Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Preservation & Taphonomy /

Taphonomy in General
Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy
Collecting Bias: Our Incomplete Picture of the Past Vegetation
Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils
Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation
Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)
Permineralized Plants and the Process of Permineralization
Pyrite Preservation
Molecular Palaeobotany
Upland and Hinterland Floras
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants
Leaf Litter and Plant Debris
Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations
Wound Response in Trees
Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record
! Cellulose Peel Technique@
! Fossil Charcoal@
! Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General@
! The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings@
Plant Anatomy@
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@

Petrified Forests

Richard Alley, Pennsylvania State University: Living on Earth I: Evolution & Extinction, Geology of the National Parks. Powerpoint presentation.

! Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona (U.S. Department of the Interior). Go to: Fossils. Plant and animal fossils representing the Late Triassic. See also: W.G. Parker and Sid Ash: Linnaean taxonomy of Late Triassic Plants of Petrified Forest National Park, and Late Triassic Pollen found in Petrified Forest National Park. By W.G. Parker, data compiled from Dunay and Fisher (1984), Litwin (1986), and Litwin et al., (1991).

S.R.Ash (2005): Synopsis of the Upper Triassic flora of Petrified Forest National Park and vicinity. In PDF. In: Nesbitt SJ , Parker WG, Irmis RB, eds. Guidebook to the Triassic Formations of the Colorado Plateau in northern Arizona: Geology, Paleontology, and History, Mesa Southwest Museum, Bulletin No. 9: 53–62.

Bayreuth University, Germany:
Feierliche Übergabe der Leitung der Paläobotanischen Sammlung Rossmann.
Ehrung von Prof. Dr. Rossmann.
In German.

! R.T. Bolzon et al. (2004): Fossildiagênese de lenhos do Mesozóico do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. PDF file, in Portuguese. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 7: 103-110.
About wood fossil diagenesis, e.g. the preservation of the cells of fossil wood, the form of wood mineralization, especially the silicification of wood.

Mariana Brea et al. (2009): Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835. PDF file, Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64: 21-31. Fossil tree stumps in growth position.

Mariana Brea et al. (2008): Ecological reconstruction of a mixed Middle Triassic forest from Argentina. PDF file, Alcheringa, 32: 365-393. See also here.-The Darwin Forest consists of 120 stumps in life position!

The Petrified Forest, Calistoga, California.

! A. Channing and D. Edwards (2013): Wetland megabias: Ecological and ecophysiological filtering dominates the fossil record of hot spring floras. In PDF, Palaeontology, 56: 523-556.

! A. Channing and D. Edwards (2004): Experimental taphonomy: silicification of plants in Yellowstone hot-spring environments. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 94, 503-521. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Museum of Natural History Chemnitz, Germany. Go to: Paläontologische Sammlung. Palaeobotany and petrified wood collection (in German).

Don Chesnut, Geology Department, University of Kentucky: Geology and fossils in Kentucky and adjacent states. Scroll to: "Upper Path Fork coal balls, 1980". Worth checking out: Cordaite with growth rings (peel made by Tom Phillips).

Harold G. Coffin, Geoscience Research Institute, Loma Linda, CA (This institute serves the Seventh-day Adventist church): THE YELLOWSTONE PETRIFIED "FORESTS". All about the petrified forests of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming and Montana.

H.G. Coffin (1997): The Yellowstone petrified "forests". In PDF.

Adele Conover, Smithsonian magazine: The Object at Hand. From a forest that flourished 207 million years ago, the Sherman Logs bear stony witness to a general´s curiosity, and life in an age gone by.

E. Couradeau et al.(2013): Cyanobacterial calcification in modern microbialites at the submicrometer scale. In PDF.

Stadtmuseum im Spital, Crailsheim, Germany: Exhibition about petrified Triassic wood: "Aus Holz wird Stein Kieselhölzer aus dem Keuper Frankens" June 28 - September 20, 2009. (In German). See also here (Amazon book announcement), and there (book announcement, in German).

Géza Császár et al. (2009): A possible Late Miocene fossil forest PaleoPark in Hungary. PDF file, Carnets de Géologie / Notebooks on Geology, Brest, Book 2009/03, Chapter 11. Lignified tree trunks in situ, partially covered by a fine-grained pyritic sandstone crust.
See also here.

Thomas A. Dillhoff, Pasco, Washington (article hosted by Evolving Earth Foundation Issaquah, WA). Fossil Forests of Eastern Washington.

R.F. Dubiel (1992): Sedimentology and Depositional History of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the Uinta, Piceance, and Eagle Basins, Northwestern Colorado and Northeastern Utah. In PDF, See also here (Google books).

Greb, S.F., Eble, C.F., Chesnut, D.R., Jr., Phillips, T.L., and Hower, J.C.: An in situ occurrence of coal balls in the Amburgy coal bed, Pikeville Formation (Duckmantian), Central Appalachian Basin, U.S.A. Palaios, v. 14, p. 433-451; 1999. See also here (via wayback).

Florissant Fossil Beds, National Monument Colorado. Beneath a grassy mountain valley in central Colorado lies one of the richest and most diverse fossil deposits in the world. See especially:
! Curriculum Materials. A variety of lesson plans developed to help students gain an understanding of geology and paleontology at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. Most of the activities in PDF.

J.E. Francis, Earth Sciences, University of Leeds: Fossil Trees in the Basal Purbeck Formation on Portland - The Great Dirt Bed Forest.

! C. Géza et al. 2009): A possible Late Miocene fossil forest PaleoPark in Hungary. Tree stumps in situ! PDF file, from:
Jere H. Lipps and Bruno R.C. Granier (eds.) 2009, (e-book, hosted by Carnets): PaleoParks - The protection and conservation of fossil sites worldwide. Also available from here. This is one of the internet´s leading websites for earth science news and information. Go to:
What is Petrified Wood? How Does it Form?

David R. Greenwood, Zoology Dept., Brandon University, Manitoba, Canada: Mummified tree stumps on Axel Heiberg Island, Canada (PDF file).

D.M. Guido et al. (2010): Jurassic geothermal landscapes and fossil ecosystems at San Agustín, Patagonia, Argentina. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 167: 11-20.

E.L. Gulbranson et al. (2012): Permian polar forests: deciduousness and environmental variation. In PDF, Geobiology, 10: 479-495.

A.B. Heckert and S.G. Lucas (2002): Revised Upper Triassic stratigraphy of the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. In PDF, NM Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci. Bull.

Paul V. Heinrich, Louisiana Fossil Page: Common Animal and Plant Fossils of Louisiana, Louisiana Petrified Wood, and Petrified Palm Wood.

Marguerite Holloway, Scientific American May 2002 issue: Trees of the Triassic. In the Painted Desert of Arizona, a story of how forests turned to stone and how the stones are walking away.

Houston Gem and Mineral Society: Petrified Wood Articles by HGMS Authors and Others.

The International Golden Fossil Tree Society (?): BOSQUE PETRIFICADO DE SARMIENTO(Argentina)Patagonia (in Spanish).

! K.-P. Kelber, Würzburg (2007): Die Erhaltung und paläobiologische Bedeutung der fossilen Hölzer aus dem süddeutschen Keuper (Trias, Ladinium bis Rhätium).- In German. PDF file, 33 MB! pp. 37-100; In: Schüßler, H. & Simon, T. (eds.): Aus Holz wird Stein. Kieselhölzer aus dem Keuper Frankens.

! Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster. Click: "Rhynie Chert" (The Rhynie Chert and its Flora). A depiction of the silica permineralized fossil flora of Rhynie (Scotland), a 400 Million year old flora, which contains a wide diversity of taxa varying from unicellular fungi to the earliest anatomically preserved higher land plants and animal remains. Breathtaking thin section micro-photographs, e.g. in " V. The alternation of generations in early land plants": The male gametophyte with antheridia, the release of sperm from antheridium, etc. Including "The life cycle of Aglaophyton - Lyonophyton", modified after Taylor, Kerp & Hass, 2005, PNAS, v. 102, p. 5892-5897.

Helmut Knoll, Alsdorf, Germany: Fossil plants from the Late Cretaceous Aachen Formation (in German). See especially: Hermanophyton sp.

S.G. Lucas (2001), go to PDF page 52: Restoration of Late Triassic landscapes at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. In PDF, Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference. See also here.

L. Luthardt et al. (2018): Severe growth disturbances in an early Permian calamitalean – traces of a lightning strike? Abstract, Palaeontographica Abteilung B, 298: 1-22.
! "... The special injury of the calamitalean described herein [...] exhibits an elongated to triangular shape, a central furrow, a scar-associated event ring of collapsed to distorted tracheids, and was ultimately overgrown by callus parenchyma. We suggest that this scar most likely was caused by a lightning strike ..."

Steven R. Manchester, Department of Natural Sciences, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainsville: PETRIFIED WOODS IN FLORIDA. This article was a contribution to Papers In Florida Paleontology, No. 8, November 1996, published by the Florida Paleontological Society.

D. Mantzouka et al. (2019): Petrified Forest of Lesbos Island (Greece): A Palaeobotanical Puzzle of a Unique Geopark and the New Discoveries. In PDF, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 221. See also here.

Jeffrey W. Martz and William G. Parker (2010): Revised Lithostratigraphy of the Sonsela Member (Chinle Formation, Upper Triassic) in the Southern Part of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. PDF file, see also here.

C.L. May and R.E. Gresswell (2003): Processes and rates of sediment and wood accumulation in the headwater streams of the Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28(4): 409-424. See also here (PDF file).

S. McLoughlin and C. Strullu-Derrien (2015): Biota and palaeoenvironment of a high middle-latitude Late Triassic peat-forming ecosystem from Hopen, Svalbard archipelago. In PDF.

Mineralienatlas - Fossilienatlas (in German): Thema: links und linklisten zur Paläobotanik, Auflistung von National Parks, Museen & Sammlungen von Jim Mills aus Kalifornien.

! G.E. Mustoe (2018): Mineralogy of Non-Silicified Fossil Wood. Open access, Geosciences, 8.

! G.E. Mustoe (2015): Late Tertiary Petrified Wood from Nevada, USA: Evidence of Multiple Silicification Pathways. Geosciences, 5: 286-309.

! G.E. Mustoe (2001): Washington´s Fossil Forests. Washington Geology, 29: 10-20. Further paleontological articles from Washington Geology Magazine here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior: Petrified Forest National Park Arizona.

Natural History Museum of the Lesvos Petrified Forest Sigri, Lesvos Island, Greece.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde 1860. By Karl Cäsar von Leonhard, Heinrich Georg Bronn (E. Schweizerbart's Verlagshandlung), digitized by Google Book Search. Go to: K. Fr. W Braun: Über das Bayreuther versteinte Holz.

Geobiology, Department of Earth Sciences, Oxford University: Questioning the evidence for Earth's oldest fossils,

W.G. Parker and J.W. Martz (2010), Go to PDF page 22: OVERVIEW OF PAST AND CURRENT PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT THE PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK, ARIZONA, USA. PDF file, SEPM-NSF Workshop "Paleosols and Soil Surface Analog Systems", September 21-26, 2010, Petrified Forest National Park, AZ.

! William Parker (2005): Petrified Forest National Park: a Roadlog. PDF file, Guidebook to the Triassic Formations of the Colorado Plateau in northern Arizona: Geology, Paleontology, and History. Sterling J. Nesbitt, William G. Parker, and Randall B. Irmis (eds.) Mesa Southwest Museum, Bulletin No. 9.

Lisa M. Pinsker, Geotimes June 2003: European Geoconservation. Now 12 parks strong, the European Geoparks Network spans Ireland, France, Spain, Italy, Greece and Germany, with scenes ranging from petrified forest to coastal cliff.

! T.L. Phillips et al. (1976): Fossil peat of the Illinois basin: a guide to the study of coal balls of Pennsylvanian age. In PDF, Geoscience education, 11.

Wolfgang Putz, Alberndorf, Austria: My fossil wood collection. A nice collector´s website, showing the variety of petrified wood (explanations in German). Polished slabs sorted by continents and countries.

L. Bruce Railsback, Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens: An Atlas of Speleothem Microfabrics. Stalagmites, stalactites, and other mineral deposits known as speleothems contain chemical and mineralogical clues to past rainfall and temperatures. Go to: plant matter in a stalagmite. See also here, and SEM image of plant tissue (xylem) amidst calcite in a stalagmite.

! J. Ramezani et al. (2011): High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona, USA): Temporal constraints on the early evolution of dinosaurs. Abstract.

Authored by the The Rhynie Chert Research Group, University of Aberdeen, with contributions and support by the Palaeobotanical Research Group, University of Münster, Germany, the Centre for Palynology, University of Sheffield, The Natural History Museum, London, and The Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems, The Rhynie Chert. A resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of this unique geological deposit (including a glossary and bibliography pages). Go to: Taphonomy of the Rhynie Chert, and Silicification and the Conversion of Sinter to Chert.

R. Rößler (2019): Der Wald aus Stein unter Chemnitz – einzigartiges „Pompeji des Erdaltertums“. In German, PDF file. Kalenderblatt April 2019, Online-Plattform der Professur Geschichte Europas im Mittelalter und in der Frühen Neuzeit an der Technischen Universität Chemnitz.

R. Rößler et al. (2015): Der Versteinerte Wald Chemnitz - Momentaufnahme eines vulkanisch konservierten Ökosystems aus dem Perm (Exkursion L am 11. April 2015). PDF file, in German. The petrified forest of Chemnitz - A snapshot of an early Permian ecosystem preserved by volcanism. Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N.F. 97.

R. Rößler (2014): Die Bewurzelung permischer Calamiten: Aussage eines Schlüsselfundes zur Existenz freistehender baumförmiger Schachtelhalmgewächse innerhalb der Paläofloren des äquatornahen Gondwana. PDF file, in German. The roots of Permian calamitaleans - a key find suggests the existence of free-stemmed arborescent sphenopsids among the low latitude palaeofloras of Gondwana. Freiberger Forschungshefte, C 548.

R. Rößler (2014): Das Museum für Naturkunde Chemnitz - eine Erfolgsgeschichte (in German). PDF file, go to PDF page 47. Mitteilungen und Berichte aus dem Institut für Museumsforschung, 52.

R. Rößler et al. 2012:
! Start on PDF page 213: Field trip 2: Petrified Forest of Chemnitz – A Snapshot of an Early Permian Ecosystem Preserved by Explosive Volcanism. In PDF, Centenary Meeting of the Paläontologische Gesellschaft, Terra Nostra.
Note fig. 4 (on PDF page 218): The interpretative drawing of the excavation Chemnitz-Hilbersdorf.

! R. Rößler et al. (2012): The largest calamite and its growth architecture - Arthropitys bistriata from the Early Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 185: 64-78.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! R. Rößler (2000): The late Palaeozoic tree fern Psaronius - an ecosystem unto itself. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 108: 55-74. See also here.

R. Rößler (1999): Sächsische und thüringische Kieselhölzer - Funde und Sammlungen an der Wiege der Geowissenschaften PDF file, in German.

Ronny Rößler, Museum of Natural History, Chemnitz (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.): Das Perm - Farnwälder, Glutwolken und Salzwüsten. In German. Full article available here (PDF file).

! Vincent Santucci and Lindsay McClelland (eds.): National Park Service, Paleontological Research. Reports documenting the multi-park-based Morrison Ecosystem Project, the fossil bee´s nest at Petrified Forest National Park, and fossil mollusks from Alcatraz Island at Golden Gate National Recreation Area. This volume contains the first reports on paleontological inventories for Bryce Canyon National Park, Denali National Park, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, and Ozark National Scenic Riverway and the unfortunate story regarding the abolished Fossil Cycad National Monument.
Also availabe in PDF.

B.J. Slater et al. (2015): A high-latitude Gondwanan lagerstätte: The Permian permineralised peat biota of the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 27: 1446-1473. See also here (abstract).

B.J. Slater (2014): Cryptic diversity of a Glossopteris forest: the Permian Prince Charles Mountains Floras, Antarctica. In PDF, thesis, submitted to the University of Birmingham.

Margot Guerra Sommer and Claiton M. S. Scherer, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites): Sítios Paleobotânicos do Arenito Mata nos Municípios de Mata e São Pedro do Sul, RS (in Portuguese). A Brazilian deposit of fossil silicified wood.

! Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Wood of the horsetail tree Calamites,
The tree fern Psaronius,
The tree fernTempskya
The gymnospermous tree Cordaites,
Fossil gymnosperm wood, and
Fossil palm wood or Palmoxylon.

! Thomas N. Taylor and Michael Krings (2005): Fossil microorganisms and land plants: Associations and interactions. PDF file, Symbiosis, 40: 119-135.

! Edith L. Taylor and Thomas N. Taylor: Structurally Preserved Permian and Triassic Floras from Antarctica. PDF file.

! Marian Timpe, Rostock, Germany:
Versteinerte Pflanzen (in German). A well organized website showing permineralized wood from all over the world. Including location descriptions.

Treasures of the Earth, Ltd., Hollsopple, PA., U.S.A.: Petrified Wood. Images of petrified wood slabs, chiefly from the Chinle Formation, Utah, USA.

Nigel H. Trewin, Stephen R. Fayers & Lyall I. Anderson, University of Aberdeen: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems: The Rhynie Chert. The "Learning Resource" (updated 08/09/04) is primarily a resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of the unique Rhynie Chert deposit and its scientific significance (including a glossary and bibliography pages). The "Suggestions For Tutors" provides guidance for teachers (password protected). This part is primarily aimed at a university Honours degree level. The content is primarily of value in geology teaching, but has relevance to botany, zoology, ecology and history of science.

UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): U.S. Geological Survey Photographic Archive. This on-line system provides access to over 19,000 photographs and original sketches, dating from 1868 to the present. Go to: NATIONAL PARKS-MONUMENTS-SEASHORE. Choose: "Petrified National Park".

E. Velitzelos, Section of Palaeontology and Stratigraphy, Department of Geology, University of Athens, and N. Zouros, Natural History Museum of Lesvos' Petrified Forest, Lesvos Island: The Petrified forest of Lesvos - Protected Natural Monument.

M. Viney et al. (2017): The Bruneau Woodpile: A Miocene Phosphatized Fossil Wood Locality in Southwestern Idaho, USA. Open access, Geosciences, 7.

Mike Viney, The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum: Fossils. In PDF.

Mike Viney, Ft. Collins, Colorado: The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum. Images of fossil wood and other fossils sorted by geological age. See especially:
! Petrified Wood: The Silicification of Wood by Permineralization (PDF file).
See also: Anatomy. The anatomy of arborescent plants through time.

! Wang Xiaofeng et al. (2009): The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from Barren Mountain, Guizhou Province, China. A colony of Traumatocrinus sp. attached by root cirri to an agatized piece of driftwood! PDF file, from:
Jere H. Lipps and Bruno R.C. Granier (eds.) 2009, (e-book, hosted by Carnets): PaleoParks - The protection and conservation of fossil sites worldwide. Also available from here.

WAYNE'S WORD, Escondido, CA (A nonprofit quarterly journal published by WOLFFIA INC.): Fossils Of Ancient Plants. This websites are dedicated to little-known facts and trivia about natural history subjects.

J. Weber (2016): America´s Lost National Park Units: A Closer Look. In PDF, The George Wright Forum, 33: 59-69.
South Dakota´s Fossil Cycad NM among other delisted national park units. See also here (Wikipedia).

Michael Wegner, Köln, Germany: Versteinertes (in German).

! Ian West, Southampton University: The Fossil Forest - East of Lulworth Cove, Dorset.

Ian West, Southampton Oceanography Centre, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton University: The Fossil Forest, west of Lulworth Cove, Dorset, southern England. This is a classic geological locality with the remains and moulds of late Jurassic or early Cretaceous coniferous trees rooted in a palaeosol (ancient soil), the Great Dirt Bed. Above the trees is stromatolitic limestone and over this the unusual Broken Beds, a limestone breccia that was originally evaporitic. Let´s have a look at the Purbeck Trees.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Petrified wood.
Petrified Forest National Park.
Rhynie chert.
Coal ball.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Global Geoparks Network,
Protected areas.
Fossil trade.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Paleontological protected areas in the United States.

C.J. Williams et al. (2010): Fossil wood in coal-forming environments of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Chickaloon Formation. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 363-375. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Permineralized plant fossils from Germany (in German).

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated October 06, 2020