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The Rhaetian

Anders Ahlberg, Leif Arndorff & Dorothy Guy-Ohlson: Onshore climate change during the Late Triassic marine inundation of the Central European Basin. Abstract, Terra Nova, Volume 14,Issue 4, Page 241; 2002.

Anna-Lena Anderberg, Department of Palaeobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm: Rhaetian and Jurassic plants of Scania. This database includes the Rhaetian and Jurassic plant fossils from Scania, southern Sweden, housed in the Stockholm collections. Go to: Specimens by publication. A reference list.

W.P. Armstrong, WAYNE'S WORD, (1999): Plants of Jurassic Park. Easy to understand article (modified from Pacific Horticulture 55: 42-48).

K.L. Bacon et al. (2013): Increased Atmospheric SO2 Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland. See also here.

M. Barbacka et al. (2017): Changes in terrestrial floras at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in Europe. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 480: 80-93.

G. Barth et al. (2014): Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) brackish to freshwater habitats at a fluvial-dominated delta plain (Seinstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany). In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94. See also here.

Claire M. Belcher et al. (2010): Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 3: 426-429. See also here (abstract).

K. Birkenmajer & A.M. Ociepa (2008): Plant-bearing Jurassic strata at Hope Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (West Antarctica): geology and fossil-plant description. PDF file, Studia Geologica Polonica, 128: 5-96.

! Nina R. Bonis (2010), Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Palaeoecology Institute of Environmental Biology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University: Palaeoenvironmental changes and vegetation history during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. PDF file (7.7 MB), LPP Contribution Series No. 29. Seven research reports (chapters) in this thesis, see especially chapter 7 (with W.M. Kürschner):
! Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (PDF page 140).

David August Brauns (1866): Der Sandstein bei Seinstedt unweit des Fallsteins und die in ihm vorkommenden Pflanzenreste, nebst Bemerkungen über die Sandsteine gleichen Niveaus anderer Örtlichkeiten... Hosted by Hathi Trust Digital Library, a collaboration of universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the University of California system to establish a repository for their digitized collections.

D.J. Cantrill, A.N. Drinnan, and J.A. Webb (1995): Late Triassic plant fossils from the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica PDF file, Antarctic Science, 7: 51-62.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Shuying Duan (2007): A comparison between the Upper Triassic floras of China and the Rhaeto-Liassic floras of Europe and East Greenland. Abstract, Lethaia, 20: 177-184.

J. Dzik and T. Sulej (2007): A review of the early Late Triassic Krasiejów biota from Silesia, Poland. In PDF, Palaeontologia Polonica, 64: 3–27.

! A. Elgorriaga et al. (2019): Relictual Lepidopteris (Peltaspermales) from the Early Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Patagonia, Argentina. Abstract, Int. J. Plant Sci., 180. See also here (in PDF), and there.
"... and its youngest species, Lepidopteris ottonis, has been used as a Rhaetian marker for several European, Greenlandic, and American localities ..."
"... Lepidopteris scassoi represents the youngest occurrence of the genus by more than 20 Myr. Lepidopteris and Dicroidium lineages, dominant in Southern Hemisphere Triassic ecosystems, show a similar overall pattern of origination (Late Permian), diversification (late Early-Middle Triassic), and decline (Late Triassic), with relict occurrences during the Early Jurassic. ..."

M. Farahimanesh et al. (2021): The Rhaetian ferns and seed ferns from the Shemshak Group, Ghoznavi area, N.E Alborz Mountain, Iran. In PDF, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14. See also here.

! S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London.

J. Fischer et al. (2012): Palaeoenvironments of the late Triassic Rhaetian Sea: Implications from oxygen and strontium isotopes of hybodont shark teeth. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 353–355: 60–72. See also here. Note:
Fig. 1: Palaeogeographic and structural overviewmap of the late Triassic Central European Basin.
Fig. 7. Schematic palaeogeographic map of the Central European Basin illustrating successive freshening of the Rhaetian Sea from the gates to its eastern margins as the result of extensive deltaic fresh water input.

Fowell, S. J., Cornet, B., and Olsen, P. E., 1994, Geologically rapid Late Triassic extinctions: Palynological evidence from the Newark Supergroup. In: Klein, G. D., ed., Pangea: Paleoclimate, Tectonics, and Sedimentation During Accretion, Zenith, and Breakup of a Supercontinent: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 288.

The Field Museum, Chicago, IL: Expedition to East Greenland. The purpose of the Greenland expedition was to gather fossil plants that would help to investigate a great mass extinction event that occurred at the transition from the Triassic to the Jurassic. Go to: Fossil Plant Image Gallery. Images of Dictyophyllum, Nilssonia, Lepidopteris ottonis, Ginkgoites, Anomozamites, Spiropteris, Thaumatopteris brauniana, Pseudoctenis, Stachyotaxus, Podozamites, Stachyotaxus septentrionalis, Ricciopsis.

N.C. Fraser et al. (1996): A Triassic lagerstätte from eastern North America. PDF file, Nature.

A.E. Götz et al. (2011): Palaeoenvironment of the Late Triassic (Rhaetian) and Early Jurassic (Hettangian) Mecsek Coal Formation (south Hungary): implications from macro and microfloral assemblages. Abstract, Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 91: 75. See also here (in PDF).

Jerry D. Harris, Dixie State College, St. George, UT: Tracking Dinosaur Origins: The Triassic/Jurassic Terrestrial. Abstracts, PDF file.

Björn Holstein, Geologisch-PaläontologischesInstitut, Frankfurt/Main: Palynological investigations in selected sections of the Rhaetian Koessen Beds, Alpine Upper Triassic.
Snapshot archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CORRELATION PROGRAMME (IGCP), UNESCO HQ, Paris, IGCP 458: Triassic/Jurassic boundary events. Mass extinction, global environmental change, and driving forces. Go to: Resources.

R.B. Irmis and J.H. Whiteside (2010): Newly integrated approaches to studying Late Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. Abstract, Palaios, 25: 689-691.

! W. Jung (1970): Die Gothan'sche Rhät/Lias-Sammlung der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg. PDF file, in German. Natur und Mensch, Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg e.V.

W. Jung (1970): Die Gothan´sche Rhät/Lias-Sammlung der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg. PDF file, in German. Natur und Mensch, Jahresmitteilungen der naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg e.V., 1970: 63-71.

Dennis V. Kent and Lisa Tauxe: Corrected Late Triassic Latitudes for Continents Adjacent to the North Atlantic. Abstract, Science, Vol 307, Issue 5707, 240-244, 2005.

Jongheon Kim (2001): New fossil plants from the Nampo Group (Lower Mesozoic), Korea. In PDF, Geosciences Journal, 5: 173-180.

! E. Kustatscher et al. (2018): Flora of the Late Triassic. PDF file, in: Tanner, L. [ed.]: The Late Triassic World: Earth in a Time of Transition. Topics in Geobiology, 46: 545-622, (Springer). See also here.

Wolfram M. Kürschner: Palaeofloristic patterns across the Triassic - Jurassic transition: catastrophic extinction or long term gradual change? Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.


! S. Lindström et al. (2017): A new correlation of Triassic–Jurassic boundary successions in NW Europe, Nevada and Peru, and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: A time-line for the end-Triassic mass extinction Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 478: 80-102. See also here.

S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2007): The nonmarine Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews, 84: 1–20. See also here.

Luke Mander et al. (2010): An explanation for conflicting records of Triassic-Jurassic plant diversity. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 15351-15356. See also here.

L. Marynowski and B.R.T. Simoneit (2009): Widespread Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic wildfire records from Poland: Evidence from charcoal and pyrolytic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Abstract, Palaios.

J.C. McElwain et al. (2009): Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland. PDF file, Science, 324: 1554-1556. See also here (abstract).

J.C. McElwain, D.J. Beerling & F. I. Woodward: Fossil Plants and Global Warming at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. PDF file, Science, Vol 285, 1999.

Larry O'Hanlon, Discovery News: Ancient Fossil Fuels Caused Jurassic Warming. The carbon dioxide level and the stomata method.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.E. Olsen et al. (2003): Causes and consequences of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction as seen from the Hartford basin. PDF file, in: Brady, J. B. and Cheney, J.T. (eds.) Guidebook for Field Trips in the Five College Region, 95th New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference, Department of Geology, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, p. B5-1--B5-41.

P.E. Olsen and H.-D. Suess (1989): Correlation of the continental Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sediments, and patterns of the Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod transition. PDF file, in: K.Padian (ed.): The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs Faunal Change across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. See also here.

H.I. Petersen et al. (2013): Deposition, floral composition and sequence stratigraphy of uppermost Triassic (Rhaetian) coastal coals, southern Sweden. In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 116–117: 117–134. See also here (abstract).

H.I. Petersen and S. Lindström (2012): Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. In PDF.

Etiene F. Pires & Margot Guerra-Sommer (Departamento de Paleontologia e Estratigrafia, Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil): Sommerxylon spiralosus from Upper Triassic in southernmost Paraná Basin (Brazil): a new taxon with taxacean affinity. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. vol.76 no.3 Rio de Janeiro; 2004. Download this article (PDF file).

C. Pott et al. (2016): Bennettitales in the Rhaetian flora of Wüstenwelsberg, Bavaria, Germany. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 232: 98–118. See also here (in PDF).

C. Pott and S. McLoughlin (2011): The Rhaetian flora of Rögla, northern Scania, Sweden. In PDF, Palaeontology, 54: 1025-1051.

Allister Rees, Fred Ziegler and David Rowley, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT (PGAP). Including a Jurassic and Permian slideshow sampler (QuickTime), paleogeographic maps (downloadable pdf files), and a bibliography of PGAP Publications (with links to abstracts).

P.M. Rees (1993): Dipterid ferns from the Mesozoic of Antarctica and New Zealand and their stratigraphical significance. In PDF.

J.W.F. Reumer et al. (2020): The Rhaetian/Hettangian dipterid fern Clathropteris meniscioides Brongniart found in erratics in the eastern Netherlands and adjacent Germany. In PDF, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 295: 297–306.

Katrin Ruckwied et al. (2008): Palynology of a terrestrial coal-bearing series across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Mecsek Mts, Hungary). PDF file, Central European Geology, 51: 1-15.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

F. Sandberger (1891): Die Flora der tiefsten Schichten des Infralias (Rhät) von Burgpreppach bei Hassfurt (Unterfranken). PDF file, in German.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, 1892: 141-142 (starting on PDF page 141).

August Schenk (1867): Die fossile Flora der Grenzschichten des Keupers und Lias Frankens. PDF file, provided by Google books. See also here.

Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.

! B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2009): Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. PDF file.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Michael Seeling: Rhät. A brief introduction and bibliography about the germanotype Rhaetian. In German.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2011): Extremely elevated CO2 concentrations at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 308: 418-432.

Department of Palaeobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine): Rhaetian and Jurassic plants of Scania. This database includes the Rhaetian and Jurassic plant fossils from Scania, southern Sweden, housed in the Stockholm collections.

The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm: Triassic and Jurassic plants of Scania.

Hans-Dieter Sues, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto Triassic-Jurassic Boundary.

Ge Sun et al. (2010): The Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic strata and floras of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 203-214. See also here (in PDF).

Department of Palaeobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm: Collections, Rhaetian and Jurassic plants of Scania.

! John A. Townrow (1966): The Peltaspermaceae, a pteridosperm family of Permian and Triassic age. PDF file, Palaeontology, 3: 333–361.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York: Triassic-Jurassic Working Group.

Utrecht University, The Netherlands: Late Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic Research.

F. Vaez-Javadi (2006): Plant fossil remains from the Rhaetian of Shemshak Formation, Narges-Chal area, Alborz, NE Iran. PDF file.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.H.A. Van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al. (2020): Ferns and fern allies in the Rhaetian flora of Wüstenwelsberg, Bavaria, Germany. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 273. See also here.

! B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2009): Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. In PDF.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al. (2016): New data on Selaginellites coburgensis from the Rhaetian of Wüstenwelsberg (Upper Franconia, Germany). Abstract, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 280. See also here (in PDF), or there (Open Access in DiVA).

! Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): The Jurassic fossil plant record of the UK area. PDF file, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119: 59-72. See fig. 6 (after Cleal et al. 2001), how to distinguish bennettialean leaf shapes!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Wade-Murphy and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): A revision of the Late Triassic Bintan flora from the Riau Archipelago (Indonesia). PDF file, Scripta Geologica, 136: 73-105. See also here.

! J. Watson (2010; start on PDF page 72): Pteridophytes in the English Mesozoic. In PDF, Pteridologist.

Reinhard Weber, Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México: Virutas Paleobotánicas (in Spain, English version under construction). Go to: Jura von Franken.

Xin Wang et al. (2007): Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms? PDF file, BMC Evol. Biol., 7: 14. See also here.

N. Zavialova and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2012): Exine ultrastructure of in situ peltasperm pollen from the Rhaetian of Germany and its implications. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168: 7-20.

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