Home / Preservation & Taphonomy /
Taphonomy in General
Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy
Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils
Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation
Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)
Upland and Hinterland Floras
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants
Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations
! Cellulose Peel Technique@
! Fossil Charcoal@
! Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General@
! The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings@
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
Richard Alley, Pennsylvania State University: Living on Earth I: Evolution & Extinction, Geology of the National Parks. Powerpoint presentation.
L.I. Anderson and M. Taylor (2008): Charles W. Peach, Palaeobotany and Scotland (in PDF). The Geological Curator. Thin sections of Devonian plants!
! Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona (U.S. Department of the Interior). Go to: Fossils. Plant and animal fossils representing the Late Triassic. See also: W.G. Parker and Sid Ash: Linnaean taxonomy of Late Triassic Plants of Petrified Forest National Park, and Late Triassic Pollen found in Petrified Forest National Park. By W.G. Parker, data compiled from Dunay and Fisher (1984), Litwin (1986), and Litwin et al., (1991).
! Chris Ballhaus et al. (2012): Fossilization of trees by silicification - an experimental study. Abstract, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 84: 62-74. See also here on PDF page 14, abstract (Taphos 2011, International Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization - Tübingen, Germany, June 14-17, 2011).
Bayreuth University, Germany:
Feierliche Übergabe der Leitung der Paläobotanischen Sammlung Rossmann.
Ehrung von Prof. Dr. Rossmann.
R.W. Baxendale (1979): Plant-bearing coprolites from North-American Pennsylvanian coal balls. PDF file.
J.A. Bergene (2012): Dordrechtites arcanus, an anatomically preserved gymnospermous reproductive structure from the Middle Triassic of Antarctica. In PDF, thesis, University of Kansas.
The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley: Localities of the Devonian: Rhynie Chert, Scotland. Section through a fossilized stem of Aglaophyton major.
! R.T. Bolzon et al. (2004):
de lenhos do Mesozóico do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. PDF file,
in Portuguese. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 7: 103-110.
About wood fossil diagenesis, e.g. the preservation of the cells of fossil wood, the form of wood mineralization, especially the silicification of wood.
! C.K. Boyce et al. (2009): X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology. X-ray Photoelectron Emission Spectro Microscopy (X-PEEM).
! C.K. Boyce et al. (2001): Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon in permineralized fossils. In PDF, PNAS, 98.
Mariana Brea et al. (2009): Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835. PDF file, Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64: 21-31. Fossil tree stumps in growth position.
Mariana Brea et al. (2008): Ecological reconstruction of a mixed Middle Triassic forest from Argentina. PDF file, Alcheringa, 32: 365-393. See also here.-The Darwin Forest consists of 120 stumps in life position!
H. Brunner and K.-P. Kelber (1988):
im württembergisch-fränkischen Unterkeuper -
Bemerkungen zum fossilen Environment. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H. (ed.): Neue Forschungen zur Erdgeschichte von Crailsheim.
Sonderbände d. Ges. f. Naturk. in Württemberg, 1: 185-205.
Anatomical views of the Triassic horsetail Neocalamites merianii in pyrite/goethite preservation.
Reiner Burger, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: Holzversteinerungen. Unter dem Pflaster der Wald. Ramified Calamites axes from Chemnitz (in German).
! Susan H. Butts and Derek E.G. Briggs (2011): Silicification Through Time. Abstract.
The Petrified Forest, Calistoga, California.
David Cantrill, Department of Palaeobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Mesozoic history of Antarctic terrestrial vegetation, and Petrified peats of Antarctica. Research projects.
! A. Channing et al. (2011): Equisetum thermale sp. nov.(Equisetales) from the Jurassic San Agustín hot spring deposit, Patagonia: Anatomy, paleoecology, and inferred paleoecophysiology. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 98: 680-697. See also here (abstract).
! A. Channing and D. Edwards (2004): Experimental taphonomy: silicification of plants in Yellowstone hot-spring environments. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 94, 503-521.
A. Channing and D.E. Wujek (2010): Preservation of protists within decaying plants from geothermally influenced wetlands of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, United States. PDF file, Palaios, 25: 347-355.
! Museum of Natural History Chemnitz, Germany. Go to: Paläontologische Sammlung. Palaeobotany and petrified wood collection (in German).
Don Chesnut, Geology Department, University of Kentucky: Geology and fossils in Kentucky and adjacent states. Scroll to: "Upper Path Fork coal balls, 1980". Worth checking out: Cordaite with growth rings (peel made by Tom Phillips).
Harold G. Coffin, Geoscience Research Institute, Loma Linda, CA (This institute serves the Seventh-day Adventist church): THE YELLOWSTONE PETRIFIED "FORESTS". All about the petrified forests of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming and Montana.
Adele Conover, Smithsonian magazine: The Object at Hand. From a forest that flourished 207 million years ago, the Sherman Logs bear stony witness to a general´s curiosity, and life in an age gone by.
Stadtmuseum im Spital, Crailsheim, Germany: Exhibition about petrified Triassic wood: "Aus Holz wird Stein Kieselhölzer aus dem Keuper Frankens" June 28 - September 20, 2009. (In German). See also here (Amazon book announcement), and there (book announcement, in German).
John D. Curtis, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin; Nels R. Lersten, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, and Michael D. Nowak, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin: Photographic Atlas of Plant Anatomy. Go to: Curtis, Lersten, and Nowak 2002, Petrified Wood.
A.-L. Decombeix et al. (2011): Root suckering in a Triassic conifer from Antarctica: Paleoecological and evolutionary implications. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 98: 1222-1225. See also here (abstract).
Anne-Laure Decombeix, Brigitte Meyer-Berthaud, Nick Rowe & Jean Galtier: Diversity of large woody lignophytes preceding the extinction of Archaeopteris: new data from the middle Tournaisian of Thuringia (Germany). PDF file.
G. De Lafontaine et al. (2011): Permineralization process promotes preservation of Holocene macrofossil charcoal in soils. In PDF, Journal of Quaternary Science, 26.
Dagmar Dietrich et al. (2000): Analytical X-Ray Microscopy on Psaronius sp.: A Contribution to Permineralization Process Studies. Abstract, Mikrochim. Acta, 133: 279-283.
Thomas A. Dillhoff, Pasco, Washington (article hosted by Evolving Earth Foundation Issaquah, WA). Fossil Forests of Eastern Washington.
N. Dotzler et al. (2011): Sphenophyllum (Sphenophyllales) leaves colonized by fungi from the Upper Pennsylvanian Grand-Croix cherts of central France. Zitteliana 51. Go to PDF page 3.
I.H. Escapa et al. (2011): Seed cone anatomy of Cheirolepidiaceae (Coniferales): Reinterpreting Pararaucaria patagonica Wieland. In PDF, Am. J. Bot., 99: 1058-1068.
EurekAlert: Want to petrify wood without waiting a few million years? Try this. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists can mineralize wood in record time. Wood that was artificially petrified in days.
Greb, S.F., Eble, C.F., Chesnut, D.R., Jr., Phillips, T.L., and Hower, J.C.: An in situ occurrence of coal balls in the Amburgy coal bed, Pikeville Formation (Duckmantian), Central Appalachian Basin, U.S.A. Palaios, v. 14, p. 433-451; 1999. See also here (via wayback).
Michael J. Everhart, Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University: OCEANS OF KANSAS - A Natural History of the Western Interior Sea (Indiana University Press, 2005), Shipworm borings (teredo) in wood.
Giraud Foster & Norman Barker, Ancient Microworld: Photo Gallery. Some petrified plants. Click on an image to view an enlarged version. See also: Photography Techniques.
J.E. Francis, Earth Sciences, University of Leeds: Fossil Trees in the Basal Purbeck Formation on Portland - The Great Dirt Bed Forest.
C. Géza et al. 2009):
A possible Late Miocene fossil
forest PaleoPark in Hungary. Tree stumps in situ! PDF file, from:
Jere H. Lipps and Bruno R.C. Granier (eds.) 2009, (e-book, hosted by Carnets): PaleoParks - The protection and conservation of fossil sites worldwide. Also available from here.
David R. Greenwood, Zoology Dept., Brandon University, Manitoba, Canada: Mummified tree stumps on Axel Heiberg Island, Canada (PDF file).
Stephen Jay Gould (findarticles): The sharp-eyed lynx, outfoxed by nature. (Part 2) (observations of fossil wood by Francesco Stelluti). Natural History, June, 1998.
Calvin & Rosanna Hamilton, ScienceViews.com: Petrified Wood Colors and Petrification
Xiaoyuan He et al. (2010): Anatomically Preserved Marattialean Plants from the Upper Permian of Southwestern China: The Trunk of Psaronius laowujiensis sp. nov. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 171: 662-678.
A.B. Heckert and S.G. Lucas (2002): Revised Upper Triassic stratigraphy of the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. In PDF, NM Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci. Bull.
Andrew B. Heckert, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and Spencer G. Lucas, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque: Stratigraphic Distribution and Age of Petrified Wood in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. See also here (National Park Service, Paleontological Research (Vincent Santucci and Lindsay McClelland, eds.).
Andrew B. Heckert, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and Spencer G. Lucas, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque: The Oldest Triassic Strata Exposed in the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. See also here (National Park Service, Paleontological Research (Vincent Santucci and Lindsay McClelland, eds.).
Paul V. Heinrich, Louisiana Fossil Page: Common Animal and Plant Fossils of Louisiana, Louisiana Petrified Wood, and Petrified Palm Wood.
E. Hermsen et al. (2007): Cycads from the Triassic of Antarctica: Permineralized cycad leaves. Int. J. Plant Sci., 168: 1099-1112.
Marguerite Holloway, Scientific American May 2002 issue: Trees of the Triassic. In the Painted Desert of Arizona, a story of how forests turned to stone and how the stones are walking away.
G. Holzhüter et al. (2003): Structure of silica in Equisetum arvense. In PDF, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 376: 512-517.
Houston Gem and Mineral Society: Petrified Wood Articles by HGMS Authors and Others.
August Ilg, Alfred Selmeier and Madelaine Böhme: The fossil wood database (FWDS). Fossil wood from Central Europe, Triassic to the Pleistocene. Specimen chiefly from the Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie München, the Naturmuseum Augsburg and the private collection P. Holleis.
The International Golden Fossil Tree Society (?): BOSQUE PETRIFICADO DE SARMIENTO(Argentina)Patagonia (in Spanish).
! T.H. Jefferson (1987): The preservation of conifer wood: examples from the Lower Cretaceous of Antarctica. In PDF, Palaeontology, 30. With instructive line drawings.
Jura-Museum Eichstätt (Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie München), Germany: Steinerne Pflanzenstrukturen. Some images of permineralized Plants, e.g. the strobili of Araucaria mirabilis (in German).
! K.-P. Kelber, Würzburg (2007): Die Erhaltung und paläobiologische Bedeutung der fossilen Hölzer aus dem süddeutschen Keuper (Trias, Ladinium bis Rhätium).- In German. PDF file, 33 MB! pp. 37-100; In: Schüßler, H. & Simon, T. (eds.): Aus Holz wird Stein. Kieselhölzer aus dem Keuper Frankens.
D.W. Kellogg and E.L. Taylor (2004): Evidence of oribatid mite detritivory in Antarctica during the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In PDF, J. Paleont., 78: 1146-1153.
P. Kenrick et al. (1991): Novel ultrastructure in water-conducting cells of the Lower Devonian plant Sennicaulis hippocrepiformis. PDF file, Palaeontology.
! Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster. Click: "Rhynie Chert" (The Rhynie Chert and its Flora). A depiction of the silica permineralized fossil flora of Rhynie (Scotland), a 400 Million year old flora, which contains a wide diversity of taxa varying from unicellular fungi to the earliest anatomically preserved higher land plants and animal remains. Breathtaking thin section micro-photographs, e.g. in " V. The alternation of generations in early land plants": The male gametophyte with antheridia, the release of sperm from antheridium, etc. Including "The life cycle of Aglaophyton - Lyonophyton", modified after Taylor, Kerp & Hass, 2005, PNAS, v. 102, p. 5892-5897.
Sharon D. Klavins et al. (2002): Anatomy of Umkomasia (Corystospermales) from the Triassic of Antarctica. American Journal of Botany, 89: 664-676. See also here. Abstract, Botany 2001, August 12 - 16, 2001; Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Helmut Knoll, Alsdorf, Germany: Fossil plants from the Late Cretaceous Aachen Formation (in German). See especially: Hermanophyton sp.
F.H. Knowlton (1921): The Fossil Forest of the Yellowstone National Park. USGS Monograph, 32: 651-791.
! K.O. Konhauser et al.(2001): Microbial-silica interactions in Icelandic hot spring sinter: possible analogues for some Precambrian siliceous stromatolites. In PDF, Sedimentology, 48: 415-433.
M. Krings et al. (2011): Fungal sporocarps from the Carboniferous: An unusual specimen of Traquairia. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168: 1-6.
! M. Krings, LMU München: Mikroorganismen aus den Cherts von Esnost und Combres/Lay (Unterkarbon, Frankreich) sowie Rhynie (Unterdevon, Schottland). Scientific project report (in German).
Kuczumow et al. 2001: Structural investigations of a series of petrified woods of different origin. Abstract, Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Volume 56, Number 4, 30 April 2001, pp. 339-350.
Kuczumow et al. 2000: Investigation of petrified wood by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and diffraction methods. Abstract, Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Volume 55, Number 10, 2 October 2000, pp. 1623-1633. See also here (PDF file).
! D.R. Landenberger (1980): Silicification of Pleistocene plants and associated silica diagenesis. PDF file (slow download), Thesis, Texas Tech University. Conclusions starting on PDF page 50, literature on PDF page 51.
S.G. Lucas (2001), go to PDF page 52: Restoration of Late Triassic landscapes at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. In PDF, Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference. See also here.
Rolf Ludvigsen & Brian Chatterton, Natural Resources Canada: Past lives: Chronicles of Canadian paleontology. Accounts, stories and anecdotes about the people who collected or studied specific Canadian fossils. Go to: Gunflint Chert, and Pethei stromatolites.
Steven R. Manchester, Department of Natural Sciences, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainsville: PETRIFIED WOODS IN FLORIDA. This article was a contribution to Papers In Florida Paleontology, No. 8, November 1996, published by the Florida Paleontological Society.
L. Marynowski et al. (2007): Biomolecules preserved in ca. 168 million year old fossil conifer wood. PDF file, Naturwissenschaften, 94: 228-236.
Jeffrey W. Martz and William G. Parker (2010): Revised Lithostratigraphy of the Sonsela Member (Chinle Formation, Upper Triassic) in the Southern Part of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. PDF file, see also here.
M. Matsumoto and H. Nishada (2003): Osmunda shimokawaensis sp. nov. and Osmunda cinnamomea L. based on permineralized rhizomes from the Middle Miocene of Shimokawa, Hokkaido, Japan. PDF file, Paleontological Research, 7: 153-165.
! Petra Matysová et al. (2010): Alluvial and volcanic pathways to silicified plant stems (Upper Carboniferous-Triassic) and their taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental meaning. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 292: 127-143.
C.L. May and R.E. Gresswell (2003): Processes and rates of sediment and wood accumulation in the headwater streams of the Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28(4): 409-424. See also here (PDF file).
McManus, Hilary A., Edith L. Taylor, Thomas N. Taylor, and James W. Collinson: PETRIFIED GLOSSOPTERIS FROM COLLINSON RIDGE, SHACKLETON GLACIER AREA, ANTARCTICA. Abstract, XVI International Botanical Congress.
B. Meyer-Berthaud et al. (1993): Petrified Stems Bearing Dicroidium Leaves from the Triassic of Antarctica. In PDF, Palaeontology, 36.
Brigitte Meyer-Berthaud & Thomas N. Taylor (1992). Permineralized Conifer Axes from the Triassic of Antarctica. PDF file.
! Jim Mills, Mills Geological: Museums of Interest. An annotated link list especially of museums with petrified wood collections in the United States.
Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, MODES OF PRESERVATION. Link list page with picture rankings. The links give the most direct connections to pictures available on the web.
G.E. Mustoe (2001): Washington´s Fossil Forests. Washington Geology, 29: 10-20. Further paleontological articles from Washington Geology Magazine here.
National Computational Science Education Consortium (NCSEC):
The Petrification Process of Wood.
This website (NCSEC served as a national educational computational science clearinghouse)
offers math and science teachers
an array of online educational tools. Some parts are a bit confusing. Go to:
How Does Wood Petrify? "When minerals seep into fossils".
Natural History Museum of the Lesvos Petrified Forest Sigri, Lesvos Island, Greece.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde 1860. By Karl Cäsar von Leonhard, Heinrich Georg Bronn (E. Schweizerbart's Verlagshandlung), digitized by Google Book Search. Go to: K. Fr. W Braun: Über das Bayreuther versteinte Holz.
Sandra Niemirowska, Poland: Petrified wood. Don´t miss the tutorial: "Petrified wood investigation".
J.M. Osborn and T.N. Taylor (1989): Structurally Preserved Sphenophytes from the Triassic of Antarctica: Vegetative Remains of Spaciinodum, gen. nov. PDF file, American Journal of Botany.
Geobiology, Department of Earth Sciences, Oxford University: Questioning the evidence for Earth's oldest fossils,
! William Parker (2005): Petrified Forest National Park: a Roadlog. PDF file, Guidebook to the Triassic Formations of the Colorado Plateau in northern Arizona: Geology, Paleontology, and History. Sterling J. Nesbitt, William G. Parker, and Randall B. Irmis (eds.) Mesa Southwest Museum, Bulletin No. 9.
K.P. Pigg and S. McLoughlin: Anatomically preserved Glossopteris leaves from the Bowen and Sydney Basins, Australia. PDF file, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 97: 339-359; 1997.
Lisa M. Pinsker, Geotimes June 2003: European Geoconservation. Now 12 parks strong, the European Geoparks Network spans Ireland, France, Spain, Italy, Greece and Germany, with scenes ranging from petrified forest to coastal cliff.
Etiene F. Pires & Margot Guerra-Sommer (Departamento de Paleontologia e Estratigrafia, Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil): Sommerxylon spiralosus from Upper Triassic in southernmost Paraná Basin (Brazil): a new taxon with taxacean affinity. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. vol.76 no.3 Rio de Janeiro; 2004. Download this article (PDF file).
Imogen Poole, Department of Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Utrecht University: TAPHONOMY & PRESERVATION OF WOOD. Research projects.
I. Poole (2000): Fossil angiosperm wood anatomy: its role in the reconstruction of biodiversity and palaeoenvironment. PDF file, Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, 134: 361-381.
Wolfgang Putz, Alberndorf, Austria: My fossil wood collection. A nice collector´s website, showing the variety of petrified wood (explanations in German). Polished slabs sorted by continents and countries.
L. Bruce Railsback, Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens: An Atlas of Speleothem Microfabrics. Stalagmites, stalactites, and other mineral deposits known as speleothems contain chemical and mineralogical clues to past rainfall and temperatures. Go to: plant matter in a stalagmite. See also here, and SEM image of plant tissue (xylem) amidst calcite in a stalagmite.
! J. Ramezani et al. (2011): High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona, USA): Temporal constraints on the early evolution of dinosaurs. Abstract.
Authored by the The Rhynie Chert Research Group, University of Aberdeen, with contributions and support by the Palaeobotanical Research Group, University of Münster, Germany, the Centre for Palynology, University of Sheffield, The Natural History Museum, London, and The Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems, The Rhynie Chert. A resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of this unique geological deposit (including a glossary and bibliography pages). Go to: Taphonomy of the Rhynie Chert, and Silicification and the Conversion of Sinter to Chert.
! R. Rößler et al. (2012): The largest calamite and its growth architecture - Arthropitys bistriata from the Early Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 185: 64-78.
R. Rößler (2009): 300 Jahre Schatzsuche in Chemnitz: Die wissenschaftliche Grabung nach dem versteinerten Wald. In German (PDF file), Fossilien, 26.
R. Rößler and R. Noll (2008): Calamitea COTTA 1832: Fossile Pflanze zwischen Historie und aktueller Forschung. In German (PDF file), Fossilien, 25: 80-89.
R. Rößler, (2006): Einzigartig und dennoch ausgestorben - Die Schachtelhalm-Giganten des Perms (in German). In PDF, Fossilien, 23: 87-92.
! R. Rößler (2000): The late Palaeozoic tree fern Psaronius - an ecosystem unto itself. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 108: 55-74. See also here.
Ronny Rößler, Museum of Natural History, Chemnitz (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.): Das Perm - Farnwälder, Glutwolken und Salzwüsten. In German. Full article available here (PDF file).
Gar W. Rothwell and Ruth A. Stockey (2002): Anatomically preserved Cycadeoidea (Cycadeoidaceae), with a reevaluation of systematic characters for the seed cones of Bennettitales. PDF file, American Journal of Botany. 2002;89:1447-1458. See also here (abstract).
Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University, Athens: Cutting a Coal Ball and Coal Ball Peel Technique. Part of the Paleobotany course.
Gar W. Rothwell, Edith L. Taylor and Thomas N. Taylor: Ashicaulis woolfei n. sp.: additional evidence for the antiquity of osmundaceous ferns from the Triassic of Antarctica. Abstract, American Journal of Botany. 2002; 89: 352-361.
Patricia E. Ryberg et al. (2008): Development and ecological implications of dormant buds in the high-Paleolaltitude Triassic sphenophyte Spaciinodum (Equisetaceae). PDF file, Am. J. Bot., 95: 1443-1453. See also here.
! Vincent Santucci and Lindsay McClelland (eds.):
Service, Paleontological Research. Reports documenting the multi-park-based Morrison
Ecosystem Project, the fossil bee´s nest at Petrified Forest National Park, and fossil
mollusks from Alcatraz Island at Golden Gate National Recreation Area. This volume contains
the first reports on paleontological inventories for Bryce Canyon National Park, Denali
National Park, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, and Ozark
National Scenic Riverway and the unfortunate story regarding the abolished
Fossil Cycad National Monument.
Also availabe in PDF.
! R.A. Savidge (2007): Wood anatomy of Late Triassic trees in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA, in relation to Araucarioxylon arizonicum Knowlton, 1889. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol. 82: 301-328.
A.C. Scott and G. Rex (1985): The formation and significance of Carboniferous coal balls. PDF file, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, B, 311: 123-137.
! Andrew C. Scott and Margaret E. Collinson (2003): Non-destructive multiple approaches to interpret the preservation of plant fossils: implications for calcium-rich permineralisations. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, 160: 857-862. See also here.
! A.B. Schwendemann et al. (2010): Organization, anatomy, and fungal endophytes of a Triassic conifer embryo. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 97: 1873-1883.
Peter von Sengbusch, Institute of Botany, University of Hamburg: Petrified wood from Bayuda (Sudan) and from Namibia. Part of "Botanik online" Go to Leitgewebe (in German).
Margot Guerra Sommer and Claiton M. S. Scherer, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites): Sítios Paleobotânicos do Arenito Mata nos Municípios de Mata e São Pedro do Sul, RS (in Portuguese). A Brazilian deposit of fossil silicified wood.
Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands:
Hans´ Paleobotany Pages.
Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Wood of the horsetail tree Calamites,
The tree fern Psaronius,
The tree fernTempskya
The gymnospermous tree Cordaites,
Fossil gymnosperm wood, and
Fossil palm wood or Palmoxylon.
Ed Strauss: Petrified Wood From Western Washington. Go to: Table of Genera. Microscopic images of Acer momijiyamense, Alnus latissima, Carpinus absarokensis, Cercidiphyllum, Cornoxylon, Diospyroxylon, Fagoxylon, Quercinium lamarense, Licquidambaroxylon weylandi, Carya tertiara, Pterocarya rhoifilia, Laurinoxylon, Robinioxylon, Magnolia, Lirodendroxylon.
! Ed Strauss: Petrified Wood From Western Washington. What are the limits of identifying with low (10X) magnification?
! Ed Strauss, Washington (article hosted by Evolving Earth Foundation Issaquah, WA). The Evolving Earth Foundation is committed to encouraging research and building community related to the earth sciences. How to Identify Fossil (Petrified) Wood. See also: How to Identify Conifers. Conifer micro photographs.
H. Süss et al. (2009): Drei neue fossile Hölzer der Morphogattung Primoginkgoxylon gen. nov. aus der Trias von Kenia. PDF file (in German), Feddes Repertorium, 120: 273 - 292. See also here (Abstract).
C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2011): Evidence of parasitic Oomycetes (Peronosporomycetes) infecting the stem cortex of the Carboniferous seed fern Lyginopteris oldhamia. IN PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 278: 675-680.
Edith L. Taylor (1996): Enigmatic gymnosperms? Structurally preserved Permian and Triassic seed ferns from Antarctica. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. See also here (abstract).
! Thomas N. Taylor and Michael Krings (2005): Fossil microorganisms and land plants: Associations and interactions. PDF file, Symbiosis, 40: 119-135.
! Edith L. Taylor and Thomas N. Taylor: Structurally Preserved Permian and Triassic Floras from Antarctica. PDF file.
Treasures of the Earth, Ltd., Hollsopple, PA., U.S.A.: Petrified Wood. Images of petrified wood slabs, chiefly from the Chinle Formation, Utah, USA.
Nigel H. Trewin, Stephen R. Fayers & Lyall I. Anderson, University of Aberdeen: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems: The Rhynie Chert. The "Learning Resource" (updated 08/09/04) is primarily a resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of the unique Rhynie Chert deposit and its scientific significance (including a glossary and bibliography pages). The "Suggestions For Tutors" provides guidance for teachers (password protected). This part is primarily aimed at a university Honours degree level. The content is primarily of value in geology teaching, but has relevance to botany, zoology, ecology and history of science.
! Kyle Trostle (2009), Franklin and Marshall College, Earth and Environment Department, Lancaster, PA: Diagenetic History of Fossil Wood from the Paleocene Chickaloon Formation, Matanuska Valley, Alaska.
UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): U.S. Geological Survey Photographic Archive. This on-line system provides access to over 19,000 photographs and original sketches, dating from 1868 to the present. Go to: NATIONAL PARKS-MONUMENTS-SEASHORE. Choose: "Petrified National Park".
E. Velitzelos, Section of Palaeontology and Stratigraphy, Department of Geology, University of Athens, and N. Zouros, Natural History Museum of Lesvos' Petrified Forest, Lesvos Island: The Petrified forest of Lesvos - Protected Natural Monument.
Mike Viney, The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum: Fossils. In PDF.
Mike Viney, Ft. Collins, Colorado:
The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum.
Images of fossil wood and other fossils sorted by geological age.
! Petrified Wood: The Silicification of Wood by Permineralization (PDF file).
See also: Anatomy. The anatomy of arborescent plants through time.
Shi-Jun Wang et al. (2011): Cycad Wood from the Lopingian (Late Permian) of Southern China: Shuichengoxylon tianii gen. et sp. nov. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 172: 725-734.
Wang Xiaofeng et al. (2009):
The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from
Barren Mountain, Guizhou Province, China.
A colony of Traumatocrinus sp. attached by root cirri to an agatized piece of
PDF file, from:
Jere H. Lipps and Bruno R.C. Granier (eds.) 2009, (e-book, hosted by Carnets): PaleoParks - The protection and conservation of fossil sites worldwide. Also available from here.
WAYNE'S WORD, Escondido, CA (A nonprofit quarterly journal published by WOLFFIA INC.): Fossils Of Ancient Plants. This websites are dedicated to little-known facts and trivia about natural history subjects.
Michael Wegner, Köln, Germany: Versteinertes Holz.de (in German).
Ian West, Southampton Oceanography Centre, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton University: The Fossil Forest, west of Lulworth Cove, Dorset, southern England. This is a classic geological locality with the remains and moulds of late Jurassic or early Cretaceous coniferous trees rooted in a palaeosol (ancient soil), the Great Dirt Bed. Above the trees is stromatolitic limestone and over this the unusual Broken Beds, a limestone breccia that was originally evaporitic. Let´s have a look at the Purbeck Trees.
! F. Westall et al. (1995): The experimental silicification of microorganisms. In PDF.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Petrified wood.
Petrified Forest National Park.
C.J. Williams et al. (2010): Fossil wood in coal-forming environments of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Chickaloon Formation. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 363-375.
! www.kieseltorf.de. Permineralized plant fossils from Germany (in German).
Andreas Wostri, Austria:
Versteinerte Hölzer (in German).
Petrified wood from all over the world.
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