Articles in Palaeobotany /
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Early Triassic Floras@
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany
Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Progress in Palaeobotany and Palynology@
Classical Monographs and Textbooks in Palaeobotany@
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@
J.M. Anderson et al. (1998):
Triassic ecosystems of the Molteno/Lower Elliot biome of southern Africa. PDF file,
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M.K. Bamford, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa: Methods for reconstructing past vegetation based on macroplant fossils. In PDF.
M. Barbacka et al. (2014): European Jurassic floras: statistics and palaeoenvironmental proxies.In PDF, Acta Palaeobotanica, 54: 173-195.
G. Barth et al. (2014): Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) brackish to freshwater habitats at a fluvial-dominated delta plain (Seinstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany). In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94. See also here.
A.R. Bashforth et al. (2022): Taphonomic megabiases and the apparent rise of the dryland biome during the Pennsylvanian to Permian transition. Powerpoint presentation (pptx-extension), 11th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference (Stockholm, Sweden).
A.R. Bashforth et al. (2014):
of Early Pennsylvanian vegetation on a seasonally dry tropical
landscape (Tynemouth Creek Formation, New Brunswick, Canada). In PDF,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 229–263. See also
Note fig. 6, 7: Upright cordaitalean trees.
Fig. 8C, 8D: Upright Calamites axes.
R.M. Bateman et al. (2016): Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology of the Loch Humphrey Burn lagerstätte and other Mississippian palaeobotanical localities of the Kilpatrick Hills, southwest Scotland. PeerJ 4.
A. Bercovici et al. (2015): Terrestrial paleoenvironment characterization across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China. In PDF, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 98: 225-246. See also here.
A.C. Bippus et al. (2019):
fern rhizomes as a model system for exploring epiphyte community structure across geologic
time: evidence from Patagonia. Open access,
PeerJ., 7: e8244.
Note figure 2E: Coprolite-filled gallery in osmundaceous leaf base.
B. Bomfleur et al. (2018):
Regions of the Mesozoic-Paleogene
Greenhouse World as Refugia for Relict
Plant Groups. Chapter 24, in PDF, in:
M. Krings, C.J. Harper, N.R. Cuneo and G.W. Rothwell (eds.): Transformative
Paleobotany Papers to
Commemorate the Life and Legacy of Thomas N. Taylor.
Note figure 24.2: Distribution of Dicroidium through space and time.
! B. Bomfleur et al. (2013): Whole-Plant Concept and Environment Reconstruction of a Telemachus Conifer (Voltziales) from the Triassic of Antarctica. In PDF. See also here (abstract).
M. Brea et al. (2015): Reconstruction of a fossil forest reveals details of the palaeoecology, palaeoenvironments and climatic conditions in the late Oligocene of South America. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 418: 19-42.
! J.H. Calder et al. (2006): A fossil lycopsid forest succession in the classic Joggins section of Nova Scotia: Paleoecology of a disturbance-prone Pennsylvanian wetland. Abstract, in: S.F. Greb and W.A. DiMichele (eds.): GSA Special Papers, Wetlands through Time, 399: 169-194. See also here (in PDF), and there (Google books).
A. Channing and D. Edwards (2009): Yellowstone hot spring environments and the palaeoecophysiology of Rhynie chert plants: towards a synthesis. In PDF, Plant Ecology & Diversity. See also here.
C. Chinnappa and A. Rajanikanth (2017): Early Cretaceous flora from the Pranhita-Godavari Basin (east coast of India): taxonomic, taphonomic and palaeoecological considerations. In PDF, Acta Palaeobotanica, 57: 13–32.
C. Cleal et al. (2021):
experiences of plant diversity in deep time. 1: How well can we identify past
plant diversity in the fossil record? Abstract,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 576.
See also here (in PDF).
! T. Clements et al. (2019): The Mazon Creek Lagerstätte: a diverse late Paleozoic ecosystem entombed within siderite concretions. Open access, Journal of the Geological Society, 176: 1–11.
C.E. Colombi and J.T. Parrish (2008): Late Triassic Environmental Evolution in Southwestern Pangea: Plant Taphonomy of the Ischigualasto Formation. In PDF, Palaios.
L.G. Costamagna et al. (2018): A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Middle Jurassic of Sardinia (Italy) based on integrated palaeobotanical, palynological and lithofacies data assessment. Free access, Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 98: 111–138.
Bruce Cornet: APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF PALYNOLOGY IN AGE, CLIMATIC, AND PALEOENVIRONMENTAL ANALYZES OF TRIASSIC SEQUENCES IN NORTH AMERICA. Lucas, S.G. and M. Morales, eds., 1993. The Nonmarine Triassic. New Mexico Museum Of Natural History & Science Bulletin No.3, p. 75-93.N.R. Cúneo (2014): Late Cretaceous Aquatic Plant World in Patagonia, Argentina. PloS one, Open access.
N.R. Cúneo et al. (2014): Late Cretaceous Aquatic Plant World in Patagonia, Argentina. Open access, PLoS ONE, 9: e104749.
N.R. Cúneo et al. (2003): In situ fossil forest from the upper Fremouw Formation (Triassic) of Antarctica: paleoenvironmental setting and paleoclimate analysis. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 197: 239-261.
C.R. Cunningham et al. (1993): The Upper Carboniferous Hamilton Fossil-Lagerstätte in Kansas: a valley-fill, tidally influenced deposit. In PDF, Lethaia, 26: 225-236. See also here.
C.G. Diedrich (2009):
coelacanthid-rich site at Hasbergen (NW Germany):
taphonomy and palaeoenvironment of a first systematic
excavation in the Kupferschiefer (Upper Permian, Lopingian). In PDF,
Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 89: 67-94. See also
Mapped taphonomy of plants (hinterland flora), invertebrates and fish vertebrates at six different planal levels on a 12 m2 area.
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2021):
Taphonomy, Late Pennsylvanian Kinney Quarry, New Mexico, USA.
In: Lucas, S.G., DiMichele, W.A. and Allen, B.D. (eds): Kinney Brick Quarry Lagerstätte. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 84.
See also here (in PDF), and there.
W.A. DiMichele (2014):
Vegetational Dynamics in the Pennsylvanian Ice Age Tropics.
Int. J. Plant Sci., 175: 123-164.
See also here
Large Sigillaria stump cast on PDF page 12 (fig. 8).
! Reconstructions of coal swamps and some dryland plant reconstructions with Cordaitalean trees Walchian conifers.
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2007): A low diversity, seasonal tropical landscape dominated by conifers and peltasperms: Early Permian Abo Formation, New Mexico. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 145: 249-273.
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2004):
unusual Middle Permian flora from the Blaine Formation (Pease River Group:
Leonardian-Guadalupian Series) of King County, West Texas. In PDF,
J. Paleont., 78: 765-782.
See also here.
Paper awarded with the Winfried and Renate Remy Award 2005 (Paleobotanical Section), Botanical Society of America.
M.P. Donovan et al. (2021):
of Selected Kinney Quarry Plant Fossils, Late Pennsylvanian, Central
New Mexico. Google books. PDF
In: Lucas, S.G., DiMichele, W.A. and Allen, B.D., (eds.): Kinney Brick Quarry Lagerstätte. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 84.
! H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2006): The Pennsylvanian tropical biome reconstructed from the Joggins Formation of nova Scotia, Canada. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 163: 561–576. See also here.
H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2004): Palaeoecology of Late Cretaceous polar vegetation preserved in the Hansen Point Volcanics, NW Ellesmere Island, Canada. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 212: 45-64.
J.R. Foster et al. (2018): Paleontology, taphonomy, and sedimentology of the Mygatt-Moore Quarry, a large dinosaur bonebed in the Morrison Formation, western Colorado—Implications for Upper Jurassic dinosaur preservation modes. In PDF, Geology of the Intermountain West. See also here and there.
J.E. Francis et al. (2007):
million years of Antarctic climate evolution: evidence from fossil plants. In PDF.
Related Publications from ANDRILL Affiliates. Paper 3.
Pay attention to fig. 3, reconstruction of the forest environment on Alexander Island during the Cretaceous.
N.C. Fraser and H.-D. Sues (2012): The beginning of the "Age of Dinosaurs": a brief overview of terrestrial biotic changes during the Triassic. Abstract, Earth and Environmental Science, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.
! J.-C. Gall and L. Grauvogel-Stamm (2005): The early Middle Triassic "Grès à Voltzia" Formation of eastern France: a model of environmental refugium. PDF file, C. R. Palevol, 4: 637-652. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
R.A. Gastaldo and M.W. Rolerson (2008): Katbergia gen. nov., a new trace fossil from Upper Permian and Lower Triassic rocks of the Karoo Basin: Implications for palaeoenvironmental conditions at the P/Tr extinction event. PDF file, Palaeontology, 51: 215-229.
A.E. Götz et al. (2011): Palaeoenvironment of the Late Triassic (Rhaetian) and Early Jurassic (Hettangian) Mecsek Coal Formation (south Hungary): implications from macro and microfloral assemblages. Abstract, Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 91: 75. See also here (in PDF).
E.L. Gulbranson et al. (2012): Permian polar forests: deciduousness and environmental variation. In PDF, Geobiology, 10: 479-495.
D.M. Guido et al. (2010): Jurassic geothermal landscapes and fossil ecosystems at San Agustín, Patagonia, Argentina. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 167: 11-20.
Z. Hermanová et al. (2021):
mesofossils from the Late Cretaceous Klikov Formation, the Czech Republic. Open access,
Fossil Imprint, 77.
"... The fossils are charcoalified or lignitised, and usually three-dimensionally preserved. ..."
W.B.K. Holmes and H.M. Anderson (2013):
synthesis of the rich Gondwana Triassic megafossil flora from Nymboida,
Australia. PDF file;
In Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.):
The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin,
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Including a reconstruction of the floodplain of the Nymboida Subbasin during mid Triassic time (from Retallack 1977).
H. Yang et al. (2005):
preservation of Tertiary Metasequoia Fossil
Lagerstätten revealed by comparative pyrolysis analysis. In PDF,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 134: 237-256.
See also here.
B.P. Kear et al. (2016): An introduction to the Mesozoic biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic territories. In PDF.
! H. Kerp et al. (2021, start on PDF-page 141): The fossil flora of the Dead Sea region, Jordan–A late Permian Garden of Delights. Journal of Palaeosciences, 70: 135–158.
Khudadad (2021): A Middle Devonian vernal pool ecosystem provides a snapshot of the earliest forests. Open access, PLoS ONE 16(9): e0255565.
E. Kustatscher et al. (2017): Sea-level changes in the Lopingian (late Permian) of the northwestern Tethys and their effects on the terrestrial palaeoenvironments, biota and fossil preservation. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 148: 166–180. See also here (in PDF).
Kustatscher, E., van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. & Gianolla, P. (2006): The Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Pra della Vacca (Prags/Braies Dolomites, Northern Italy): An attempt to reconstruct an Anisian (lower Middle Triassic) palaeoenvironment. PDF file, 9th International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, 27-29.05.06, Manchester, Abstract and Proceedings Volume, p. 63-66, 164.
E. Kustatscher and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2005): The Ladinian Flora (Middle Triassic) of the Dolomites: palaeoenvironmental reconstructions and palaeoclimatic considerations. PDF file.
E. Kustatscher and
J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2004):
The Flora of Kühwiesenkopf / Monte Prà della Vacca (Dolomites, N-Italy): An attempt to reconstruct an Anisian
(middle Triassic) palaeoenvironment, and
The Ladinian Flora (Middle Triassic) of the Dolomites:
Palaeoenvironmental and Palaeoclimatic Considerations. Abstracts, The 15th Plant Taphonomy Meeting,
Naturalis, National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands, 12-13th November 2004.
Versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M.B. Lara et al. (2017): Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of an Upper Triassic deposit in southwestern Gondwana (Argentina) based on an insect fauna, plant assemblage, and their interactions. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 476: 163–180. See also here.
C.V. Looy et al. (2014): Evidence for coal forest refugia in the seasonally dry Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands of the Illinois Basin, USA. PeerJ., 2.
L. Luthardt et al. (2022):
in volcanic ash: crown
reconstruction of the early Permian seed
fern Medullosa stellata with attached
foliated fronds. Open access,
PeerJ, 10: e13051.
"... The upper part of a Medullosa stellata var. typica individual broke at its top resulting from the overload of volcanic ash and was buried upside-down in the basal pyroclastics. The tree crown consists of the anatomically preserved apical stem, ten attached Alethopteris schneideri foliated fronds with Myeloxylon-type petioles and rachises. ..."
L. Luthardt et al. (2016):
and site-specific conditions in the early Permian fossil
forest of Chemnitz—Sedimentological, geochemical and
palaeobotanical evidence. In PDF,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441: 627–652.
See also here.
A.C. Mancuso and C.A. Marsicano (2008): Paleoenvironments and taphonomy of a Triassic lacustrine system (Los Rastros Formation, central-western Argentina). In PDF, Palaios, 23: 535–547. See also here.
M.R. McCurry et al. (2022): A Lagerstätte from Australia provides insight into the nature of Miocene mesic ecosystems. Free access, Sci. Adv., 8.
S. McLoughlin and C. Strullu-Derrien (2015):
and palaeoenvironment of a high middle-latitude Late Triassic
peat-forming ecosystem from Hopen, Svalbard archipelago. PDF file, in:
Kear B.P. et al. (eds): Mesozoic Biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic Territories.
Geol. Soc. London Spec. Pub., 434: 87–112.
See also here.
M.M. Mendes et al. (2014): Vegetational composition of the Early Cretaceous Chicalhão flora (Lusitanian Basin, western Portugal) based on palynological and mesofossil assemblages. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 65-81. See also here (abstract).
! S. Oplustil et al. (2014): T0 peat-forming plant assemblage preserved in growth position by volcanic ash-fall: A case study from the Middle Pennsylvanian of the Czech Republic. In PDF, see also here (abstract).
R. Prevec et al. (2022):
African Lagerstätte reveals middle Permian Gondwanan lakeshore
ecosystem in exquisite detail. Open access,
Communications Biology, 5.
Note figure 1: Climatic zones for the Wordian of Pangea including locations of middle Permian fossil insect discoveries.
Figure 6: Reconstruction of a middle Permian lakeshore palaeoenvironment.
M.W. Rasser et al. (2013): The Randeck Maar: Palaeoenvironment and habitat differentiation of a Miocene lacustrine system. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392: 426–453. See also here.
! G.J. Retallack (1977): Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. In PDF, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 1. See also here.
Gregory J. Retallack, Evelyn S. Krull, and Scott E. Robinson, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene: Permian and Triassic paleosols and paleoenvironments of the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica.
! R. Rößler and M. Barthel(1998): Rotliegend taphocoenoses preservation favoured by rhyolitic explosive volcanism. In PDF, Freiberger Forschungshefte C, 474: 59–101. See also here.
A.J. Sagasti et al. (2021): Plant Taphonomy and Paleoenvironment of the Bahía Laura Complex, Middle–Late Jurassic, at the Laguna Flecha Negra Locality (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina). In PDF, Ameghiniana, 58. See also here.
J.D. Schiffbauer and M. LaFlamme (2012):
through time: A collection of exceptional preservational
pathway from the terminal Neoproterozoic through today. In PDF,
See also here.
D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): Madygen, Triassic Lagerstätte number one, before and after Sharov. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 113-124. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! G.R. Shi and J.B. Waterhouse (2010): Late Palaeozoic global changes affecting high-latitude environments and biotas: an introduction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298: 1-16.
! S.S.T. Simon et al. (2018): An exhumed fine-grained meandering channel in the lower Permian Clear Fork Formation, north-central Texas: Processes of mud accumulation and the role of vegetation in channel dynamics. In PDF, Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ., 48: 149–172. See also here.
S.S.T. Simon et al. (2016):
fill with exquisitely preserved plants in redbeds of the
Clear Fork Formation, Texas, USA: an Early Permian
water-dependent habitat on the arid plains of Pangea. In PDF,
Sed. Res., 86, 944–964. See also
Note fig. 11: Goethite petrification of cellular structure of plant remains.
S. Simon (2016):
of the Fluvial Systems of the Clear Fork Formation in North-Central Texas:
Implications for Early Permian Paleoclimate and Plant Fossil Taphonomy. In PDF,
Thesis, Dalhousie University,
Halifax, Nova Scotia.
See especially PDF page 185: "Taphonomy and Preservation of Plant Material".
Goethite petrification of cellular structure of plant remains on PDF page 188.
! B.J. Slater et al. (2015): A high-latitude Gondwanan lagerstätte: The Permian permineralised peat biota of the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 27: 1446-1473. See also here (abstract).
S.M. Slater and C.H. Wellman (2015):
quantitative comparison of dispersed spore/pollen and plant
megafossil assemblages from a Middle Jurassic plant bed from
Yorkshire, UK. Open access,
Paleobiology, 41: 640–660.
"... Preferential occurrence/preservation of sporomorphs and equivalent parent plants is a consequence of a complex array of biological, ecological, geographical, taphonomic, and depositional factors that act inconsistently between and within fossil assemblages, which results in notable discrepancies between data sets. ..."
M. Souto et al. (2019): The Use of Plant Macrofossils for Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions in Southern European Peatlands. Open access, Quaternary, 2.
Robert A. Spicer and Alexei B. Herman (2010): The Late Cretaceous Environment of the Arctic: A Quantitative Reassessment based on Plant Fossils. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
P.K. Strother and C.H. Wellman (2021):
Nonesuch Formation Lagerstätte: a rare window into freshwater life one
billion years ago. Open access,
Journal of the Geological Society, 178.
"... Nonesuch microbiota, when viewed as a Lagerstätte, opens up a window onto the early evolution of unicellular eukaryotes, presenting an essential baseline of both eukaryotic diversity and cell structure well in advance of eukaryotic diversification documented in marine deposits from the later Neoproterozoic. ..."
G.J. Vermeij (2015): Paleophysiology: From Fossils to the Future. Trends in ecology & evolution.
S. Villalba Breva et al. (2012): Peat-forming plants in the Maastrichtian coals of the Eastern Pyrenees. In PDF, Geologica Acta, 10.
C.H. Wellman (2018):
and palaeophytogeography of the Rhynie chert plants: further evidence from integrated analysis of
in situ and dispersed spores. Abstract,
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373. See also
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of the Rhynie basin depositional setting and environments.
G. Worobiec and E. Worobiec 2019): Wetland vegetation from the Miocene deposits of the Belchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland). In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica, https://doi.org/10.26879/871.
M. Zaton et al. (2005):
Late Triassic charophytes around the bone-bearing
bed at Krasiejów (SW Poland) -- palaeoecological
and environmental remarks. PDF file,
Acta Geologica Polonica, 55: 83-293.
See also here.
! A.E. Zanne et al. (2014): Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. In PDF, Nature. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
L. Zhang et al. (2021): First fossil foliage record in the red beds from the Upper Jurassic in the Sichuan Basin, southern China. In PDF, Geological Journal. See also here.
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