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Insight into the Triassic World
Homepages of Triassic Workers
Triassic Literature
Triassic Palaeobotany
Triassic Palynology
Triassic Climate
The Carnian Pluvial Event
Triassic Stratigraphy
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Triassic Palaeosols
Triassic Charcoal
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips

! Palaeobotanical Maps@
! Palaeogeography@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Geology@

Triassic Palaeogeography

Rainer Albert, Stuttgart, Germany: Die Trias in Südwestdeutschland Easy to understand introduction about the germanotype Triassic (in German).

R. Aubrecht et al. (2017): Provenance of the Lunz Formation (Carnian) in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia: Heavy mineral study and in situ LA–ICP–MS U–Pb detrital zircon dating. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 471: 233–253. See also here (abstract).
Please take notice: Fig. 23, paleogeographic scheme of Middle Carnian, showing probable provenance of the Lunz Formation arenites and its relation to the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin.

Loren E. Babcock (website hosted by Barbara Carrapa, Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ): Visualizing Earth History, Triassic Period (including Jurassic and Cretaceous). Brief lecture note, Powerpoint presentation.

G. Barth et al. (2018): Marine and terrestrial sedimentation across the T–J transition in the North German Basin. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 489: 74-94. See also here.
Note Fig. 1: Central European Basin (CEB) and working area.

Ron Blakey, Department of Geology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff: Paleogeography Through Geologic Time. Choose a geologic period and click on its name to view menu of that time, then select the paleogeographic globe or a 1st order global tectonic feature. See especially:
! Triassic.

S. Bourquin et al. (2011): The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri-Tethyan domain scale: palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 299: 265-280.

S. Bourquin et al. (2007): The Permian-Triassic boundary and Early Triassic sedimentation in Western European basins: an overview. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 33: 221-236. See also here.

Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission:
! International Triassic Field Workshops. An informal forum for earth scientists who are interested in the Triassic system. Go to:
! Southern Germany. In PDF, by H. Hagdorn, T. Simon, E. Nitsch, T. Aigner.
! Central Germany. In PDF, by G. H. Bachmann, G. Beutler.

C.G. Diedrich (2010): The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 12; EGU General Assembly 2010.

! S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London.

J. Fischer et al. (2012): Palaeoenvironments of the late Triassic Rhaetian Sea: Implications from oxygen and strontium isotopes of hybodont shark teeth. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 353–355: 60–72. See also here. Note:
Fig. 1: Palaeogeographic and structural overviewmap of the late Triassic Central European Basin.
Fig. 7. Schematic palaeogeographic map of the Central European Basin illustrating successive freshening of the Rhaetian Sea from the gates to its eastern margins as the result of extensive deltaic fresh water input.

! A. Förster et al. (2010): Reservoir characterization of a CO2 storage aquifer: The Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in the Northeast German Basin. In PDF, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27: 2156-2172.
Note Fig. 3: Facies map of the Stuttgart Formation in northeastern Germany.

! M. Franz et al. (2015): Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27. See also here (abstract).

M. Franz et al. (2015): Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27. See also here (abstract). Note:
Fig. 3: Reconstructions of the Upper Muschelkalk Sea.
Fig. 13: Ladinian North Pangaean palaeogeography, showing depositional environments and inferred zonal climates.

M. Franz et al. (2014): Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 122 :305-329. See also here (in PDF).
Please take notice: Fig. 1, Upper Triassic palaeogeography of the Central European Basin according to Ziegler (1990).

M. Franz et al. (2012): The strong diachronous Muschelkalk/Keuper facies shift in the Central European Basin: implications from the type-section of the Erfurt Formation (Lower Keuper, Triassic) and basin-wide correlations. Abstract, International Journal of Earth Sciences.

! Matthias Franz (2008), Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg: Litho- und Leitflächenstratigraphie, Chronostratigraphie, Zyklo- und Sequenzstratigraphie des Keupers im östlichen Zentraleuropäischen Becken (Deutschland, Polen) und Dänischen Becken (Dänemark, Schweden). Thesis, in German. Available in PDF, 39,5 MB.
Note page 47, fig. 5.1.1-2: Sandstone S 1.
page 51, fig. 5.1.1-3: Grenzdolomit.
page 53, fig. 5.1.2: Grabfeld-Formation.
page 59, fig. 5.1.3: Stuttgart-Formation.
page 64, fig. 5.1.4-1: Weser-Formation.
page 67, fig. 5.1.4-2: Hauptsteinmergel.
page 71, fig. 5.1.4-3: Heldburgips.
page 76, fig. 5.1.5-1: Arnstadt-Formation.
page 79, fig. 5.1.5-2: Lower Arnstadt-Formation.
page 91, fig. 5.2.3: Exter-, Seeberg- und Bartenstein-Formation.

M. Geluk et al. (2018): An introduction to the Triassic: current insights into the regional setting and energy resource potential of NW Europe. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 469.

C. Gisler et al. (2007): Sedimentological and palynological constraints on the basal Triassic sequence in Central Switzerland. Abstract, Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 100: 263–272. See also here (in PDF).
Please note Fig. 5. Palaeogeographic situation showing the location of the Vindelician High during Early Triassic and earliest Anisian.

! J. Golonka (2007): Late Triassic and Early Jurassic palaeogeography of the world. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244: 297-307. See also here.

Jan Golonka (2007): Phanerozoic paleoenvironment and paleolithofacies maps. Mesozoic. PDF file, Geologia, 33: 211-264.

M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006): Triassic - seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London, London.

! M. Kosnik and Allister Rees et al., University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project Databases (PGAP). The older database version is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H.W. Kozur and G.H. Bachmann (2010): The Middle Carnian Wet Intermezzo of the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein), Germanic Basin. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 290: 107-119. See also here (in PDF).
Please take notice: The palaeogeographic map for the late Julian, modified from Stampfli and Borel (2004) and Stampfli and Kozur (2006) in Fig. 5.

S. Lindström et al. (2017): A new correlation of Triassic–Jurassic boundary successions in NW Europe, Nevada and Peru, and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: A time-line for the end-Triassic mass extinction Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 478: 80-102. See also here.

Alan Logan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.: Triassic Period.
Please note the map "Pangea: Early Triassic Period". With indicated cold and warm water currents.

! T. McKie (2014): Climatic and tectonic controls on Triassic dryland terminal fluvial system architecture, central North Sea. In PDF, Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ., 46: 19-58. See also here (provided by Google books).
Gross palaeogeographic setting of the central North Sea (after McKie & Shannon, 2011) in relation to the Southern Permian Basin and the margin of the Tethys Sea depicted in Fig. 1D.
! Palaeogeographic response to regional climate wettening depicted in Fig. 19.

Tom McKie and Brian Williams (2009): Triassic palaeogeography and fluvial dispersal across the northwest European Basins. Abstract, Geological Journal, 44: 711-741.
! See also here (in PDF) or there.

Stephen McLoughlin (2001): The breakup history of Gondwana and its impact on pre-Cenozoic floristic provincialism. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 49: 271-300. Please take notice: Fig. 2: Late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic continental reconstructions (after Scotese 1997).
See also here (abstract).

J. Michalík (2011): Mesozoic paleogeography and facies distribution in the Northern Mediterranean Tethys from Western Carpathians view. In PDF, Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences, 3: 1-9.

A.J. Newell (2017): Rifts, rivers and climate recovery: A new model for the Triassic of England. Abstract, Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association.

E. Nitsch (2015): 1. Der Lettenkeuper – Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").

! Edgar Nitsch, Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau, Stuttgart (page hosted by the "Oberrheinische Geologische Verein"): Paläogeographie und Stratigraphie des Keupers in Deutschland. Keuper (Upper Triassic) palaeogeography and stratigraphy in Germany. PDF file, in German. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J. Paul et al. (2009): Keuper (Late Triassic) sediments in Germany: indicators of rapid uplift of Caledonian rocks in southern Norway. PDF file, Norwegian Journal of Geology, 89: 193-202.

J. Paul et al. (2008): Provenance of siliciclastic sediments (Permian to Jurassic) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 159: 641–650. See also here (abstract).
Note fig. 4: Keuper palaeogeography (Upper Triassic, Ladinian–Rhaetian) in Central Europe and basement provinces of neighbouring areas.

! S. Péron et al. (2005): Paleoenvironment reconstructions and climate simulations of the Early Triassic: Impact of the water and sediment supply on the preservation of fluvial systems. In PDF, Geodinamica Acta, 18: 431-446.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.

P.M. Rees et al. (2002): Permian Phytogeographic Patterns and Climate Data/Model Comparisons. PDF file, The Journal of Geology, 110: 1–31.

A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London.

! H. Stollhofen et al. (2008): Upper rotliegend to early cretaceous basin development. Abstract, In: Littke, R., Bayer, U., Gajewski, D., Nelskamp, S. (eds.), Dynamics of Complex Intracontinental Basins. The Central European Basin System. Springer, Berlin, pp. 181-210. See also here (in PDF). Worth checking out:
Figure 4.3.6., subcrop map of the base Solling (Hardegsen) unconformity.
Figure 4.3.8, Anisian-Ladinian Muschelkalk palaeogeography.
Figure 4.3.11. Subcrop map of the base Stuttgart unconformity.
Figure 4.3.12. Subcrop map of the base Arnstadt (Early Cimmerian) unconformity.

The Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, Germany:
Mittlerer und Oberer Keuper.
Mittlerer Keuper vor 233 – 205 Millionen Jahren.
Unterer Keuper.
Unterer Keuper vor 235 – 233 Millionen Jahren.
Easy to understand informations, in German.

J. Szulc et al. (2015): Key aspects of the stratigraphy of the Upper Silesian middle Keuper, southern Poland. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 557–586.
Please note Fig. 4: The palaeogeographic location of Upper Silesia.
Fig. 5: Schematic representation of mid-Norian palaeogeography and sedimentary palaeoenvironments of the eastern part of Upper Silesia.

! Wikipedia the free encyclopedia:
Trias (in German).
Germanic Trias.
Keuper (in German).

! M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian–Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere. In PDF, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 9: 340–363 (translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, Vol. 9).

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated May 11, 2018