Preservation & Taphonomy /
Taphonomy in General
Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy
Collecting Bias: Our Incomplete Picture of the Past Vegetation
Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils
Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation
Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)
Permineralized Plants and the Process of Permineralization
Upland and Hinterland Floras
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants
Leaf Litter and Plant Debris
Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations
Wound Response in Trees
Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record
! Transfer Technique@
! Stomatal Density@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
! Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
American Society of Plant Biologists, The Plant Cell Online: Leaf Development 1 and Leaf Development 2 (Cell proliferation and differentiation). Still available via Internet Archive. Lecture notes, PDF files. For PowerPoint Slide Presentations see here.
S. Archangelsky (1968): Studies on Triassic fossil plants from Argentina. IV. The leaf genus Dicroidium and its possible relation to Rhexoxylon stems. PDF file, Palaeontology, 11: 500-512. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
Anne-Marie Aucour et al. (2009): Insights into preservation of fossil plant cuticles using thermally assisted hydrolysis methylation. Abstract, Organic Geochemistry, 40: 784-794.
G. Barale et al. (2005): A fossil peat deposit from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Zimbabwe with preserved cuticle of Pteridospermopsida and Ginkgoales, and its geological setting G Barale. In PDF (slow download), Palaeont. afr., 41: 89-100.
M. Barbacka (2009): Sphenophyta from the Early Jurassic of the Mecsek Mts., Hungary. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica 49: 221-231. Cuticle showing stomata of Equisetites columnaris in fig. 15!
R.S. Barclay et al. (2013):
methods reveal oldest known fossil epiphyllous moss:
Bryiidites utahensis gen. et sp. nov.(Bryidae). In PDF,
American Journal of Botany, 100: 2450-2457.
Using the zstacking software package Automontage (Syncroscopy, Cambridge, UK).
R. Barclay, P. Wilf, D. Dilcher, A. Sokoloff, J. Leon-Guerrero
& C. Thurman:
The Cuticle Database Project aims to promote the understanding and identification
of living and fossil plants.
This project is a collaborative effort between researchers at Northwestern University,
The Field Museum, the Florida Museum of Natural History, and Pennsylvania State University.
See also here:
! R. Barclay, et al. (2007): The cuticle database: developing an interactive tool for taxonomic and paleoenvironmental study of the fossil cuticle record. PDF file, In: Jarzen, D. M., Steven, R., Retallack, G. J. and Jarzen, S. A. (eds.), Advances in Angiosperm Paleobotany and Paleoclimatic Reconstruction, Contributions Honouring David L. Dilcher and Jack A. Wolfe, Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt, pgs. 39-56.
M.R. Barone Lumaga et al. (2015): Epidermal micromorphology in Dioon: did volcanism constrain Dioon evolution? In PDF, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 179: 236–254. See also here.
Terese Barta, UW-Stevens Point, Mike Clayton, UW-Madison, Dave Hillier, UW-Stevens Point, Brad Mogen, UW-River Falls, Jim Perry, UW-Fox Valley, Jan Phelps, UW-Baraboo, Patricia Ploetz, UW-Stevens Point, Tom Volk, UW-La Crosse, & Bob Wise, UW-Oshkosh (page hosted by BioWeb, University of Wisconsin): UW-System Botanical Image Library. This site is devoted to making botanical images available and easily accessible for educational use. They aspire to provide a stable, maintained library of non-proprietary images that can be easily referenced by botanists designing their own educational applications. Go to: Leaf Anatomy, Modified Leaves (now via wayback).
A. Bartiromo (2012): The cuticle micromorphology of extant and fossil plants as indicator of environmental conditions: A pioneer study on the influence of volcanic gases on the cuticle structure in extant plants. Dissertation, Université Claude Bernard, Lyon.
M.E.P. Batista et al. (2017): New data on the stem and leaf anatomy of two conifers from the Lower Cretaceous of the Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil, and their taxonomic and paleoecological implications. In PDF, PLoS ONE, 12.
Ernst-Georg Beck, Zentrale für Unterrichtswesen: Biokurs 2001 (in German). Go to: Pflanzenanatomie und Photosynthese, Aufbau eines typischen Laubblattes.
! J.A. Berry et al. (2010): Stomata: key players in the earth system, past and present. Abstract, Current opinion in plant biology, 13: 232–239. See also here (in PDF).
P. Blomenkemper et al. (2018): A hidden cradle of plant evolution in Permian tropical lowlands. Abstract, Science, 362: 1414-1416. See also here (researchers from the University of Münster report on their findings), and there (Scinexx article, in German).
P. Blomenkemper et al. (2016):
analysis of conifers from the Keuper (Triassic)
of Franconia, southern Germany. Abstract, starting on PDF page 220.
Abstracts, XIV International Palynological Congress, X International Organisation of Palaeobotany Conference, Salvador, Brazil.
B. Bomfleur et al. (2018): Polar Regions of the Mesozoic-Paleogene Greenhouse World as Refugia for Relict Plant Groups. Chapter 24, in PDF, in: M. Krings, C.J. Harper, N.R. Cuneo and G.W. Rothwell (eds.): Transformative Paleobotany Papers to Commemorate the Life and Legacy of Thomas N. Taylor.
J.G. Bornemann (1856):
organische Reste der Lettenkohlengruppe Thüringens. Ein Beitrag zur Fauna und
Flora dieser Formation, besonders über fossile Cycadeen, nebst vergleichenden
Untersuchungen über die Blattstruktur der jetztweltlichen
Cycadeengattungen. In German,
provided by Google books.
A pioneering depiction of dispersed fossil cuticles from the Triassic (Ladinian) of Germany.
Ilma Brewer, Robyn Overall, Nicholas Skelton, & Mark Curran, School of Biological Sciences The University of Sydney, Australia: The Revision Modules in Plant Anatomy. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. A photomicrographic overview of the major plant tissues and organs, with glossary.
D.E.G. Briggs (1999): Molecular taphonomy of animal and plant cuticles: selective preservation and diagenesis. PDF file, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 354: 7-17. See also here.
T.J. Brodribb and S.A.M. McAdam (2017): Evolution of the stomatal regulation of plant water content. In PDF, Plant Physiology, 175. See also here.
! T.J. Brodribb et al. (2016): Xylem and stomata, coordinated through time and space. Abstract, Plant Cell and Environment, 40: 872–880. See also here (in PDF).
B. Chefetz (2007): Decomposition and sorption characterization of plant cuticles in soil. In PDF, Plant and Soil, 298: 21-30.
C.J. Cleal and C.H. Shute (2007): The effect of drying on epidermal cell parameters preserved on plant cuticles. Abstract, Acta Palaeobotanica, 47: 315-326.
Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA: Mini-Essays, Preservation and Bias in the Fossil Record.
Robert Roy Cowie, San Marcos, TX: Gas Exchange Characteristics of an Early Cretacerous Conifer, Pseudofrenelopsis varians, (Cheirolepidiaceae), and its inferred Paleoecology. (via webback machine). Go to: Preparation of Materials.
Richard Crang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Andrey Vassilyev, St. Petersburg State University, Russia (McGraw-Hill Higher Education): Plant Anatomy. A website that supports the Electronic Plant Anatomy CD-ROM. An instructor view provides links to dynamic cartoons viewable using the Macromedia Flash Player. Go to: "Stomata" (opening and closing stomata), and "Leaf Structure".
Judith L. Croxdale, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison (website hosted by Biology Online): Stomatal patterning in angiosperms. Stomatal pattern types, means of measuring them, advantages of each type of measurement, and then present patterning from evolutionary, physiological, ecological, and organ views are discussed.
E. Cullen and P.J. Rudall (2016):
remarkable stomata of horsetails (Equisetum): patterning,
ultrastructure and development. Abstract,
Annals of Botany, 118: 207–218.
See also here (in PDF).
John D. Curtis, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin; Nels R. Lersten, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, and Michael D. Nowak, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin: Photographic Atlas of Plant Anatomy. Go to: Epidermis and Stomates.
R.G. Daly and R.A. Gastaldo (2010): The effect of leaf orientation to sunlight on stomatal parameters of Quercus rubra around the Belgrade Lakes, central Maine. PDF file, Palaios, 25: 339-346.
J.A. D´Angelo et al. (2012): Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada). Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology.
Elias De Leon and Brian Zhou, NewsWatch, National Geographic: In a High School Lab, Glimpses of an Ancient Climate.
! D.L. Dilcher (1974): Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains. In PDF, The Botanical Review, 40: 1–157. See also here.
! D. Edwards, H. Kerp and H. Hass (1998): Stomata in early land plants: an anatomical and ecophysiological approach. In PDF, Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 49, Special Issue, pp. 255–278.
C. Elliott-Kingston et al. (2014): Damage structures in leaf epidermis and cuticle as an indicator of elevated atmospheric sulphur dioxide in early Mesozoic floras. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 208: 25-42.
Beth Ellis et al. (2009):
of Leaf Architecture. Book announcement.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See also here and there.
Encyclopedia of Earth. An electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society. Go to: What are stomata? About stomatal density, size and shape, physiological function of stomata, optimal size of stomatal apertures, and stomatal conductance. More botany articles here, and there (all titles A-Z).
H. Failmezger et al. (2013): Semi-automated 3D Leaf Reconstruction and Analysis of Trichome Patterning from Light Microscopic Images. In PDF, see also here.
Z. Feng et al.(2017): Leaf anatomy of a late Palaeozoic cycad. Biol. Lett., 13.
! V. Fernández et al. (2016): Cuticle Structure in Relation to Chemical Composition: Re-assessing the Prevailing Model. Open access, Front. Plant Sci., 31.K.C. Fetter et al. (2018): StomataCounter: a deep learning method applied to automatic stomatal identification and counting. In PDF, bioRxiv. See also here
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield:
The role of stomata in the early evolution of land plants.
How the atmosphere affects plants.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Jennifer Forman, Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Boston: Land of the Glandular Trichomes. A microscopic look at plants in the Lamiaceae family.
Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND PRESERVATIONAL MODES. Navigate via: Notes for a Course in Paleobotany.
! R.A. Gastaldo and J.R. Staub (1999): A mechanism to explain the preservation of leaf litter lenses in coals derived from raised mires. PDF file, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 149: 1-14.
S. García Álvarez et al. (2009): The value of leaf cuticle characteristics in the identification and classification of Iberian Mediterranean members of the genus Pinus. In PDF, J. Linn. Soc., 161: 436–448.
J.J. Glas et al. (2012): Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores. In PDF, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13: 17077-17103.
Bruce W. Grant and Itzick Vatnick, Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE). This is a project of the Education and Human Resources Committee of the Ecological Society of America: Environmental Correlates of Leaf Stomata Density. The technique of making clear nail polish impressions of leaf stomata.
O.R. Green: Extraction Techniques for Palaeobotanical and Palynological Material. Abstract, pp 256-287. A Manual of Practical Laboratory and Field Techniques in Palaeobiology.
! N.S. Gupta et al. (2006): Reinvestigation of the occurrence of cutan in plants: implications for the leaf fossil record. Abstract and references, Paleobiology, 32: 432-449.
T.M. Harris: The Problems of Jurassic Palaeobotany. In PDF.
M. Haworth and A. Raschi (2014): An assessment of the use of epidermal micro-morphological features to estimate leaf economics of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic fossil Ginkgoales. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 205: 1-8.
M. Haworth et al. (2011): Stomatal control as a driver of plant evolution. In PDF, J. Exp. Bot., 62: 2419-2423.
! M. Haworth and J. McElwain (2008): Hot, dry, wet, cold or toxic? Revisiting the ecological significance of leaf and cuticular micromorphology. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 262: 79–90. See also here.
J.A. Heredia-Guerrero et al. (2014): Infrared and Raman spectroscopic features of plant cuticles: a review. In PDF, Front. Plant. Sci., 5. See also here.
F. Herrera et al. (2018): Exceptionally well-preserved Early Cretaceous leaves of Nilssoniopteris from central Mongolia. Open access, Acta Palaeobotanica, 58: 135–157.
! A.M. Hetherington and I. Woodward: The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change. Abstract and review article. Nature 424, 901 - 908 (21 August 2003). See also here, and there.
Kevin R. Hultine (Department of Forest Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID), and John D. Marshall (website hosted by Biology Online): A comparison of three methods for determining the stomatal density of pine needles. Three methods used to estimate the stomatal density of two species of three-needle pines, Pinus taeda and Pinus ponderosa is reported.
A.H. Jahren and N.C. Arens (2009):
of atmospheric δ13CO2 using plant cuticle isolated from fluvial sediment:
tests across a gradient in salt content. PDF file, Palaios, 24, 394-401.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! M. Javelle et al. (2011): Epidermis: the formation and functions of a fundamental plant tissue. In PDF, New Phytologist, 189: 17-39.
! T.P. Jones and Nick P. Rowe (eds.), Google Books
(some pages are ommitted):
Fossil plants and spores:
Published by Geological Society, 1999,
396 pages. Excellent! Click:
Go to page 52:
Light microscopy of cuticles (chapter written by H. Kerp and M. Krings).
! G.J. Jordan et al. (2015): Environmental adaptation in stomatal size independent of the effects of genome size. In PDF, New Phytologist, 205: 608-617.
! E.V. Karasev /2013): Formal system of dispersed leaf cuticles of pteridosperms (Peltaspermaceae) from the Permian and Triassic of the Russian platform Paleontological Journal, 47: 335-349. See also here (abstract).
University of Münster:
! Plant cuticles and some of their applications in palaeobotany.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Hans Kerp: The study of fossil gymnosperms by means of cuticular analysis. PALAIOS; 1990; v. 5; no. 6; p. 548-569. See also here (abstract).
G. Kerstiens (1996): Plant cuticles - an integrated functional approach. In PDF, Journal of Experimental Botany.
Gerhard Kerstiens, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, Lancaster University: Links to plant surface-related sites.
John W. Kimball, Kimball´s Biology Pages: Gas Exchange in Plants.
Jim Konecny et al. Fossil News: The Mazon Creek Nodules. Concretions formed in 300 million-year-old Illinois coal swamps yield flawless plants and insects.
! Lenny L.R. Kouwenberg et al. (2007):
new transfer technique to extract and process thin and fragmented
fossil cuticle using polyester overlays. Abstract,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 145: 243-248.
See also here (PDF file).
M. Krings et al.(2002): Touch-sensitive glandular trichomes: a mode of defence against herbivorous arthropods in the Carboniferous. PDF file, Evolutionary Ecology Research, 4: 779-786.
! M. Krings and H. Kerp (1997): An improved method for obtaining large pteridosperm cuticles. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
E. Kustatscher et al. (2017): The Lopingian (late Permian) flora from the Bletterbach Gorge in the Dolomites, Northern Italy: a review. In PDF, Geo.Alp, 14.
E. Kustatscher et al. (2011): Scytophyllum waehneri (Stur) nov. comb., the correct name for Scytophyllum persicum (Schenk) Kilpper, 1975. In PDF, Zitteliana, A 51.
U. Kutschera (2008): The growing outer epidermal wall: Design and physiological role of a composite structure. PDF file, Ann. Bot. 101: 615-621.
U. Kutschera and K.J. Niklas (2007): The epidermal-growth-control theory of stem elongation: An old and a new perspective. PDF file, J. Plant Physiol. 164: 1395-1409.
T. Linnell (1933); article started on PDF page 21:
Morphologie und Systematik triassischer Cycadophyten. II. Über
Scytophyllum Bornemann, eine wenig bekannte Cycadophytengattung aus dem
Keuper. In PDF,
Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 27: 310–331.
See also here and there.
B.H. Lomax and W.T. Fraser (2015): Palaeoproxies: botanical monitors and recorders of atmospheric change. In PDF, Palaeontology. See also here (abstract).
B.H. Lomax et al. (2013): Reconstructing relative genome size of vascular plants through geological time. In PDF, New Phytologist.
LoveToKnow: The LoveToKnow Free Online Encyclopedia is based on the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Go to: Palaeobotany. See also: Preservation.
Joyce Macpherson, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canadian Association of Palynologists): Picea Stomata in Lake Sediments. A bibliography. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M.J.M Martens, R. Aalbers, W.L.P. Janssen, J. van Beurden and E.S. Pierson, General Biology, Katholieke University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Virtual Classroom Biology. This extensive site offers educative material about biology, including virtual lessons and lots of illustrations, particularly on cells and tissues. Go to: The microworld of leaves.
N.P. Maslova and A.B. Herman (2015): Approach to Identification of Fossil Angiosperm Leaves: Applicability and Significance of Krassilov´s Morphological System. In PDF, Botanica Pacifica, 4: 103–108.
D. Mauquoy et al. (2010): A protocol for plant macrofossil analysis of peat deposits. PDF file, Mires and Peat, Volume 7.
! J.C. McElwain and M. Steinthorsdottir (2017): Paleoecology, ploidy, paleoatmospheric composition, and developmental biology: a review of the multiple uses of fossil stomata. Free access, Plant Physiology, 174.
! Jennifer C. McElwain and William G. Chaloner, Department of Biology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham: The fossil cuticle as a skeletal record of environmental change. PDF file, see also here (Abstract), and there.
! S. McLoughlin et al. (2017): The diversity of Australian Mesozoic bennettitopsid reproductive organs. Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., DOI 10.1007/s12549. See also here (in PDF).
! P. Moisan (2012): The study of cuticular and epidermal features in fossil plant impressions using silicone replicas for scanning electron microscopy. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica.
Research Group Münster, Germany:
! Plant cuticles and some of their applications in palaeobotany. An introduction including breathtaking cuticle photomicrographs.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Research Group Münster, Germany:
! History of Palaeozoic Forests, MODES OF PRESERVATION. Link list page with picture rankings. The links give the most direct connections to pictures available on the web.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! L. Muriale et al. (1996): Fatality due to acute fluoride poisoning following dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid in a palynology laboratory. PDF file, Journal of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, 40: 705-710.
Pyrolysis and macromolecular geochemistry group, Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry, Newcastle Research Group (NRG), University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne: The molecular characterization of the very first land plants to appear on the surface of this planet (via wayback link). Abstract.
K.J. Niklas et al. (2017): The evolution of hydrophobic cell wall biopolymers: from algae to angiosperms. Abstract, J. Exp. Bot.
Karl J. Niklas (1981): The Chemistry of Fossil Plants. Abstract, BioScience, 31: 820-825.
! M. Nip et al. (1986): Analysis of modern and fossil plant cuticles by Curie point Py-GC and Curie point Py-GC-MS: recognition of a new, highly aliphatic and resistant biopolymer. In PDF.
! N. Nosova et al. (2017): New data on the epidermal structure of the leaves of Podozamites Braun. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 238: 88–104. See also here (in PDF).
T.A. Ohsawa et al. (2016): Araucarian leaves and cone scales from the Loreto Formation of Río de Las Minas, Magellan Region, Chile. In PDF, Botany, 94: 805–815. See also here.
M. Özcan et al. (2012): Possible hazardous effects of hydrofluoric acid and recommendations for treatment approach: a review. In PDF, Clinical Oral Investigations, 16: 15–23. See also here.
J. Pittermann (2010): The evolution of water transport in plants: an integrated approach. In PDF, Geobiology.
Mike Pole, Queensland Herbarium, Toowong, Australia: Early Eocene Dispersed Cuticles and Mangrove to Rainforest Vegetation at Strahan-Regatta Point, Tasmania. Paleontologia Electronica 2007, 10 (3).
! C. Pott et al. (2012): Trichomes on the leaves of Anomozamites villosus sp. nov. (Bennettitales) from the Daohugou beds (Middle Jurassic), Inner Mongolia, China: Mechanical defence against herbivorous arthropods. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 169: 48-60.
C. Pott et al. (2008): The Carnian (Late Triassic) flora from Lunz in Lower Austria: Paleoecological considerations. In PDF, Palaeoworld, 17: 172-182. See also here.
! C. Pott and H. Kerp (2008): Mikroskopische Untersuchungsmethoden an fossilen Pflanzenabdrücken. In PDF. Der Präparator.
J.A. Raven (2002): Selection pressures on stomatal evolution. PDF file, New Phytologist.
H. Renault et al. (2017): A phenol-enriched cuticle is ancestral to lignin evolution in land plants. Nat. Commun. 8.K.S. Renzaglia et al. (2017): Hornwort stomata: architecture and fate shared with 400 million year old fossil plants without leaves. In PDF, Plant Physiology, 177. See also here.
! G.J. Retallack (2001):
300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles.
In PDF, Nature.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
Supplementary Information for "A 300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles" Nature, V411, 287. They are measurements of stomatal index from fossil and living plants. Part 1 has reliable data, and Part 2 has data deemed statistically inadequate from a rarefaction analysis. Abbreviations include SI (stomatal index), Nf (number of fragments counted), Ns (number of stomates counted), Ne (number of epidermal cells counted), and Ma (millions of years ago).
M. Riederer and L. Schreiber et al. (2001): Protecting against water loss: analysis of the barrier properties of plant cuticles. Journal of experimental botany, 52: 2023-2032. In PDF, see also here.
Markus Riederer, Julius von Sachs Institut, Würzburg:
pflanzliche Grenzflächen (in German).
Research about plant cuticles.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M. Riederer and L. Schreiber et al. (1995): Waxes: the transport barriers of plant cuticles. PDF file, in: R.J. Hamilton (ed.). Waxes: Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Functions. The Oily Press, West Ferry, Dundee, Scotland.S.J. Rogerson et al. (1976): An improved preparation technique for identification of plant cuticle in animal faeces. In PDF, New Zealand Journal of Botany, 14: 117-119.
Anita Roth-Nebelsick (2007): Computer-based Studies of Diffusion through Stomata of Different Architecture. PDF file, Ann. Bot., 100: 23-32. See also here.
P.J. Rudall and R.M. Bateman (2019):
surface development and the plant fossil record: stomatal patterning in Bennettitales. Abstract,
"... Fossil bennettites – even purely vegetative material – can be readily identified by a combination of epidermal features, including distinctive cuticular guard-cell thickenings, lobed abaxial epidermal cells (‘puzzle cells’), transverse orientation of stomata perpendicular to the leaf axis, and a pair of lateral subsidiary cells adjacent to each guard-cell pair (termed paracytic stomata). ..."
P.J. Rudall et al. (2017): Evolution and development of monocot stomata. In PDF, American journal of botany, 104: 1122-1141.
E.-M. Sadowski et al. (2017):
of the "Baltic amber forest" and
their palaeoecological significance. In PDF, Stapfia, 106.
Note Fig. 1: Terminology of the stomata morphology.
P. Sarkar et al. (2009): Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles. In PDF, Journal of Experimental Botany, 60: 3615–3635. See also here.
E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2014):
history across the Permian–Triassic boundary in Pakistan (Amb section, Salt Range).
Gondwana research, 27: 911-924.
See also here, and there (in PDF).
A.C. Scott and G. Rex (1985): The formation and significance of Carboniferous coal balls. PDF file, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, B, 311: 123-137.
Z. Simunek and J. Haldovský (2015): Contribution to the knowledge of Cordaites species from the Kladno-Rakovník Basin, Middle Pennsylvanian (Bolsovian), Czech Republic. In PDF, Geologia Croatica.
Z. Simunek et al. (2009): Cordaites borassifolius (Sternberg) Unger (Cordaitales) from the Radnice Basin (Bolsovian, Czech Republic). PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 84: 301-336.
W.K. Soh et al. (2017): Palaeo leaf economics reveal a shift in ecosystem function associated with the end-Triassic mass extinction event. Abstract, Nature plants, 3. See also here (supplementary information) and there (corrigendum, in PDF).
! Robert A. Spicer (1977): The pre-depositional formation of some leaf impressions. PDF file, Palaeontology, 20: 907–912. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
B. Artur Stankiewicz et al. (1998): Chemical preservation of plants and insects in natural resins. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 265: 641-647. See also here.
B.A. Stankiewicz et al.: Molecular taphonomy of arthropod and plant cuticles from the Carboniferous of North America: implications for the origin of kerogen. Journal of the Geological Society, June 1, 1998; 155(3): 453 - 462. See also here (Abstract).M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2018): Cuticle surfaces of fossil plants as a potential proxy for volcanic SO2 emissions: observations from the Triassic–Jurassic transition of East Greenland. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 98: 49–69. See also here.
M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2011): Extremely elevated CO2 concentrations at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 308: 418-432.
E.J. Stevens, S.J. Stevens, R.N. Gates, KM. Eskridce, and S.S. Waller: Procedure for Fecal Cuticle Analysis of Herbivore Diets. PDF file.
! G.W. Stull et al. (2012): Palaeoecology of Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri, and its implications for resolving the paradox of "xeromorphic" plants in Pennsylvanian wetlands. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 331-332: 162-176.
Taylor S. Feild, Maciej A. Zwieniecki, Michael J. Donoghue, and N. Michele Holbrook: Stomatal plugs of Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) protect leaves from mist but not drought. PNAS, 1998 95: 14256-14259.
! G.A. Upchurch Jr. (1989): Dispersed angiosperm cuticles. In PDF, Notes for a Workshop on the Study of Fragmentary Plant Remains.
G.R. Upchurch Jr. (1984): Cuticle evolution in Early Cretaceous angiosperms from the Potomac Group of Virginia and Maryland. PDF file, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
G.R. Upchurch Jr. (1984): The cuticular anatomy of early angiosperm leaves from the Lower Cretaceous Potomac Group of Virginia and Maryland, Part 1, Zone 1 leaves. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. PDF file, American Journal of Botany 71: 192-202.M.A. Urban et al. (2018): Cuticle and subsurface ornamentation of intact plant leaf epidermis under confocal and superresolution microscopy. In PDF, See also here and there.
! V. Vajda et al. (2017): Molecular signatures of fossil leaves provide unexpected new evidence for extinct plant relationships. In PDF, Nature Ecology & Evolution. See also here and there.
! P.F. van Bergen et al. (1995): Resistant biomacromolecules in the fossil record. Abstract, Acta botanica neerlandica. See also here (in PDF).
! A. Vatén and D.C. Bergmann (2012): Mechanisms of stomatal development: an evolutionary view. In PDF, EvoDevo, 3.
! H. Visscher (1993): Links with the past in the plant world: cuticles as recorders of diversity, kerogen formation and palaeoatmospheric CO2-level. In PDF, The Palaeobotanist.
L. Wang and Q. Leng (2011): A new method to prepare clean cuticular membrane from fossil leaves with thin and fragile cuticles. In PDF, Science China Earth Sciences, 54: 223-227. See also here.
Y. Wang et al. (2005): Cuticular anatomy of Sphenobaiera huangii (Ginkgoales) from the lower Jurassic of Hubei, China. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 92: 709-721.
Jing-Ke Weng and Clint Chapple (2010): The origin and evolution of lignin biosynthesis. New Phytologist, 187: 273-285.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Plant cuticle.
M.J. Wooller (2002): Fossil grass cuticles from lacustrine sediments: a review of methods applicable to the analysis of tropical African lake cores. PDF file, The Holocene.
Xiao-Ju Yang et al. (2009): Leaf cuticle ultrastructure of Pseudofrenelopsis dalatzensis (Chow et Tsao) Cao ex Zhou (Cheirolepidiaceae) from the Lower Cretaceous Dalazi Formation of Jilin, China. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 153: 8-18.
M. Zhao et al. (2015): Anomozamites (Bennettitales) from Middle Jurassic Haifanggou Formation, western Liaoning, China. In PDF, Global Geology.
Carl Zimmer (Carl Zimmer writes the monthly essay in the US magazine Natural History, having inherited this position from Stephen Jay Gould): High and dry. Stomatal apparatus permitting plants to become trees. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
E.L. Zodrow and J.A. D´angelo (2013): Compression map: Improved means for studying Carboniferous foliage. Atlantic Geology, 49.
E.L. Zodrow et al. (2010): Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada). Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology, 84: 71-82.
E. Zodrow and M. Mastalerz (2009):
proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles
by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada).
PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 84: 227-240.
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