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Articles in Palaeobotany

What is Palaeobotany?
General Palaeobotany
Plant Evolution
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments

Tertiary Palaeobotany
Cretaceous Palaeobotany
Jurassic Palaeobotany
The Rhaetian@
Triassic Palaeobotany@

Early Triassic Floras@
Permian Palaeobotany
Carboniferous Palaeobotany
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany

Home / Articles in Palaeobotany / General Palaeobotany

What is Palaeobotany?
Plant Evolution
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments
Tertiary Palaeobotany
Cretaceous Palaeobotany
Jurassic Palaeobotany
The Rhaetian@
Triassic Palaeobotany@
Early Triassic Floras@
Permian Palaeobotany
Carboniferous Palaeobotany
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany
! Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Progress in Palaeobotany and Palynology@
Classical Monographs and Textbooks in Palaeobotany@
Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
! Parasitic Plants@
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@

General Palaeobotany

Henry N. Andrews (1955): Index of generic names of fossil plants, 1820-1950, based on the Compendium index of paleobotany of the US Geological Survey. Provided by Google books. Also available in PDF.
See also here (by Open Library, an open, editable library catalog).

! Nan Crystal Arens, C. Strömberg and A. Thompson, Department of Integrative Biology, and Paleobotany Section, Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Virtual Paleobotany. The Virtual Paleobotanical Laboratory, a comprehensive treatment of the fossil record of land plants, is divided into 12 chapters, lab I through XII. Each lab has a title page, a page with questions around the group or subject of study, a list of literature and links for further reading and exploration, and a virtual gallery of images from the lab. The directory page is a generalized phylogeny that presents an overview hypothesis of relationships among the land plants. Excellent!

! Lorna Ash & Heather Kroening, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Botany. Go to: Hydrasperman Reproduction, Peel Technique. See also here. Online and downloadable flash movies. Excellent!

M.K. Bamford, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa: Methods for reconstructing past vegetation based on macroplant fossils. In PDF.

! R. Barclay et al. (2007): The cuticle database: developing an interactive tool for taxonomic and paleoenvironmental study of the fossil cuticle record. PDF file, In: Jarzen, D. M., Steven, R., Retallack, G. J. and Jarzen, S. A. (eds.), Advances in Angiosperm Paleobotany and Paleoclimatic Reconstruction, Contributions Honouring David L. Dilcher and Jack A. Wolfe, Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt, pgs. 39-56.

! R.M. Bateman and J. Hilton (2009): Palaeobotanical systematics for the phylogenetic age: applying organ-species, form-species and phylogenetic species concepts in a framework of reconstructed fossil and extant whole-plants. Taxon, 58: 1254-1280. See also here. (abstract).

! D. Beerling (2010): The Emerald Planet. How Plants Changed Earth´s History. In PDF.

D.J. Beerling and D.L. Royer (2002): Fossil plants as indicators of the Phanerozoic global carbon cycle. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 30: 527-556.

Museum of Paleontology, The University of California, Berkeley: Understanding Science: How Science Really Works. This is a free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works.

! H.H. Birks (2001): Plant macrofossils. PDF file, in: J.P. Smol et al. (eds.): Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments.

M. Boersma (1988): Wie und warum man Pflanzenfossilien sammelt. Einführende Gedanken zur Paläobotanik. In German.

The Botanical Society of America: Online Image Collection. This is a collection of approximately 800 images available for instructional use. The site is run by a search engine database, designed and maintained by Scott Russell; slides scanned by Tom Jurik and Dave Webb. The copyright and any intellectual property rights for these images are retained by the individual donors. Visit "SET 11 - PALEOBOTANY".

Botany.Com, the Encyclopedia of Plants: Leaf shapes. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.C. Boulter et al. (1988): Patterns of plant extinction from some palaeobotanical evidence. In PDF.

! Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Paleobotany Short-Course. Lecture notes, with downloadable Power Point presentations:
Paleobotany Overview; Life moves to land.
Diversification of land plants.
Rise and dominance of seed plants.
Origin and diversification of flowering plants.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Excellent! Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

Christine Bui, Trumbull College, Yale Scientific Magazine (YSM): Paleobotany: Fossilized plant remains give insights to global climate balances.

! R.J. Burnham (2009): An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós, and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Alison Campbell, Penelope Cooke, Kathrin Cass and Kerry Earl, School for Science and Engineering, The University of Waikato, New Zealand: Evolution for teaching. Go to: Frequently Asked Questions. See also: Plant Evolution.

Sean Carrington, Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Barbados: THE PLANT KINGDOM. An introduction to the world of plants from an evolutionary perspective. Now complete!

B. Cascales-Miñana et al. 2013: What is the best way to measure extinction? A reflection from the palaeobotanical record. Abstract.

B. Cascales-Miñana and J.B. Diez (2012): The effect of singletons and interval length on interpreting diversity trends from the palaeobotanical record. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica.

Regine Claßen-Bockhoff (2001): Plant Morphology: The Historic Concepts of Wilhelm Troll, Walter Zimmermann and Agnes Arber. Free PDF file, Annals of Botany, 88: 1153-1172.

C.J. Cleal and B. Cascales-Miñana (2014): Composition and dynamics of the great Phanerozoic Evolutionary Floras. Abstract.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1999): Plant Fossils: The History of Land Vegetation Fossils Illustrated. In PDF, (Boydell & Brewer Ltd).
See also here (Amazon) and there (Google books).

C.J. Cleal & B.A. Thomas, Geological Conservation Review Series (GCR), Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The JNCC is the UK government's wildlife adviser, undertaking national and international conservation work on behalf of the three country nature conservation agencies English Nature, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Countryside Council for Wales. Go to: Introduction to the Mesozoic and Tertiary palaeobotany of Great Britain, and List of Sites. PDF files.

C. J. Cleal & B. A. Thomas: A Provisional World List of Geosites for Palaeozoic Palaeobotany. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This a new project initiated by the IUGS to develop an inventory of globally important geological sites. GEOSITES provide a provisional list of candidate Palaeozoic palaeobotany sites. The results are summarized in 40 sites, which are intended to show the broad pattern of evolution in land floras from the middle Silurian to the end of the Permian.

Bruce Cornet, (?) Raritan Valley Community College, Somerville, NJ: Why do Paleobotanists Believe in a Cretaceous Origin of Angiosperms? Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A controversial topic. This website presents palaeobotanical evidence on the origin of flowering plants, with evidence for and against a Cretaceous origin. See also:
Angiosperm Evolution.

! Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, Colorado: DMNS Paleobotany Collection. This website contains over 1000 images of fossil plants spanning the late Cretaceous through early Eocene from the Western Interior of North America. Go to: Identification Flow Chart, or start with Morphotype a Flora. A guide to morphotyping (or binning) a fossil flora step-by-step.

D.L. Dilcher (1991): The importance of anatomy and whole plant reconstructions in palaeobotany. PDF file, Current Science 61: 627-629.

! William A. DiMichele and Robert A. Gastaldo (2008): Plant Paleoecology in Deep Time. PDF file, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 95: 144-198. See also here (abstract).

W.A. DiMichele, H.W. Pfefferkorn, and R.A. Gastaldo: RESPONSE OF LATE CARBONIFEROUS AND EARLY PERMIAN PLANT COMMUNITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., January 1, 2001; 29(1): 461-487.

Science > Earth Sciences > Paleontology > Paleobotany.
Science > Earth Sciences > Paleontology > Paleobotany > Taxa.
Link directory.

! D. Edwards and P. Kenrick (2015): The early evolution of land plants, from fossils to genomics: a commentary on Lang (1937) "On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales". In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370. See also here.

Beth Ellis et al. (2009): Manual of Leaf Architecture. Book announcement.
! See also here.

! Botany and Paleobotany Dictionary.

J. Folsom, The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, CA: Plant Trivia Timeline. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
here (PDF file). The Timeline gives world history from the viewpoint of a botanist. It is the story of plant discovery and use, and addresses the roles of plants in human civilization.

W.E. Friedman et al. (2004): The evolution of plant development. PDF file, American Journal of Botany 91: 1726-1741.

Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: A Brief Introduction to PALEOBOTANY, and WHAT IS PALEOBOTANY? Navigate via: Notes for a Course in Paleobotany.

! Geotimes, July 2002: Highlights . Discoveries in the Earth Sciences. Now Geotimes offer the Highlights section (summaries of research trends and discoveries) in full online. Go to: Melanie Devore and Kathleen Pigg, Paleobotany.

S.R. Gradstein and H. Kerp (2012): A Brief History of Plants on Earth. Google books, The Geologic Time Scale 2012. See also here (Table of contents, Elsevier).

! Linda E. Graham et al. (2000): The origin of plants: Body plan changes contributing to a major evolutionary radiation. Abstracts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97: 4535-4540.
! See also at here. (in PDF).

! David R. Greenwood, Environmental Science Program, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada: Fossil plants as environmental indicators. Lecture note, PDF file (3.6 MB). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Greenworks Organic-Software, Berlin, Germany: XfrogPlants V 2.0 Plant Library. XfrogPlants are 22 different 3D Plant Libraries, each containing 20 Species x 3 ages, and created using Xfrog procedural organic software. Samples of each plant in each library available, go to: Fossil Plants. Plant reconstructions. Excellent!

Kent E. Holsinger, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT: Reproductive systems and evolution in vascular plants (PDF file).

Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum (HVNHM), Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Ottawa: Carboniferous Forests. Easy to read publication. Life, death, and afterlife of a coal forest.

! T.P. Jones and Nick P. Rowe (eds.), Google Books (some pages are ommitted): Fossil plants and spores: modern techniques. Published by Geological Society, 1999, 396 pages. Excellent! Click: "Preview the book".

M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos, The Evolutionary History of Green Plants. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This website illustrates the diversity of green plants, according to modern palaeobotanical and paleontological understanding.

M. Kearney (2002): Fragmentary taxa, missing data, and ambiguity: mistaken assumptions and conclusions. PDF file, Systematic biology, 51: 369-381.

P. Kenrick (2001): Turning over a new leaf. PDF file, Nature, 410: 309-310.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster: A History of Palaeozoic Forests. An introductory text with many helpful links directly related to the history of Palaeozoic forests. 7 chapters provide information about: The earliest land plants; Towards a tree-like growth habit; The earliest forests; The Carboniferous coal swamp forests; The floral change at the end of the Westphalian; Stefanian and Rotliegend floras; Is there a floral break in the Permian?
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster: Some recent palaeobotanical text books. This web page provides a selection of palaeobotanical text books published during the last years. With some helpful comments.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Andrew H. Knoll (2012): Systems paleobiology. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin. See also here (in PDF). See also
here (, or
there (YouTube).

! M. Kosnik and Allister Rees et al., University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project Databases (PGAP): Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The data in this database (the original database: username = public, password = public) have been assembled over the years by people in the Paleogeographic Atlas Project. Search in a "Climate Sensitive Sediments Database", "Floral Database", "Lithology Database", "Features Database", and a "Reference Database". Go to:
"Floral Database", Search in "Locality information", "Age", e.g. "Triassic". A Triassic plant fossil locality list, with the corresponding fossil plant taxa. Excellent!

J. Kovar-Eder (2007): Fossile Pflanzen – Puzzlesteine der Evolution. PDF file, in German. Denisia 20, zugleich Kataloge der oberösterreichischen Landesmuseen, Neue Serie 66: 367-377.

V.A. Krassilov (2003): Terrestrial palaeoecology and global change. PDF file (35.6 MB), Russian Academic Monographs No. 1, 464 p., (Pensoft), Sophia.

Z. Kvacek (2008): The role of types in palaeobotanical nomenclature. In PDF, Acta Mus. Nat. Pragae, Ser. B, Hist. Nat., 64: 89-96.

! Li Wenyan & Lu Dadao (1998): Atlas of Fossil Plant Anatomy in China. 390 pages. Provided by VSP through the Google Books Partner Program. Registration procedure required. Use "More results from this book" or "Search this book" to navigate. Unfortunately, you can view two pages around your search result, but you can search again! Use Google Book Search to search the full text of books.

N.P. Maslova and A.B. Herman (2015): Approach to Identification of Fossil Angiosperm Leaves: Applicability and Significance of Krassilov´s Morphological System. In PDF, Botanica Pacifica, 4: 103–108.

! S. Mathews (2009): Phylogenetic relationships among seed plants: persistent questions and the limits of molecular data. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 96: 228-236.

Sebastian Molnar, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Evolution and the Origins of Life. A directory of introductions concerning evolution, with a bias to Plant Biology and Evolution. Excellent examples about how evolution works can be seen from the plant world. Go to: Angiosperm Origins and Evolution, or The Evolution of Polyploidy, and Summary: Polyploid Evolution, Plant Evolution: Overview.

Research Centre of Palaeontology and Historical Geology: Institute, States Collections, and Museum of Palaeontology and Historical Geology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: Online Exhibition "Living Fossils". Go to: Handfarne, Ginkgos und Mammutbäume, and Walter Jung, Der Ginkgo - Baum, ein Unikum mit Vergangenheit, and Walter Jung, Die Metasequoia, ein zum Leben erwecktes Fossil. In German.

Karl Niklas, (Section of Plant Biology, Cornell University), Access Excellance, BioForum 4, "Theoretical Issues in Plant Biology". Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
BioForum is a series of lectures, presented by California Academy of Sciences, in which scientists share their research results with high school biology teachers. Plant Evolution: Adaptation or Historical Accident? Is plant evolution largely adaptive or is it contingent on historical accidents? Dr. Niklas discuss in some detail a computer generated model dealing with the early evolution of land plants that can be used to predict how plant architecture must change to assure evolutionary success as the environment changes.

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University: Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew: Plant Evolution. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Images of models to represent extinct plant forms with modern versions of 'primitive' plants, the entire display conveyed in dramatic fashion the dramatic change in plant form over the ages.

Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago: Jurassic Floras and Climate.

! N. Pérez-Harguindeguy et al. (2013): New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 61: 167-234.

M. Philippe et al. (2016): The palaeolatitudinal distribution of fossil wood genera as a proxy for European Jurassic terrestrial climate. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

M.E. Popa (2011): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae.

A.E. Radford, W.C. Dickison, J.R. Massey, & C.R. Bell (Harper and Row, New York): Vascular Plant Systematics. This book was written as a reference text for basic courses in taxonomy and as a source book of information, procedures and references for ecosystematics, biosystematics, phylosystematics and chemosystematics. Searching images you may navigate from here. See also:
! Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters: V. Leaves.

P. McAllister Rees, Alfred M. Ziegler, Mark T. Gibbs, John E. Kutzbach, Pat J. Behling, and David B. Rowley: Permian Phytogeographic Patterns and Climate Data/Model Comparisons. PDF file.

Ian Miller and Rose Prevec, Palaeontologia Electronica Volume 9, Issue 2 (2006): Palaeobotany in the Digital Age: Unearthing the Future of Taxonomy.

John M. Miller (, University of California, Berkeley: Origin of Angiosperms. See also here or navigate from essay contents.

Penn State News: Turn back the molecular clock, say Argentina´s plant fossils (December 02, 2014). See also here (RedOrbit, December 05, 2014).

! D.J. Peppe et al. (2011): Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications. In PDF, New Phytologist, 190: 724-739. See also here (abstract).

M.E. Popa (2011): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae. See also here and there.

A. Roth-Nebelsick et al.(2001): Evolution and Function of Leaf Venation Architecture: A Review. PDF file; Annals of Botany 87: 553-566. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University, Athens: Paleobotany. This course covers the evolutionary history of plants as revealed by the fossil record. Go to: Cutting a Coal Ball, and Coal Ball Peel Technique.
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne: Teacher Resources. This page contains downloadable resources for teachers to use in the classroom. Go to: ! Gondwana Greening. Easy to understand tutorial (PDF file, 2.9 MB). Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! D.L. Royer (2012): Climate reconstruction from leaf size and shape: New developments and challenges. PDF file, in: Reconstructing Earth´s Deep-Time Climate - The State of the Art in 2012, Paleontological Society Short Course, The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 18, Linda C. Ivany and Brian T. Huber (eds.), pp. 195-212.

Scott Russell, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, Norman: Morphology of Vascular Plants. Lecture notes, chiefly PDF files, including palaeobotany topics.

I. Sanmartín and F. Ronquist (2004): Southern Hemisphere Biogeography Inferred by Event-Based Models: Plant versus Animal Patterns. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 216-243.

George E. Schatz, Missouri Botanical Garden: Malagasy/Indo-australo-malesian Phytogeographic Connections. From the printed version: Schatz, G.E. 1996: Malagasy/Indo-Australo-Malesian phytogeographic connections. In: W.R. Lourenço (ed.), Biogeography of Madagascar. Editions ORSTOM, Paris.

H. Schneider (2007): Plant morphology as the cornerstone to the integration of fossil and extant taxa in phylogenetic systematics. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. In PDF, go to PDF page 65. In: Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen.

Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Erwin Beck, Klaus Müller-Hohenstein (2005): Sample pages, Plant Ecology. Keywords for this textbook are e.g. autecology, ecophysiology, ecosystem ecology, plant ecology, synecology. Worth checking out: Table of contents (PDF file). Go to: 4.1 Historic-Genetic Development of Phytocenoses and Their Dynamics (PDF file).

A.C. Scott (1990): 3.10 Anatomical Preservation of Fossil Plants. PDF file, scroll to page 263! Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Article in: Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.): Paleobiology: A Synthesis. Navigate from the contents file (PDF).

! Judith E. Skog, International Association for Plant Taxonomy:
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 4. PDF file, Taxon (2003), 52: 341-341.
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 5. PDF file, Taxon (2005), 54: 175-176.
Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 6. PDF file, Taxon (2005), 54: 827-827.

! R. Spicer, Palaeoenvironmental Research Group, Earth Sciences Dept., The Open University, Milton Keynes: CLAMP Online. CLAMP is a method of obtaining ancient climate information from the architecture (physiognomy) of fossil leaves of woody dicot flowering plants.

A.K. Srivastava and D. Agnihotri (2010): Dilemma of late Palaeozoic mixed floras in Gondwana. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).

! Wilson N. Stewart and Gar W. Rothwell (Second edition, 1993): Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants. Provided by Google books.

! R.A. Stockey, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: PALEOBIOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERM ORIGINS. This course explores recent advancements toward resolution of the evolutionary origin of flowering plants. Go to:
Presentation on Gnetophyta: An Enigmatic Group of Seed Plants (Author: Thorsten Hebben).

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! T.N. Taylor et al. (2009): Paleobotany: the biology and evolution of fossil plants (Google books, limited view).

Ellen Thomas, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University: Macroevolution. Lecture notes. Please, navigate from here. Worth checking out: Assignment: Plants (via wayback).

! B.H. Tiffney (1988): Conceptual advances in paleobotany. In PDF, Journal of Geological Education: September 1988, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 221-226. See also here.

J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al. (2017): Differentiation of the fossil leaves assigned to Taeniopteris, Nilssoniopteris and Nilssonia with a comparison to similar genera, Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 237: 100–106.See also here (in PDF).

! Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): The Jurassic fossil plant record of the UK area. PDF file, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119: 59-72. See fig. 6 (after Cleal et al. 2001), how to distinguish bennettialean leaf shapes!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! H. Visscher (1993): Links with the past in the plant world: cuticles as recorders of diversity, kerogen formation and palaeoatmospheric CO2-level. In PDF, The Palaeobotanist.

Kali Wallace, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder: Cenozoic Elevation of the Rocky Mountains. Go to: Paleobotanical Methods. Floral classification schemes and methods of climatic and atmospheric analysis are briefly described, e.g. fossil classification by the "nearest living relative" method or by physiognomy and CLAMP.

B.G. Warner (1988): Methods in Quaternary Ecology# 3. Plant Macrofossils. In PDf, Geoscience Canada.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
List of years in paleontology. These entries cover events related to the study of paleontology which occurred in the listed year. Go to:
! 2017 in paleontology. Excellent! See especially:
! 2016 in paleobotany.
! 2017 in paleobotany. These websites records new taxa of fossil plants that are scheduled to be described during the year 2017, as well as other significant discoveries and events.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Evolution of plants.
Paläobotanik (in German).
Kategorie:Paläobotanik (in German).
Category:Prehistoric plants.
Timeline of plant evolution.
Plant evolutionary developmental biology.

Kathy Willis and Jennifer McElwain (2014): The Evolution of Plants, Second Edition. Go to:
! Sample Material (in PDF). About the evolutionary record and methods of reconstruction.

Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press): The Evolution of Plants. Book announcement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
! PowerPoint illustrations. Illustrations from the book in PowerPoint format. See also:
! Biome maps. Downloadable full-color images from the book.

S.L. Wing and W.A. DiMichele (1995): Conflict between Local and Global Changes in Plant Diversity through Geological Time. PDF file, Palaios, 10: 551-564. See also here (abstract).

Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut:
! Compendium Index of North American Paleobotany. The Compendium Index presently covers fossil floras from North America, including Greenland, starting in the Triassic Period and extending to Pleistocene. This is a digitized version of a card-file index of approximately 20,000 images and text of descriptions of fossil plant species, maintained at Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History as a classification and identification tool.

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