Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Preservation & Taphonomy / Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy

Taphonomy in General
Collecting Bias: Our Incomplete Picture of the Past Vegetation
Three-Dimensionally Preserved Plant Compression Fossils
Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation
Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)
Permineralized Plants and the Process of Permineralization
Petrified Forests
Pyrite Preservation
Molecular Palaeobotany
Upland and Hinterland Floras
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants
Leaf Litter and Plant Debris
Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations
Wood Decay
! Teaching Documents about Taphonomy@
! Fossil Charcoal@
! Coalification@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
! Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments@

Plant Fossil Preservation and Plant Taphonomy

Stephen T. Abedon, Microbiology, Ohio State University, Mansfield: Supplemental Lecture. Fossilization, palaeontology, biases in the fossil record etc. in brief.

! A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012): The record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires: Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel? In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 96–97: 60–71.
See also here (abstract).

Alexa (Alexa Internet, Inc., an Company). Alexa is a Web Information Company, perhaps best known for the Alexa Rank, the website ranking system which tracks over 30 million websites worldwide. The top ranked sites in category "Science". Go to:
! Taphonomy.

M.F. Alexandru et al. (2010): Simulating fossilization to resolve the taxonomic affinities of thalloid fossils in Early Silurian (ca. 425 Ma) terrestrial assemblages. In PDF.

J.P. Allen, and R.A. Gastaldo (2006): Sedimentology and taphonomy of the Early to Middle Devonian plant-bearing beds of the Trout Valley Formation, Maine. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S. (eds.): Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication 399: 57-78.

M.A.M. Aref et al. (2014): Microbial and physical sedimentary structures in modern evaporitic coastal environments of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In PDF, Facies.

! Nan Crystal Arens, C. Strömberg and A. Thompson, Department of Integrative Biology, and Paleobotany Section, Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Virtual Paleobotany, Laboratory III, Plant Fossils and Their Preservation. Excellent! Don´t miss the Virtual Gallery. See especially:
! Conditions Required for Plant Fossil Preservation.

G.A. Astorga et al. (2016): Towards understanding the fossil record better: Insights from recently deposited plant macrofossils in a sclerophyll-dominated subalpine environment. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 233: 1-11. See also here.

Anne-Marie Aucour et al. (2009): Insights into preservation of fossil plant cuticles using thermally assisted hydrolysis methylation. PDF file, Organic Geochemistry, 40: 784-794.

A.R. Bashforth et al. (2010): Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Anna K. Behrensmeyer (1992; Google books): Terrestrial ecosystems through time. Read "Taphonomy", page 4.

Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Susan M. Kidwell and Robert A. Gastaldo (2000): Taphonomy and Paleobiology. Abstract, Paleobiology, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 103-147.

S. Bernard et al. (2015): Evolution of the macromolecular structure of sporopollenin during thermal degradation. In PDF. See also here.

! S. Bernard et al. (2007): Exceptional preservation of fossil plant spores in high-pressure metamorphic rocks. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 262: 257-272. See also here.

! H.H. Birks (2001): Plant macrofossils. PDF file, in: J.P. Smol et al. (eds.): Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments.

! B. Blonder et al. (2012): The leaf-area shrinkage effect can bias paleoclimate and ecology research In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 99: 1756-1763.

! R.T. Bolzon et al. (2004): Fossildiagênese de lenhos do Mesozóico do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. PDF file, in Portuguese. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 7: 103-110.
About wood fossil diagenesis, e.g. the preservation of the cells of fossil wood, the form of wood mineralization, especially the silicification of wood.

! B. Bomfleur et al. (2014): Fossilized Nuclei and Chromosomes Reveal 180 Million Years of Genomic Stasis in Royal Ferns. Science, 343, abstract.


! C.K. Boyce (2008): Seeing the forest with the leaves-clues to canopy placement from leaf fossil size and venation characteristics. In PDF, Geobiology. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution. Go to:
What is Paleobotany?
Scroll down to: ! "Types of Fossilization".

! D.E.G. Briggs and S. McMahon (2016): The role of experiments in investigating the taphonomy of exceptional preservation. Abstract, Palaeontology, 59: 1–11. See also here (in PDF).

! D.E.G. Briggs (2003): The role of decay and mineralization in the preservation of soft-bodied fossils. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 31: 275-301.

D.E.G. Briggs (1999): Molecular taphonomy of animal and plant cuticles: selective preservation and diagenesis. PDF file, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 354: 7-17. See also here.

MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author´s name appears on the title page for each section): Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation. Go to: Fauna and Flora (e.g. a Cheiroledpidiaceous conifer); Mazon Creek, Fauna and Flora (Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobophyllum, Lepidophyllum, Calamites, Asterophyllites equisetiformis, Spenophyllum, Equisetites, Pecopteris, Asterotheca, Alethopteris, Diplothmema).

R.J. Burnham (2008): Hide and Go Seek: What Does Presence Mean in the Fossil Record. Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 95: 51-71. See also here (in PDF).

! R.J. Burnham (1993): Reconstructing Richness in the Plant Fossil Record. Abstract.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Excellent! Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

! Stephen P. Broker, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: The Evolution of Plants. The evolution of plants is briefly treated primarily in terms of a consideration of the concepts of time and change. Go to: IV. Paleobotanical Evidence. The Formation of Fossils.

R.J. Burnham (2008): Hide and Go Seek What Does Presence Mean in the Fossil Record. In PDF, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

R.J. Burnham (1994): Patterns in tropical leaf litter and implications for angiosperm paleobotany. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

R.J. Burnham et al. (1992): The reflection of deciduous forest communities in leaf litter: implications for autochthonous litter assemblages from the fossil record. PDF file, Paleobiology.

O. Cambra-Moo et al. (2013): Exceptionally well-preserved vegetal remains from the Upper Cretaceous of "Lo Hueco", Cuenca, Spain. In PDF, Lethaia, 46. See also here.

Claudia Capos, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan: Plant decay findings inform response to climate change.

J.A. Caruso et al. (2012): Microconchid encrusters colonizing land plants: the earliest North American record from the Early Devonian of Wyoming, USA. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 490-494. About plant decay rates.

! P. Cennamo et al. (2014): Epiphytic Diatom Communities on Sub-Fossil Leaves of Posidonia oceanica Delile in the Graeco-Roman Harbor of Neapolis: A Tool to Explore the Past. In PDF, American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: 549-553.

A. Channing and D.E. Wujek (2010): Preservation of protists within decaying plants from geothermally influenced wetlands of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, United States. PDF file, Palaios, 25: 347-355.

! A. Channing and D. Edwards (2004): Experimental taphonomy: silicification of plants in Yellowstone hot-spring environments. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 94, 503-521.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Field Museum, Chicago, IL:
Focus: Fossil Plants. See especially:
! Mesofossils.

Citizendium. This is an open wiki project. Go to: Fossilization.

C.J. Cleal and C.H. Shute (2007): The effect of drying on epidermal cell parameters preserved on plant cuticles. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica, 47: 315-326.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1995): Palaeozoic Palaeobotany of Great Britain, Introduction. PDF file, (hosted by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee). Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 9. See PDF page 8, "Fossilization processes", especially figure 1.3 and 1.4.

C.J. Cleal & B.A. Thomas, Geological Conservation Review Series (GCR), Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The JNCC is the UK government's wildlife adviser, undertaking national and international conservation work on behalf of the three country nature conservation agencies English Nature, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Countryside Council for Wales. Go to: Introduction to the Mesozoic and Tertiary palaeobotany of Great Britain. PDF file.

Margaret E. Collinson (2011): Molecular Taphonomy of Plant Organic Skeletons. Abstract, Aims & Scope Topics in Geobiology Book Series, 32: 223-247.

C.E. Colombi and J.T. Parrish (2008): Late Triassic Environmental Evolution in Southwestern Pangea: Plant Taphonomy of the Ischigualasto Formation. In PDF, Palaios.

W.K. Cornwell et al. (2009): Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed? PDF file, Global Change Biology, 15: 2431-2449.

S. Cotroneo et al. (2016): A new model of the formation of Pennsylvanian iron carbonate concretions hosting exceptional soft-bodied fossils in Mazon Creek, Illinois. In PDF, Geobiology, 14: 543-555. See also here (abstract).

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA: History of Life, Third Edition. Go to: Preservation and Bias in the Fossil Record.

Géza Császár et al. (2009): A possible Late Miocene fossil forest PaleoPark in Hungary. PDF file, Carnets de Géologie / Notebooks on Geology, Brest, Book 2009/03, Chapter 11. Lignified tree trunks in situ, partially covered by a fine-grained pyritic sandstone crust.

J.A. D´Angelo et al. (2012): Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada). Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology.

J.A. D´Angelo et al. (2011): Chemometric analysis of functional groups in fossil remains of the Dicroidium flora (Cacheuta, Mendoza, Argentina): Implications for kerogen formation. In PDF.

! V.H. Dale et al. (2004): Effects of modern volcanic eruptions on vegetation. Google books. See also here.

S.A.F. Darroch et al. (2012): Experimental formation of a microbial death mask. In PDF, Palaios, 27: 293-303.

Ben Dattilo, Geosciences, Weber State University, Ogden, Utah: Dinosaurs and The Fossil Record. The fossil record from the oldest fossils found on earth to the present day. Go to:
Web Syllabus with Links to Class Notes, and Fossilization (Basic Taphonomy).

Yannicke Dauphin, Micropaléontologie, Université Paris: "Biomineralization and Biologicalcalcifications": Taphonomy and Diagenesis NEWS.

John Dawson, Forest Vines to Snow Tussocks: The Story of New Zealand Plants (Part of New Zealand Texts Collection): How do plants become fossils?

G. De Lafontaine et al. (2011): Permineralization process promotes preservation of Holocene macrofossil charcoal in soils. In PDF, Journal of Quaternary Science, 26.

T.M. Demko (1995): Taphonomy of fossil plants in the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation. Dissertation, in PDF. Table of contents on PDF page 8; taphonomic studies of fossil plants introduction on PDF page 27.

! C.G. Diedrich (2009): A coelacanthid-rich site at Hasbergen (NW Germany): taphonomy and palaeoenvironment of a first systematic excavation in the Kupferschiefer (Upper Permian, Lopingian). In PDF, Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 89: 67-94.
Mapped taphonomy of plants, invertebrates and fish vertebrates at six different planal levels on a 12 m2 area.

! D. Dietrich et al. (2013): A microstructure study on silicified wood from the Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Paläontologische Zeitschrift.

! David L. Dilcher et al. (2009): A climatic and taxonomic comparison between leaf litter and standing vegetation from a Florida swamp woodland. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 1108-1115. here (abstract).

! W.A. DiMichele and H.J. Falcon-Lang (2012): Calamitalean "pith casts" reconsidered. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. See also here (abstract).

W.A. DiMichele and H.J. Falcon-Lang (2011): Pennsylvanian "fossil forests" in growth position (T0 assemblages): origin, taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168: 585-605.

A.S. Fernandes (2012): A geobiological investigation of the Mazon Creek concretions of northeastern Illinois, mechanisms of formation and diagenesis. In PDF. Thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

C. Diéguez et al. (2009): A fern-bennettitalean floral assemblage in Tithonian-Berriasian travertine deposits (Aguilar Formation, Burgos-Palencia, N Spain) and its palaeoclimatic and vegetational implications. In PDF, Journal of Iberian Geology, 35: 127-140.
Specimens preserved as impressions coated with a microbial film up to 5 mm thick made up of bacteria and cyanobacteria.

Jim Dockal, Department of Earth Sciences at the University of North Carolina, Wilmington: Sedimentary Petrology Laboratory Manual. Lecture notes. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. The primary objective in this course is to learn how to observe, describe, and interpret sedimentary rocks. Go to: Fossils, Fossilization and Taphonomy.

N. Dotzler et al. (2011): Sphenophyllum (Sphenophyllales) leaves colonized by fungi from the Upper Pennsylvanian Grand-Croix cherts of central France. Zitteliana 51. Go to PDF page 3.

S.G. Driese, C.I. Mora and J.M. Elick, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee-Knoxville: Morphology and taphonomy of root and stump casts of the earliest trees (Middle to Late Devonian), Pennsylvania and New York, U.S.A. Abstract, PALAIOS Volume 12.6, December 1997.

! K.A. Dunn et al. (1997): Enhancement of leaf fossilization potential by bacterial biofilms. In PDF, Geology, 25: 1119-1122. See also here (abstract).

N.P. Edwards et al. (2014): Leaf metallome preserved over 50 million years. In PDF, Metallomics, 6. See also here.

Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK: Research activities,
Molecular taphonomy, and
Other taphonomy.

C. Elliott-Kingston et al. (2014): Damage structures in leaf epidermis and cuticle as an indicator of elevated atmospheric sulphur dioxide in early Mesozoic floras. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 208: 25-42.

Brian J. Enquist et al. (2002): General patterns of taxonomic and biomass partitioning in extant and fossil plant communities. PDF file, Nature.

Howard J. Falcon-Lang and John H. Calder: Sir William Dawson (1820-1899): a very modern paleobotanist (PDF file). Early Plant Taphonomy! From the Atlantic Geology volume on the classic Carboniferous site at Joggins, Nova Scotia.

J. Farmer (1999): Articel starts on page 94, PDF page 110: Taphonomic Modes in Microbial Fossilization. In PDF; In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Size Limits of Very Small Organisms, Space Studies Board, National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.K. Ferguson (2012): Plant taphonomy: 20 years of death, decay, and dissemules. Abstract, Palaios 27.

! D.K. Ferguson et al. (2009): The taphonomy of a remarkable leaf bed assemblage from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, southern New Zealand. PDF file, International Journal of Coal Geology. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! David K. Ferguson (2005): Plant Taphonomy: Ruminations on the Past, the Present, and the Future. Abstract, Palaios, 20: 418-428. See also here (References).

David K. Ferguson, Department of Palaeontology, Geocentre, University of Vienna, Austria: Catastrophic events as a taphonomic window on plant communities. Abstract, International Plant Taphonomy Meeting Chemnitz, 2003.

A.S. Fernandes (2012): A geobiological investigation of the Mazon Creek concretions of northeastern Illinois, mechanisms of formation and diagenesis. In PDF. Thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

! M.E. Galvez et al. (2012): Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks fromNew Zealand. in PDF; Geobiology (2012), 10: 118-129. See also here.

! Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: Notes for a course in paleobotany. This website provides information about: Taphonomy: Physiological, Necrological, and Traumatic processes,
Taphonomy: Biogeochemical Processes of Plant Fossilization and Preservational Modes,
Biostratinomic Processes in Volcaniclastic Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Fluvial-Lacustrine Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Coastal-Deltaic Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Peat Accumulating Environments, and
Biostratinomic Processes in Marginal Marine Settings. See also: A Brief Introduction to PALEOBOTANY.

R.A. Gastaldo (2012): Taphonomic Controls on the Distribution of Palynomorphs in Tidally-influenced Coastal Deltaic Settings. In PDF, Palaios, 27: 798-810.

Robert A. Gastaldo and Timothy M. Demko (2011): The Relationship Between Continental Landscape Evolution and the Plant-Fossil Record: Long Term Hydrologic Controls on Preservation. PDF file, Topics in Geobiology, 32: 249-285. See also here (abstract).

Robert A. Gastaldo et al. (2005): Taphonomic Trends of Macrofloral Assemblages Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary, Karoo Basin, South Africa. PDF file, Palaios. See also here ("Tales of Extinction and Recovery", Smithsonian).

! R.A. Gastaldo and T.M. Demko (2011): The relationship between continental landscape evolution and the plant-fossil record: long term hydrologic controls on preservation. In PDF, Taphonomy.

Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: A Brief Introduction to TAPHONOMY. About: Gastaldo, Savrda, & Lewis. 1996. Deciphering Earth History: A Laboratory Manual with Internet Exercises. Contemporary Publishing Company of Raleigh, Inc. ISBN 0-89892-139-2.


! R.A. Gastaldo and J.R. Staub (1999): A mechanism to explain the preservation of leaf litter lenses in coals derived from raised mires. PDF file, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 149: 1-14.

R.A. Gastaldo and A.-Y. Huc (1992): Sediment facies, depositional environments, and distribution of phytoclasts in the Recent Mahakam River delta, Kalimantan, Indonesia. PDF file, Palaios. Framboidal pyrite in fig. 8B, 9B.

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1989): Biostratinomic processes for the development of mud-cast logs in Carboniferous and Holocene swamps. PDF file, Palaios.

! R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1987): Origin, characteristics, and provenance of plant macrodetritus in a Holocene crevasse splay, Mobile Delta, Alabama. PDF file, Palaios.

! C.T. Gee and R.A. Gastaldo (2005): Sticks and Mud, Fruits and Nuts, Leaves and Climate: Plant Taphonomy Comes of Age. PDF file, Palaios, 20: 415-418.

! C. Géza et al. 2009): A possible Late Miocene fossil forest PaleoPark in Hungary. Tree stumps in situ! PDF file, from:
Jere H. Lipps and Bruno R.C. Granier (eds.) 2009, (e-book, hosted by Carnets): PaleoParks - The protection and conservation of fossil sites worldwide. Also available from here.

Michael A. Gibson et al.: POSSIBLE DNA PRESERVATION FROM PLANT FOSSILS IN THE CLAIBORNE FORMATION (MIDDLE EOCENE) OF WEST TENNESSEE. Abstract, 54th Annual Meeting (March 17-18, 2005), The Geological Society of America (GSA).

Kristen P. Giebel (1984): Plant Fossils in the Laboratory. PDF file. Website hosted by The Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE).

M.R. Gibling and N.S. Davies (2012): Palaeozoic landscapes shaped by plant evolution. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 5.

V. Girard et al. (2011): Protist-like inclusions in amber, as evidenced by Charentes amber. In PDF, European journal of Protistology.

B. Gomez et al.: Plant taphonomy and palaeoecology in the lacustrine Una delta (Late Barremian, Iberian Ranges, Spain). Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 170, Number 1, 1 June 2001 , pp. 133-148.

Pamela J. W. Gore, Department of Geology, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA: Historical Geology. Online laboratory manual. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Fossil Preservation Laboratory.

! L.E. Graham et al. (2010): Structural, physiological, and stable carbon isotopic evidence that the enigmatic Paleozoic fossil Prototaxites formed from rolled liverwort mats. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 97: 268-275. See also:
! T.N. Taylor et al. (2010): The enigmatic Devonian fossil Prototaxites is not a rolled-up liverwort mat: Comment on the paper by Graham et al.(AJB 97: 268-275). In PDF. See also:
! L.E. Graham et al. (2010): Rolled liverwort mats explain major Prototaxites features: Response to commentaries.

L.E. Graham et al. (2004): Resistant tissues of modern marchantioid liverworts resemble enigmatic Early Paleozoic microfossils. In PDF, PNAS, 101: 11025-11029.

David R. Greenwood, (1992): Taphonomic constraints on foliar physiognomie interpretations of Late Cretaceous and tertiary palaeoeclimates. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

! David R. Greenwood, Environmental Science Program, Brandon University: The Taphonomy of Plant Macrofossils. Ch. 7, pp. 141-169, In, Donovan, S.K. (Ed.) The Processes of Fossilization. Belhaven Press, London, 303 pp.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (in PDF).

! S.T. Grimes et al. (2001): Understanding fossilization: Experimental pyritization of plants. Abstract, Geology, 29: 123–126.

! N.S. Gupta et al. (2006): Reinvestigation of the occurrence of cutan in plants: implications for the leaf fossil record. Abstract, Paleobiology, 32: 432–449.

! T. Handa et al. (2014): Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes. Nature, 509: 218-221.

C.J. Harper et al. (2015): Fungi associated with Glossopteris (Glossopteridales) leaves from the Permian of Antarctica. In PDF, Zitteliana.

Terry Harrison (2011): Coprolites: Taphonomic and Paleoecological Implications. PDF file, Paleontology and geology of Laetoli.

E.A. Heise et al. (2011): Wood taphonomy in a tropical marine carbonate environment: Experimental results from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 312: 363-379.

! J. Hellawell et al. (2015): Incipient silicification of recent conifer wood at a Yellowstone hot spring. In PDF, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 149: 79-87. See also here (abstract).

Robert S. Hill, Department of Botany, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia: Consequences of long-distance dispersal of plant macrofossils. PDF file, New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1981, Vol. 19: 241-242.

J. Hladil et al. (2010): Dust. A geology-orientated attempt to reappraise the natural components, amounts, inputs to sediment, and importance for correlation purposes. PDF file, Geologica Belgica, 13: 367-384.

Christa-Ch. Hofmann and A. Hugh N. Rice (2008): Monospecific "leaf-jams" in the seasonal/ephemeral Hoanib River in the northern Namib (NW Namibia). Abstract, 18th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Vienna, Austria.

Illinois Digital Archives: George Langford Sr., collecting Mazon Creek nodules. In the 1920s and 1930s, George Langford, and his son, George, Jr., spent many hours collecting fossiliferous nodules from strip mines near Braidwood, Illinois.

! The International Plant Taphonomy Meeting. The International Plant Taphonomy Meetings are informal workshops focusing on recent developments in the science of plant taphonomy. Abstracts available from 1999-2004 and from 2008. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

J.A. Janssens (1990): Methods in Quaternary Ecology 11. Bryophytes. In PDF, Geoscience Canada, 17.

! K.R. Johnson (2007): Paleobotany: Forests frozen in time. In PDF, Nature 447, 786-787.
"Dispersed plant parts are rapidly recycled by soil organisms and reduced to their organic constituents within months. Well-preserved palaeobotanical remains are therefore direct evidence of rapid burial below the level of destructive processes occurring in soils".
See alsohere.

! T.P. Jones and Nick P. Rowe (eds.), Google Books (some pages are ommitted): Fossil plants and spores: modern techniques. Published by Geological Society, 1999, 396 pages. Excellent! Click: "Preview the book".

K.-P. Kelber, Würzburg (2007): Die Erhaltung und paläobiologische Bedeutung der fossilen Hölzer aus dem süddeutschen Keuper (Trias, Ladinium bis Rhätium).- In German. PDF file, 33 MB! pp. 37-100; In: Schüßler, H. & Simon, T. (eds.): Aus Holz wird Stein - Kieselhölzer aus dem Keuper Frankens.- (Eppe), Bergatreute-Aulendorf.

Jim Konecny et al. Fossil News: The Mazon Creek Nodules. Concretions formed in 300 million-year-old Illinois coal swamps yield flawless plants and insects.

J. Konecny, S. Konecny and J. Null, Fossil News, Journal of Avocational Paleontology: The Mazon Creek Nodules.

! Lenny L.R. Kouwenberg et al. (2007): A new transfer technique to extract and process thin and fragmented fossil cuticle using polyester overlays. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 145: 243-248.
See also here (PDF file).

Sean Kotz, Paleobotany Types of Fossils.

V.A. Krassilov (2003): Terrestrial palaeoecology and global change. PDF file (35.6 MB), Russian Academic Monographs No. 1, 464 p., (Pensoft), Sophia.
Worth checking out: "Taphonomy" starting on PDF page 18.

! M. Krings et al. (2010): A fungal community in plant tissue from the Lower Coal Measures (Langsettian, Lower Pennsylvanian) of Great Britain. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 85.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2012): Taphonomical implications of the Ladinian megaflora and palynoflora of Thale (Germany). Abstract, Palaios.

E. Kustatscher and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): Neocalamites asperrimus (Franke) Shen 1990, a morphospecies for Triassic sphenophyte "cortical structures"? Abstract, 18th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Vienna, Austria.

K. J. Lang, Fachgebiet Pathologie der Waldbäume, Technische Universität München (TUM): Gehölzkrankheiten in Wort und Bild, and Fäuleerreger in Wort und Bild (in German).

E.E. Levi et al. (2014): Similarity between contemporary vegetation and plant remains in the surface sediment in Mediterranean lakes. In PDF, Freshwater Biology, 59: 724-736.

! E.R. Locatelli (2014): The exceptional preservation of plant fossils: a review of taphonomic pathways and biases in the fossil record. PDF file, In: M. Laflamme et al. (eds.): Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization. The Paleontological Society Papers, 20.

! C.V. Looy et al. (2014): The late Paleozoic ecological-evolutionary laboratory, a land-plant fossil record perspective. In PDF, The Sedimentary Record, 12: 4-18. See also here. Worth checking out: The overprint of taphonomy (PDF page 4).

G. Mackenzie et al. (2015): Sporopollenin, the least known yet toughest natural biopolymer. Frontiers in Materials, 2.

S.R. Manchester et al. (2014): Assembling extinct plants from their isolated parts. In PDF.

! L. Mander et al. (2012): Tracking Taphonomic Regimes Using Chemical and Mechanical Damage of Pollen and Spores: An Example from the Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction.

L. Marynowski et al. (2011): Effects of weathering on organic matter Part II: Fossil wood weathering and implications for organic geochemical and petrographic studies. In PDF, Organic Geochemistry, 42: 1076-1088.

C.L. May and R.E. Gresswell (2003): Processes and rates of sediment and wood accumulation in the headwater streams of the Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28(4): 409-424. See also here (PDF file).

S. McLoughlin (2011): Glossopteris - insights into the architecture and relationships of an iconic Permian Gondwanan plant. In PDF, J. Botan. Soc. Bengal 65: 1-14.

J.G. Mendonça Filho et al.: Organic Facies: Palynofacies and Organic Geochemistry Approaches. In PDF.

P. Moissette et al. (2007): Spectacular preservation of seagrasses and seagrass-associated communities from the pliocene of rhodes, Greece. In PDF, Palaios, 22: 200–211.

G.R. Morton (2003: Non Catastrophic and Modern Fossilization. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also here

Palaeobotany Research Group Münster, Germany:
! History of Palaeozoic Forests, MODES OF PRESERVATION. Link list page with picture rankings. The links give the most direct connections to pictures available on the web.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! G.E. Mustoe (2015): Late Tertiary Petrified Wood from Nevada, USA: Evidence of Multiple Silicification Pathways. Geosciences, 5: 286-309.

National Computational Science Education Consortium (NCSEC): Module The Petrification Process of Wood. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This website (NCSEC served as a national educational computational science clearinghouse) offers math and science teachers an array of online educational tools. Some parts a bit confusing. Go to: How Does Wood Petrify?

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2012): Vetlugospermum and Vetlugospermaceae: A new genus and family of peltasperms from the Lower Triassic of Moscow syneclise (Russia). In PDF, Geobios, 45: 451-462.
Embedment of plant remains in block-diagram reconstructions!

S. Oplustil et al. (2014): T0 peat-forming plant assemblage preserved in growth position by volcanic ash-fall: A case study from the Middle Pennsylvanian of the Czech Republic. In PDF, see also here (abstract).

G. Pacyna and D. Zdebska (2012): Carboniferous plants preserved within sideritic nodules - a remarkable state of preservation providing a wealth of information. In PDF, Acta Palaeobotanica, 52: 247-2. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.T. Parrish et al. (2004): Jurassic "savannah"-plant taphonomy and climate of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic, Western USA). In PDF, Sedimentary Geology.

Imogen Poole, Department of Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Utrecht University: TAPHONOMY & PRESERVATION OF WOOD. Research projects.

Imogen Poole, Pim F. van Bergen, Johan Kool, Stefan Schouten and David J. Cantrill: Molecular isotopic heterogeneity of fossil organic matter: implications for δ13Cbiomass and δ13Cpalaeoatmosphere proxies. PDF file, Organic Geochemistry 35(11-12) (2004) 1261-1274 (via Virtual Journal Geobiology, volume 3, Issue 9, September 2004, section 2B).

M.E. Popa (2011): Field and laboratory techniques in plant compressions: an integrated approach. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae.

S. Poppinga et al. (2016): Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones. Scientific Reports, 7.

R. Prevec (2011): A structural re-interpretation and revision of the type material of the glossopterid ovuliferous fructification Scutum from South Africa. In PDF, Palaeont. afr., 46: 1–19.
See also here and there (abstract).
Please take notice of the sketch in fig 3 on PDF page 6, showing depressed seed scars of the apical portion of a Scutum leslii fructification.

J. Psenicka and S. Oplustil (2013): The epiphytic plants in the fossil record and its example from in situ tuff from Pennsylvanian of Radnice Basin (Czech Republic). In PDF, Bulletin of Geosciences, 88.

G.M. Rex (1986): Further experimental investigations on the formation of plant compression fossils. Abstract. See also here

! G.M. Rex and W.G. Chaloner (1983): The experimental formation of plant compression fossils. In PDF, Palaeontology, 26: 231-252. See also here (abstract).

Authored by the The Rhynie Chert Research Group, University of Aberdeen, with contributions and support by the Palaeobotanical Research Group, University of Münster, Germany, the Centre for Palynology, University of Sheffield, The Natural History Museum, London, and The Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems, The Rhynie Chert. A resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of this unique geological deposit (including a glossary and bibliography pages). Go to: Taphonomy of the Rhynie Chert, and Silicification and the Conversion of Sinter to Chert.

S. Riehl et al. (2014): Plant use and local vegetation patterns during the second half of the Late Pleistocene in southwestern Germany. In PDF, Archaeol. Anthropol. Sci.

R. Rößler (2009): 300 Jahre Schatzsuche in Chemnitz: Die wissenschaftliche Grabung nach dem versteinerten Wald. In German (PDF file), Fossilien, 26.

Gar Rothwell and Ruth Stockey (instructors), Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR:
! Fossil History of Plants. Lecture notes, excellent

E. Salmon et al. (2009): Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balance and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam. PDF file, Organic Geochemistry, 40: 500-509.

! M.H. Scheihing and H.W. Pfefferkorn (1984): The taphonomy of land plants in the orinoco delta: A model for the incorporation of plant parts in clastic sediments of late carboniferous age of euramerica. Abstract.

J.D. Schiffbauer et al. (2012): Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments. In PDF, Geobiology, 10: 402-423.

Sabine Schmidt, Gravity Research Group, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany: Die Erde.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Biostratonomie: Fossildiagenese. Scroll down to: "Die Erhaltung von Pflanzen" (in German).

J.W. Schopf (1999) Article starts on page 88, PDF page 104: Fossils and Pseudofossils: Lessons from the Hunt for Early Life on Earth. In PDF; In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Size Limits of Very Small Organisms, Space Studies Board, National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

P.H. Schultz et al. (2014): Preserved flora and organics in impact melt breccias. In PDF, abstract, 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. See also here. Abstract free.

Andrew C. Scott (website provided by Fossil plants, The nature of fossil plants, The uses of fossil plants.
Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A.C. Scott (1990): 3.10 Anatomical Preservation of Fossil Plants. PDF file, scroll to page 263! Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Article in: Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.): Paleobiology: A Synthesis. Navigate from the contents file (PDF).

Shelf and Slope Environmental Taphonomy Initiative (SSETI), Caribbean Marine Research Center, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas (Organization National Undersea Research Programme Rutgers University). The SSETI programme was established to measure taphonomic rates in a range of continental shelf and slope environments of deposition over an extended period of time.

! S. Simon (2016): Sedimentology of the Fluvial Systems of the Clear Fork Formation in North-Central Texas: Implications for Early Permian Paleoclimate and Plant Fossil Taphonomy. In PDF, Thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
See especially PDF page 185: "Taphonomy and Preservation of Plant Material".
Goethite petrification of cellular structure of plant remains on PDF page 188.

James "Bo" Slone, Department of Geology, Auburn University, AL: Taphonomy of Holocene Palynomorphs in the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta, Alabama. Thesis proposal.

Selena Y. Smith et al. (2009): Virtual taphonomy using synchrotron tomographic microscopy reveals cryptic features and internal structure of modern and fossil plants. PDF file, PNAS, 106: 12013-12018. See also here (abstract).

Smithsonian Science: Fungi still visible in wood charcoal centuries after burning.

J.M. Souza and R. Iannuzzi (2012): Dispersal Syndromes of fossil Seeds from the Lower Permian of Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Click: "PDF in English". An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc., 84: 3-68.

! R.A. Spicer (1991): Plant taphonomic processes. PDF file, in: Allison, P.A., Briggs, D.E.G. (eds.), Taphonomy: Releasing the Data Locked in the Fossil Record. Plenum, New York, pp. 72-113.

! R.A. Spicer (1989): The formation and interpretation of plant fossil assemblages Advances in botanical research (Google books).

! Robert A. Spicer (1977): The pre-depositional formation of some leaf impressions. PDF file, Palaeontology, 20: 907–912. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

B.A. Stankiewicz et al.: Molecular taphonomy of arthropod and plant cuticles from the Carboniferous of North America: implications for the origin of kerogen. Journal of the Geological Society, June 1, 1998; 155(3): 453 - 462.

! D.C. Steart et al. (2009): The chemical constraints upon leaf decay rates: Taphonomic implications among leaf species in Australian terrestrial and aquatic environments. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 157: 358-374. See also here.

D.C. Steart et al. (2006): Overland transport of leaves in two forest types in southern Victoria, Australia and its implications for palaeobotanical studies. PDF file, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 118: 65-74.

D.C. Steart (2003): The Fate of Leaves in South Eastern Australian Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments: Implications for taphonomic bias in the Tertiary macrofossil record. In PDF, Thesis, Victoria University.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. See also:
Exceptionally preserved plant fossils from Crock Hey.

Paul K. Strother (2009): Thalloid carbonaceous incrustations and the asynchronous evolution of embryophyte characters during the Early Paleozoic. PDF file, International Journal of Coal Geology.

! S.C. Sweetman and A.N. Insole (2010): The plant debris beds of the Early Cretaceous (Barremian) Wessex Formation of the Isle of Wight, southern England: their genesis and palaeontological significance. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 292: 409-424.

L.H. Tanner and S.G. Lucas (2013): Degraded wood in the Upper Triassic Petrified Forest Formation (Chinle Group), northern Arizona: Differentiating fungal rot from arthropod boring. In PDF, p. 582-588; in: Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61.

TAPHOS 2011, Institute of Geosciences, University of Tübingen. The programme (in PDF) can be downloaded here.

B.A. Thomas (1986): The formation of large diameter plant fossil moulds and the Walton theory of compaction. In PDF, Geological Journal, 21: 381–385. See also here (abstract).

T.N. Taylor and J.M. Osborn (1992): The Role of Wood in Understanding Saprophytism in the Fossil Record. PDF file.

B.A. Thomas and C.J. Cleal (2015): Cyclones and the formation of plant beds in late Carboniferous tropical swamps. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 95: 531–536. See also here (in PDF).

D. Uhl (2013): The paleoflora of Frankenberg/Geismar (NW-Hesse, Germany) - a largely unexplored "treasure chest" of anatomically preserved plants from the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian) of the Euramerican floral province. PDF file; In: Lucas, S.G., et al. eds., The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. Bulletin, 60, 433-443.

! Dieter Uhl (2004): Anatomy and taphonomy of a coniferous wood from the Zechstein (Upper Permian) of NW-Hesse (Germany). In PDF, Geodiversitas, 26: 391-401.

S. Sheila Villalba-Breva et al. (2015): Plant taphonomy and palaeoenvironment from the Upper Cretaceous of Isona, Tremp Basin, southern Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain. In PDF, Cretaceous Research, 54: 34-49.

S. Villalba Breva et al. (2012): Peat-forming plants in the Maastrichtian coals of the Eastern Pyrenees. In PDF, Geologica Acta, 10.

K. Vogt et al. (2007): Seed deposition in drift lines: Opportunity or hazard for species establishment? Aquatic Botany, 86: 385-392.

Steve Wagner (paleontological volunteer at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science): Mainly nice photo galleries of fossil plants. Go to: Castle Rock Fossil Rainforest. Please take notice: THE MEANDERING RIVER. See also: DETERIORATION EXPERIMENT. When good fossils go bad.

Jun Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDF, PNAS. See also:
Ash-covered forest is "Permian Pompeii" (S. Perkins, Nature).
Penn researcher helps discover and characterize a 300-million-year-forest.
The Lost Forest.

B.G. Warner (1988): Methods in Quaternary Ecology# 3. Plant Macrofossils. In PDf, Geoscience Canada.

Joan Watson and K.L. Alvin (1976): Silicone rubber casts of silicified plants from the Cretaceous of Sudan PDF file, Palaeontology, 19: 641–650.

M. Widera (2015): Compaction of lignite: a review of methods and results. In PDF, Acta Geologica Polonica, 65.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Taphonomy.
! Category:Fossilization.
Compression fossil.
Carbonaceous film.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Taphonomy, and Fossilisationslehre (in German).

! C.J. Williams (2011): A Paleoecological Perspective on Wetland Restoration. In PDF, go to PDF page 67. In: B.A. LePage (ed.): Wetlands. Integrating Multidisciplinary Concepts.

S.L. Wing and W.A. DiMichele (1995): Conflict between Local and Global Changes in Plant Diversity through Geological Time. PDF file, Palaios, 10: 551-564. See also here (abstract).

C. Witkowski (2014): Mimicking Early Stages Of Diagenesis In Modern Metasequoia Leaves Implications For Plant Fossil Lagerstätten. In PDF, Thesis in Global Environmental Studies, Department of Science and Technology, Bryant University (Master of Science in Global Environmental Studies).
See also here. Abstract, Session No. 17: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Taphonomy: The Impact of Morphological, Molecular, and Isotopic Changes on Environmental Proxies. Northeastern Section, 49th Annual Meeting, The Geological Society of America.

Ewan Wolff, Montana State University Geoscience Education Web Development Team: Advances in Paleontology. Go to: Taphonomy: The Study of Preservation.

E.L. Zodrow and J.A. D´angelo (2013): Compression map: Improved means for studying Carboniferous foliage. Atlantic Geology, 49.

! E.L. Zodrow et al. (2010): Medullosalean fusain trunk from the roof rocks of a coal seam: Insight from FTIR and NMR (Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Canada). In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 82: 16-124.

K.E. ZEIGLER, A.B. HECKERT, and S.G. LUCAS: Taphonomic analysis of a fire-related Upper Triassic vertebrate fossil assemblage from north-central New Mexico. PDF file; New Mexico Geological Society, 56th Field Conference Guidebook, Geology of the Chama Basin, 2005, p.341-351.

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