Evolution: Structural Fingerprints and Modularity in the Evo-Devo Paradigm. Free access, Evodevo, 13.
See also here.
Note fig. 8: The realization that a reproductive program can be activated in the intercalary meristem of individual equisetacean internodes.

! D. Turner and J.C. Havstad (2019): Philosophy of Macroevolution. Open access, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

D.D. Turner (2011): Gould's replay revisited. In PDF, Biology & Philosophy, 26: 65–79.
See also here.

Walther Umstätter, Institute for Library Science, Humboldt University Berlin: Die Wissenschaftlichkeit im Darwinismus (in German). Naturw. Rundsch., 21 (9), Beil.: Biologie Heute p. 4-6; 1990.

! T. Vasconcelos et al. (2022): Retiring “cradles” and “museums” of biodiversity. In PDF, The American Naturalist, 199.
See also here.
"... we also argue that the concepts of cradles and museums have outlived their utility in studies of biogeography and macroevolution and should be replaced by discussions of actual processes at play. ..."

G.J. Vermeij (2017): How the land became the locus of major evolutionary innovations. In PDF, Current Biology; 27: 3178–3182. See also here.

! G.J. Vermeij (2016): Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life. PLoS ONE, 11.

G.J. Vermeij (2015): Forbidden phenotypes and the limits of evolution. In PDF, Interface Focus 5: 20150028.

G.J. Vermeij and L. Dudley (2000): Why are there so few evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems? In PDF, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 70: 541-554.

Volkswagenstiftung, Germany (website by www.uni-protokolle.de): Evolutionsbiologie in Deutschland neu verankern (in German). A new initiative about evolution biology.

M.J. Watson and D.M. Watson (2020): Post-Anthropocene Conservation. Open access, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston, and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc. (PPS): Evolution. "Evolution-Deep Time" uses Flash animations in a timeline bar to summarize significant events in geologic history. Pass your cursor over an event and an image and accompanying description appear. To get to this section, click on "skip intro" located on the upper right hand portion of the page. Better navigating from the site map. See also "About the Evolution TV Series". Watch show preview in QuickTime or RealPlayer.

Wikibooks, an open content textbooks collection that anyone can edit:
History and Origin of Life.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Evolutionary biology, for example Punctuated equilibrium. Also worth checking out:
The German Wikipedia: Evolution, e.g. Punktualismus.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Evolution of plants
! Timeline of plant evolution.
Evolutionary history of plants.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Epigenetics.
Epigenetik (in German).

! Steven J. Wolf, Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Stanislaus: Introduction to Evolution. Lecture notes.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Witteveen (2015): “A temporary oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the origins of the typology/population dichotomy (part 1 of 2). In PDF, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, C, Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 54: 20-33.
See also here.

! www.evolutionsbiologen.de Arbeitskreis (AK) Evolutionsbiologie im Verband Biologie, Biowissenschaften und Biomedizin in Deutschland (VBIO). In German.










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