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Articles in Palaeobotany

What is Palaeobotany?
General Palaeobotany
Plant Evolution
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments

Tertiary Palaeobotany
Cretaceous Palaeobotany
Jurassic Palaeobotany
The Rhaetian@
Triassic Palaeobotany@

Early Triassic Floras@
Permian Palaeobotany
Carboniferous Palaeobotany
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany

Home / Articles in Palaeobotany / General Palaeobotany

What is Palaeobotany?
Plant Evolution
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments
Tertiary Palaeobotany
Cretaceous Palaeobotany
Jurassic Palaeobotany
The Rhaetian@
Triassic Palaeobotany@
Early Triassic Floras@
Permian Palaeobotany
Carboniferous Palaeobotany
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany
! Palaeobotanical Maps@
! Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Progress in Palaeobotany and Palynology@
Classical Monographs and Textbooks in Palaeobotany@
Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
! Parasitic Plants@
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@

General Palaeobotany

Henry N. Andrews (1955): Index of generic names of fossil plants, 1820-1950, based on the Compendium index of paleobotany of the US Geological Survey. Provided by Google books. Also available in PDF.
See also here (by Open Library, an open, editable library catalog).

! Nan Crystal Arens, C. Strömberg and A. Thompson, Department of Integrative Biology, and Paleobotany Section, Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Virtual Paleobotany. The Virtual Paleobotanical Laboratory, a comprehensive treatment of the fossil record of land plants, is divided into 12 chapters, lab I through XII. Each lab has a title page, a page with questions around the group or subject of study, a list of literature and links for further reading and exploration, and a virtual gallery of images from the lab. The directory page is a generalized phylogeny that presents an overview hypothesis of relationships among the land plants. Excellent!

! Lorna Ash & Heather Kroening, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Botany. Go to: Hydrasperman Reproduction, Peel Technique. See also here. Online and downloadable flash movies. Excellent!

M.K. Bamford, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa: Methods for reconstructing past vegetation based on macroplant fossils. In PDF.

! R. Barclay et al. (2007): The cuticle database: developing an interactive tool for taxonomic and paleoenvironmental study of the fossil cuticle record. PDF file, In: Jarzen, D. M., Steven, R., Retallack, G. J. and Jarzen, S. A. (eds.), Advances in Angiosperm Paleobotany and Paleoclimatic Reconstruction, Contributions Honouring David L. Dilcher and Jack A. Wolfe, Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt, pgs. 39-56.

! R.M. Bateman and W.A. DiMichele (2021): Escaping the voluntary constraints of “tyre-track” taxonomy. Open access, Taxon.

! R.M. Bateman and J. Hilton (2009): Palaeobotanical systematics for the phylogenetic age: applying organ-species, form-species and phylogenetic species concepts in a framework of reconstructed fossil and extant whole-plants. Taxon, 58: 1254-1280. See also here. (abstract).

! D. Beerling (2010): The Emerald Planet. How Plants Changed Earth´s History. In PDF.

D.J. Beerling and D.L. Royer (2002): Fossil plants as indicators of the Phanerozoic global carbon cycle. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 30: 527-556.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
see also here.

Museum of Paleontology, The University of California, Berkeley: Understanding Science: How Science Really Works. This is a free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works.

! H.H. Birks (2001): Plant macrofossils. PDF file, in: J.P. Smol et al. (eds.): Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments.

C. Blanco-Moreno et al. (2019): A novel approach for the metric analysis of fern fronds: Growth and architecture of the Mesozoic fern Weichselia reticulata in the light of modern ferns. Open access, PLoS ONE, 14: e0219192.

M. Boersma (1988): Wie und warum man Pflanzenfossilien sammelt. Einführende Gedanken zur Paläobotanik. In German.

The Botanical Society of America: Online Image Collection. This is a collection of approximately 800 images available for instructional use. The site is run by a search engine database, designed and maintained by Scott Russell; slides scanned by Tom Jurik and Dave Webb. The copyright and any intellectual property rights for these images are retained by the individual donors. Visit "SET 11 - PALEOBOTANY".

Botany.Com, the Encyclopedia of Plants:
Leaf shapes.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

M.C. Boulter et al. (1988): Patterns of plant extinction from some palaeobotanical evidence. PDF file, In: G.P. Larwood (ed.): Extinction and Survival in the Fossit Record.

C. Kevin Boyce, Earth and Planetary Sciences at Stanford University: ‘The fossil record shows how plants shaped Earth — they sculpted ecosystems from rivers to rain’. (by Srijana Mitra Das, The Times of India, November 04, 2023).

! Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden:
What is Paleobotany?. Also worth checking out:
Plant Evolution & Paleobotany. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Paleobotany Short-Course. Lecture notes.
Paleobotany Overview; Life moves to land.
Plant classification.
Rise of Seed Plants.
Rise of flowering plants.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Excellent! Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

Christine Bui, Trumbull College, Yale Scientific Magazine (YSM): Paleobotany: Fossilized plant remains give insights to global climate balances.

! R.J. Burnham (2009): An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós, and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Alison Campbell, Penelope Cooke, Kathrin Cass and Kerry Earl, School for Science and Engineering, The University of Waikato, New Zealand: Evolution for teaching. Go to: Frequently Asked Questions. See also: Plant Evolution.

Sean Carrington, Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Barbados: THE PLANT KINGDOM. An introduction to the world of plants from an evolutionary perspective.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

B. Cascales-Miñana et al. 2013: What is the best way to measure extinction? A reflection from the palaeobotanical record. Abstract.

B. Cascales-Miñana and J.B. Diez (2012): The effect of singletons and interval length on interpreting diversity trends from the palaeobotanical record. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica.

S.R.S. Cevallos-Ferriz et al. (2022): Paleobotany to understand evolution and biodiversity in Mexico. In PDF, Botanical Sciences, 100 (Special Issue): S34-S65.
See also here.

Regine Claßen-Bockhoff (2001): Plant Morphology: The Historic Concepts of Wilhelm Troll, Walter Zimmermann and Agnes Arber. Free PDF file, Annals of Botany, 88: 1153-1172.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (2021): Naming of parts: the use of fossil-taxa in palaeobotany. In PDF, Fossil Imprint, 77: 166–186.
See also here.

C.J. Cleal et al. (2021): Palaeobotanical experiences of plant diversity in deep time. 1: How well can we identify past plant diversity in the fossil record? Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 576.
See likewise here (in PDF).
"... Autochthonous floras provide the most direct evidence of vegetation diversity but these are rare; most plant beds are allochthonous with plant remains that have been subjected to varying levels of fragmentation, transportation and time averaging
[...] the plant fossil record provides clear evidence of the dynamic history of vegetation through geological times, including the effects of major processes such as climate changes and mass extinctions ..."

C.J. Cleal and B. Cascales-Miñana (2014): Composition and dynamics of the great Phanerozoic Evolutionary Floras. Abstract.

C.J. Cleal et al. (2001):
Geological Conservation Review Series (GCR), Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC): Mesozoic and Tertiary Palaeobotany of Great Britain (2001). PDF files, GCR Volume No. 22.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
In chapter 1 a brief explanation is given of how plant fossils are formed, and how palaeobotanists study and name them.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1999): Plant Fossils: The History of Land Vegetation Fossils Illustrated. In PDF, (Boydell & Brewer Ltd).
See also here (Amazon) and there (Google books).

C.J. Cleal & B. A. Thomas: A Provisional World List of Geosites for Palaeozoic Palaeobotany. Initiated by the IUGS to develop an inventory of globally important geological sites. GEOSITES provide a provisional list of candidate Palaeozoic palaeobotany sites. The results are summarized in 40 sites, which are intended to show the broad pattern of evolution in land floras from the middle Silurian to the end of the Permian.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! J.C. Coates et al. (2011): Plants and the Earth system - past events and future challenges. In PDF, New Phytologist, 89: 370-373.
See also here.

B. Cornet: Why do Paleobotanists Believe in a Cretaceous Origin of Angiosperms? A controversial topic. This website presents palaeobotanical evidence on the origin of flowering plants, with evidence for and against a Cretaceous origin. See also: Angiosperm Evolution.
Websites still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, Colorado: DMNS Paleobotany Collection. This website contains over 1000 images of fossil plants spanning the late Cretaceous through early Eocene from the Western Interior of North America. Go to: Identification Flow Chart, or start with Morphotype a Flora. A guide to morphotyping (or binning) a fossil flora step-by-step.

D.L. Dilcher (1991): The importance of anatomy and whole plant reconstructions in palaeobotany. PDF file, Current Science 61: 627-629.

C. Del Rio (2023): Replicability in palaeobotany: Toward a standardization of citation of extant material. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 317.
See likewise here.
"... The aim of this guide is to standardise the citations of herbarium specimens, personal collections and living specimens ..."

! W.A. DiMichele and R.A. Gastaldo (2008): Plant Paleoecology in Deep Time. PDF file, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 95: 144-198. See also here (abstract).

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2001): Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian plant communities to climate change. PDF file, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29: 461-487.
See also here.

D. Edwards (2017, interview): Q & A. Current Biology 27.

! D. Edwards and P. Kenrick (2015): The early evolution of land plants, from fossils to genomics: a commentary on Lang (1937) "On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales". Open access, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370.
Note figure 4: Relationships among major groups of land plants showing the hypothesized broad range of clades to which cryptophytes (extinct cryptospore-producing plants) might belong.

Beth Ellis et al. (2009): Manual of Leaf Architecture. Book announcement. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See also here and there.

! Botany and Paleobotany Dictionary.

I.H. Escapa et al. (2019): Integrative Paleobotany: Affirming the Role of Fossils in Modern Plant Biology—Introduction and Dedication. In PDF, Special Issue—Rothwell Celebration, Int. J. Plant Sci., 180: 459–463. 2019. See also here.

J. Folsom, The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, CA: Plant Trivia Timeline. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
here (PDF file). The Timeline gives world history from the viewpoint of a botanist. It is the story of plant discovery and use, and addresses the roles of plants in human civilization.

W.E. Friedman et al. (2004): The evolution of plant development. Free access, American Journal of Botany 91: 1726-1741.

Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine:
Navigate via: Notes for a Course in Paleobotany.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Geotimes, July 2002: Highlights . Discoveries in the Earth Sciences. Now Geotimes offer the Highlights section (summaries of research trends and discoveries) in full online. Go to: Melanie Devore and Kathleen Pigg, Paleobotany.

S.R. Gradstein and H. Kerp (2012): A Brief History of Plants on Earth. Google books, The Geologic Time Scale 2012. See also here (Table of contents, Elsevier).

! Linda E. Graham et al. (2000): The origin of plants: Body plan changes contributing to a major evolutionary radiation. Abstracts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97: 4535-4540.
! See also at here. (in PDF).

J. Gravendyck et al. (2023): (142–148) Proposals to improve the definition, utility, and curation of (type) specimens of fossil algae, fungi, and plants. Open access, Taxon, 71: 705–706.

! Greenworks Organic-Software, Berlin, Germany: XfrogPlants V 2.0 Plant Library. XfrogPlants are 22 different 3D Plant Libraries, each containing 20 Species x 3 ages, and created using Xfrog procedural organic software. Samples of each plant in each library available, go to: Fossil Plants. Plant reconstructions. Excellent!

Kent E. Holsinger, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT: Reproductive systems and evolution in vascular plants (PDF file).

M. Hrabovský (2020): LEAF EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICATION. 1. LYCOPODIOPSIDA. In PDF, Acta Botanica Universitatis Comenianae, 55.

! T.P. Jones and Nick P. Rowe (eds.), Google Books (some pages are ommitted): Fossil plants and spores: modern techniques. Published by Geological Society, 1999, 396 pages. Excellent! Click: "Preview the book".

M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos, The Evolutionary History of Green Plants. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This website illustrates the diversity of green plants, according to modern palaeobotanical and paleontological understanding.

M. Kearney (2002): Fragmentary taxa, missing data, and ambiguity: mistaken assumptions and conclusions. PDF file, Systematic biology, 51: 369-381.

P. Kenrick (2001): Turning over a new leaf. PDF file, Nature, 410: 309-310.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster: A History of Palaeozoic Forests. An introductory text with many helpful links directly related to the history of Palaeozoic forests. 7 chapters provide information about: The earliest land plants; Towards a tree-like growth habit; The earliest forests; The Carboniferous coal swamp forests; The floral change at the end of the Westphalian; Stefanian and Rotliegend floras; Is there a floral break in the Permian?
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster: Some recent palaeobotanical text books. This web page provides a selection of palaeobotanical text books published during the last years. With some helpful comments.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Andrew H. Knoll (2012): Systems paleobiology. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin. See also here (in PDF). See also
here (, or
there (YouTube).

! M. Krings, C.J. Harper, N.R. Cuneo and G.W. Rothwell (eds., 2018): Transformative Paleobotany Papers to Commemorate the Life and Legacy of Thomas N. Taylor. This book features a broad spectrum of topics analyzing the structure, function and evolution of fossil plants, microorganisms, and organismal interactions in fossil ecosystems. See also here (provided by Google books).

! M. Kosnik and Allister Rees et al., University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project Databases (PGAP): Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The data in this database (the original database: username = public, password = public) have been assembled over the years by people in the Paleogeographic Atlas Project. Search in a "Climate Sensitive Sediments Database", "Floral Database", "Lithology Database", "Features Database", and a "Reference Database". Go to:
"Floral Database", Search in "Locality information", "Age", e.g. "Triassic". A Triassic plant fossil locality list, with the corresponding fossil plant taxa. Excellent!

J. Kovar-Eder (2007): Fossile Pflanzen – Puzzlesteine der Evolution. PDF file, in German. Denisia 20, zugleich Kataloge der oberösterreichischen Landesmuseen, Neue Serie 66: 367-377.

V.A. Krassilov (2003): Terrestrial palaeoecology and global change. PDF file (35.6 MB), Russian Academic Monographs No. 1, 464 p., (Pensoft), Sophia.

Z. Kvacek (2008): The role of types in palaeobotanical nomenclature. In PDF, Acta Mus. Nat. Pragae, Ser. B, Hist. Nat., 64: 89-96.

! Li Wenyan & Lu Dadao (1998): Atlas of Fossil Plant Anatomy in China. 390 pages. Provided by VSP through the Google Books Partner Program. Registration procedure required. Use "More results from this book" or "Search this book" to navigate. Unfortunately, you can view two pages around your search result, but you can search again! Use Google Book Search to search the full text of books.

! S.R. Manchester et al. (2014): Assembling extinct plants from their isolated parts. In PDF, Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 66: 53-63. See also here.

N.P. Maslova and A.B. Herman (2015): Approach to Identification of Fossil Angiosperm Leaves: Applicability and Significance of Krassilov´s Morphological System. In PDF, Botanica Pacifica, 4: 103–108.

! S. Mathews (2009): Phylogenetic relationships among seed plants: persistent questions and the limits of molecular data. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 96: 228-236.

! J.C. McElwain et al. (2024): Functional traits of fossil plants. Open access, New Phytologist.
Note figure 2: Examples of fossil plant functional traits.
Figure 4: A ranked list of paleo-functional traits that can be applied to fossil plants.
"What plant remnants have withstood taphonomic filtering, fragmentation, and alteration in their journey to become part of the fossil record provide unique information on how plants functioned in paleo-ecosystems through their traits. Plant traits are measurable morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical, or phenological characteristics
[...] We demonstrate how valuable inferences on paleo-ecosystem processes (pollination biology, herbivory), past nutrient cycles, paleobiogeography, paleo-demography (life history), and Earth system history can be derived through the application of paleo-functional traits to fossil plants ..."

! J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here

Ian Miller and Rose Prevec, Palaeontologia Electronica Volume 9, Issue 2 (2006): Palaeobotany in the Digital Age: Unearthing the Future of Taxonomy.

John M. Miller (, University of California, Berkeley: Origin of Angiosperms. See also here or navigate from essay contents.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Sebastian Molnar, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Evolution and the Origins of Life. A directory of introductions concerning evolution, with a bias to Plant Biology and Evolution. Excellent examples about how evolution works can be seen from the plant world. Go to: Angiosperm Origins and Evolution, or The Evolution of Polyploidy, and Summary: Polyploid Evolution, Plant Evolution: Overview.

Research Centre of Palaeontology and Historical Geology: Institute, States Collections, and Museum of Palaeontology and Historical Geology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: Online Exhibition "Living Fossils". Go to: Handfarne, Ginkgos und Mammutbäume, and Walter Jung, Der Ginkgo - Baum, ein Unikum mit Vergangenheit, and Walter Jung, Die Metasequoia, ein zum Leben erwecktes Fossil. In German.

Karl Niklas, (Section of Plant Biology, Cornell University), Access Excellance, BioForum 4, "Theoretical Issues in Plant Biology". Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
BioForum is a series of lectures, presented by California Academy of Sciences, in which scientists share their research results with high school biology teachers. Plant Evolution: Adaptation or Historical Accident? Is plant evolution largely adaptive or is it contingent on historical accidents? Dr. Niklas discuss in some detail a computer generated model dealing with the early evolution of land plants that can be used to predict how plant architecture must change to assure evolutionary success as the environment changes.

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University: Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew: Plant Evolution. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Images of models to represent extinct plant forms with modern versions of 'primitive' plants, the entire display conveyed in dramatic fashion the dramatic change in plant form over the ages.

H.S. Pardoe et al. (2021): Palaeobotanical experiences of plant diversity in deep time. 2: How to measure and analyse past plant biodiversity. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 580. See also here.

! N. Pérez-Harguindeguy et al. (2013): New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 61: 167-234.

M. Philippe et al. (2016): The palaeolatitudinal distribution of fossil wood genera as a proxy for European Jurassic terrestrial climate. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

M.E. Popa (2011): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. PDF file, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, 7: 279-283.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Christian Pott and Michael Krings (2010): Gymnosperm Foliage from the Upper Triassic of Lunz, Lower Austria: an annotated check list and identifiation key. PDF file, Geo.Alp, 7: 19-38.

Penn State News: Turn back the molecular clock, say Argentina´s plant fossils (December 02, 2014). See also here (RedOrbit, December 05, 2014).

! D.J. Peppe et al. (2011): Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications. Free access, New Phytologist, 190: 724-739.

Pinselpark, by Rüdiger Lorenz (in German):
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M.E. Popa (2011): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here and there.

H. Prier et al. (2004): Exotische Gehölze im KIRCHHEIMER-Arboretum Freiburg. PDF file, in German. LGRB-Informationen, Heft 15 (Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau Baden-Württemberg, Freiburg i. Br.). See also here.

A.E. Radford, W.C. Dickison, J.R. Massey, & C.R. Bell (Harper and Row, New York): Vascular Plant Systematics. This book was written as a reference text for basic courses in taxonomy and as a source book of information, procedures and references for ecosystematics, biosystematics, phylosystematics and chemosystematics. Searching images you may navigate from here. See also:
! Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters: V. Leaves.

P.M. Rees et al. (2002): Permian Phytogeographic Patterns and Climate Data/Model Comparisons. PDF file, Journal of Geology, 110, 1–31.
See also here.

A. Roth-Nebelsick et al.(2001): Evolution and Function of Leaf Venation Architecture: A Review. PDF file; Annals of Botany 87: 553-566. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University, Athens:
Paleobotany. This course covers the evolutionary history of plants as revealed by the fossil record. Go to:
Cutting a Coal Ball, and
Coal Ball Peel Technique.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, Melbourne, Australia:
Teacher Resources. This page contains downloadable resources for teachers to use in the classroom. Go to:
! Gondwana Greening. Easy to understand tutorial (PDF file).
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! D.L. Royer (2012): Climate reconstruction from leaf size and shape: New developments and challenges. PDF file, in: Reconstructing Earth´s Deep-Time Climate - The State of the Art in 2012, Paleontological Society Short Course, The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 18, Linda C. Ivany and Brian T. Huber (eds.), pp. 195-212.

Scott Russell, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, Norman: Morphology of Vascular Plants. Lecture notes, chiefly PDF files, including palaeobotany topics.
These expired websites are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

I. Sanmartín and F. Ronquist (2004): Southern Hemisphere Biogeography Inferred by Event-Based Models: Plant versus Animal Patterns. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 216-243.

George E. Schatz, Missouri Botanical Garden: Malagasy/Indo-australo-malesian Phytogeographic Connections. From the printed version: Schatz, G.E. 1996: Malagasy/Indo-Australo-Malesian phytogeographic connections. In: W.R. Lourenço (ed.), Biogeography of Madagascar. Editions ORSTOM, Paris.

H. Schneider (2007): Plant morphology as the cornerstone to the integration of fossil and extant taxa in phylogenetic systematics. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. In PDF, go to PDF page 65. In: Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen.

Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Erwin Beck, Klaus Müller-Hohenstein (2005): Sample pages, Plant Ecology. Keywords for this textbook are e.g. autecology, ecophysiology, ecosystem ecology, plant ecology, synecology. Worth checking out: Table of contents (PDF file). Go to: 4.1 Historic-Genetic Development of Phytocenoses and Their Dynamics (PDF file).

ScienceDirect (Elsevier’s premier platform):
! Navigate from the concept definition and subject overview website.
Compiled information topic-by-topic. These pages are auto-generated by ScienceDirect using heuristic and machine-learning approaches to extract relevant information. Superbly done!
See for instance: ! Paleobotany (in Agricultural and Biological Sciences).
! Paleobotany (in Earth and Planetary Sciences). ScienceDirect Topic Pages. These pages provide concept definitions and subject overviews. Each synopsis provides a series of short, authoritative, excerpts from highly relevant book chapters. These topic summaries are derived from Elsevier encyclopedias, reference works and books.
Go to: Learn more about Paleobotany.

A.C. Scott (1990): 3.10 Anatomical Preservation of Fossil Plants. PDF file, scroll to page 263! Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Article in: Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.): Paleobiology: A Synthesis. Navigate from the contents file (PDF).

! A. Scott and M. Collinson (1983): Investigating fossil plant beds. Part 2: Methods of palaeoenvironmental analysis and modelling and suggestions for experimental work. In PDF, Geology Teaching, 8. !Excellent!

R. Sharma et al. (2019): Distribution of phytoliths in plants: a review. Open access, Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes, 3: 123-148.

! A. Scott and M. Collinson (1983): Investigating fossil plant beds. Part 2: Methods of palaeoenvironmental analysis and modelling and suggestions for experimental work.In PDF, Geology Teaching, 8. !Excellent!

! Judith E. Skog, International Association for Plant Taxonomy:
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 4. PDF file, Taxon (2003), 52: 341-341.
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 5. PDF file, Taxon (2005), 54: 175-176.
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 6. PDF file, Taxon (2005), 54: 827-827.

M. Souto et al. (2019): The Use of Plant Macrofossils for Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions in Southern European Peatlands. Open access, Quaternary, 2.

! R. Spicer, Palaeoenvironmental Research Group, Earth Sciences Dept., The Open University, Milton Keynes: CLAMP Online. CLAMP is a method of obtaining ancient climate information from the architecture (physiognomy) of fossil leaves of woody dicot flowering plants.

A.K. Srivastava and D. Agnihotri (2010): Dilemma of late Palaeozoic mixed floras in Gondwana. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).

! Wilson N. Stewart and Gar W. Rothwell (Second edition, 1993): Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants. Provided by Google books.

T. Speck and O. Speck (2019): Quo vadis plant biomechanics: Old wine in new bottles or an up-and-coming field of modern plant science? Open access, American Journal of Botany, 106: 1399-1403.

! R.A. Stockey, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: PALEOBIOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERM ORIGINS. This course explores recent advancements toward resolution of the evolutionary origin of flowering plants. Go to:
Presentation on Gnetophyta: An Enigmatic Group of Seed Plants (Author: Thorsten Hebben).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! T.N. Taylor et al. (2009): Paleobotany: the biology and evolution of fossil plants (Google books, limited view).

Ellen Thomas, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University: Macroevolution. Lecture notes. Please, navigate from here. Worth checking out: Assignment: Plants (via wayback).

! B.H. Tiffney (1988): Conceptual advances in paleobotany. In PDF, Journal of Geological Education: September 1988, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 221-226. See also here.

J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al. (2017): Differentiation of the fossil leaves assigned to Taeniopteris, Nilssoniopteris and Nilssonia with a comparison to similar genera, Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 237: 100–106.See also here (in PDF).

! Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): The Jurassic fossil plant record of the UK area. PDF file, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119: 59-72.
! See fig. 6: how to distinguish bennettialean leaf shapes!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! H. Visscher (1993): Links with the past in the plant world: cuticles as recorders of diversity, kerogen formation and palaeoatmospheric CO2-level. In PDF, The Palaeobotanist.

Kali Wallace, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder: Cenozoic Elevation of the Rocky Mountains. Go to: Paleobotanical Methods. Floral classification schemes and methods of climatic and atmospheric analysis are briefly described, e.g. fossil classification by the "nearest living relative" method or by physiognomy and CLAMP.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B.G. Warner (1988): Methods in Quaternary Ecology# 3. Plant Macrofossils. In PDf, Geoscience Canada.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Evolution of plants.
Paläobotanik (in German).
Kategorie:Paläobotanik (in German).
Category:Prehistoric plants.
Timeline of plant evolution.
Plant evolutionary developmental biology.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:2019 in science.
List of years in paleontology.
Category:2010s in paleontology.

These paleobotany lists record new fossil plant taxa:
! 2015 in paleobotany.
! 2016 in paleobotany
! 2017 in paleobotany.
! 2018 in paleobotany.
! 2019 in paleobotany.
! 2020 in paleobotany
! 2021 in paleobotany
! 2022 in paleobotany
! 2023 in paleobotany

Kathy Willis and Jennifer McElwain: The Evolution of Plants. Oxford University Press, Second Edition. Don't miss the
Companion Website
and some samples in Google books.
Note chapter 1: The evolutionary record and methods of reconstruction (in PDF).

Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press): The Evolution of Plants. Book announcement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
! PowerPoint illustrations. Illustrations from the book in PowerPoint format. See also:
! Biome maps. Downloadable full-color images from the book.

S.L. Wing and W.A. DiMichele (1995): Conflict between Local and Global Changes in Plant Diversity through Geological Time. PDF file, Palaios, 10: 551-564. See also here (abstract).

Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut:
Paleobotany. Go to:
! Compendium Index of North American Paleobotany.
The Compendium Index presently covers fossil floras from North America, including Greenland, starting in the Triassic Period and extending to Pleistocene. This is a digitized version of a card-file index of approximately 20,000 images and text of descriptions of fossil plant species, maintained at Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History as a classification and identification tool.

G. Zijlstra (2014): Important changes in the rules of nomenclature, especially those relevant for palaeobotanists. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 207: 1-4.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated February 28, 2024

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