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The Carnian Pluvial Event
Triassic Stratigraphy
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Triassic Palaeosols
Triassic Charcoal
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips

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Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
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Triassic Palaeogeography

Rainer Albert, Stuttgart, Germany: Die Trias in Südwestdeutschland Easy to understand introduction about the germanotype Triassic (in German).

R. Aubrecht et al. (2017): Provenance of the Lunz Formation (Carnian) in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia: Heavy mineral study and in situ LA–ICP–MS U–Pb detrital zircon dating. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 471: 233–253. See also here (abstract), and there.
Please take notice: Fig. 23, paleogeographic scheme of Middle Carnian, showing probable provenance of the Lunz Formation arenites and its relation to the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin.

! G. Bachmann et al. (2010): Triassic. (Triassic stratigraphy, Facies and hydrocarbons of the southern Permian Basin Area (SPBA)). In: Petroleum Geological Atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area. EAGE Publications, p. 149. ISBN 9789073781610.
See also here (PDF file, with table of contents) and there (PDF file, GIS maps presented in the atlas).

J. Barnasch (2009): Der Keuper im Westteil des Zentraleuropäischen Beckens (Deutschland, Niederlande, England, Dänemark): diskontinuierliche Sedimentation, Litho-, Zyklo- und Sequenzstratigraphie. PDF file, in German. Thesis, University Halle, Germany. See also here.

P.D.W. Barnard (1973): Mesozoic floras. In PDF, Special Papers in Palaeontology, 12: 175-187.
See also here.

G. Barth et al. (2018): Marine and terrestrial sedimentation across the T–J transition in the North German Basin. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 489: 74-94. See also here.
Note Fig. 1: Central European Basin (CEB) and working area.

A. Becker (2024): Cyclicity of the Lower Buntsandstein in the eastern part of the Central European Basin: Implications for Early Triassic palaeogeography and for geochronological calibration. Free access, Journal of Palaeogeography.
! Note figure 1: Early Triassic palaeogeography maps.

C.A. Benavente et al. (2024): Triassic Gondwanan floral assemblages reflect paleogeography more than geologic time. Abstract, Gondwana Research.
"... Combining these and existing geochronologic data with a newly assembled comprehensive presence/absence dataset of palynomorphs from the Anisian-Norian of Gondwana, we demonstrate that paleogeography (paleolatitude) has a significantly stronger correlation with taxonomic composition of assemblages than does geologic time
[...] results imply that geography is an important null hypothesis in explaining differences in early Mesozoic Gondwanan palynomorph assemblages, and that precise geochronologic age constraints are important for refining the accuracy of Triassic palynomorph biochronology ..."

! M.J. Benton (2018): Hyperthermal-driven mass extinctions: killing models during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 376. See also here.
Note Fig. 3: Palaeogeographic map of the Permo-Triassic, showing the single supercontinent Pangaea, modelled climate belts, and the distribution of terrestrial tetrapods.

! M.J. Benton (2016): The Triassic. Open access, Current Biology, 26: R1214–R1218.

H.-P. Berners et al. (1984): Vom Westrand des Germanischen Trias-Beckens zum Ostrand des Pariser Lias-Beckens: Aspekte der Sedimentationsgeschichte. Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Geologischen Vereins, 66: 357-395. See also here (in PDF).

Ron Blakey, Department of Geology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff: Paleogeography Through Geologic Time. Choose a geologic period and click on its name to view menu of that time, then select the paleogeographic globe or a 1st order global tectonic feature. See especially:
! Triassic.

A.D. Bond et al. (2023): Globally limited but severe shallow-shelf euxinia during the end-Triassic extinction. Open access, Nature Geoscience.
Note figure 1: Triassic–Jurassic palaeogeography of the Tethyan shelf.

R. Bos et al. (2023): Triassic-Jurassic vegetation response to carbon cycle perturbations and climate change. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 228.
Note figure 1: Paleogeographic reconstruction of the end-Triassic.
Figure 4. Major vegetation patterns as inferred by their botanical affinities.
Figure 5. Palynofloral diversity indices plotted against the variation of major botanical groups.
Figure 7. Depositional model of paleoenvironmental changes in the northern German Basin-

R. Bos et al. (2023): Climate-forced Hg-remobilization driving mutagenesis in ferns in the aftermath of the end-Triassic extinction. Free access,
"... We conclude that Hg injected by CAMP across the extinction was repeatedly remobilized from coastal wetlands and hinterland areas during eccentricity-forced phases of severe hydrological upheaval and erosion, focusing Hg-pollution in shallow marine basins ..."

S. Bourquin et al. (2011): The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri-Tethyan domain scale: palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 299: 265-280.

S. Bourquin et al. (2007): The Permian-Triassic boundary and Early Triassic sedimentation in Western European basins: an overview. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 33: 221-236. See also here.

! S.D. Burley et al. (2023): ‘A hard rain's a-gonna fall’: torrential rain, flash floods and desert lakes in the Late Triassic Arden Sandstone of Central England. Open access, Geology Today, 39.
! Note figure 5: The Carnian world, based on the PALEOMAP project, showing the distribution of continents and ocean basins for the Late Triassic, active subduction and spreading margins, and summer atmospheric circulation.
"... The Carnian age of the Arden Sandstone potentially links it to the Carnian Pluvial Episode, marking the coalescence, spread and freshening of the formerly saline desert lakes, and deposition of sandy, fluvial and lacustrine deposits, during the wetter climate that prevailed for at least a million years ..."

! W. Cao et al. (2017): Improving global paleogeography since the late Paleozoic using paleobiology. In PDF, Biogeosciences, 14: 5425–5439. See also here, and especially
! there. (EarthByte, an internationally leading eGeoscience collaboration between several Australian Universities, international centres of excellence and industry partners.

! Deep Time Maps (produced by Colorado Plateau Geosystems, Inc.).
The maps show the varied landscapes of the ancient Earth through hundreds of millions of years of geologic time including distribution of ancient shallow seas, deep ocean basins, mountain ranges, coastal plains, and continental interiors.
Worth checking out: Paleogeography of Europe (Europe Series Thumbnails). See especially:
! Europe Triassic ca. 225 Ma.
! Europe Triassic ca. 250 Ma.

Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission:
! International Triassic Field Workshops. An informal forum for earth scientists who are interested in the Triassic system. Go to:
! Southern Germany. In PDF, by H. Hagdorn, T. Simon, E. Nitsch, T. Aigner.
! Central Germany. In PDF, by G. H. Bachmann, G. Beutler.

C.G. Diedrich (2010): The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 12; EGU General Assembly 2010.

! S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London.

J. Fischer et al. (2012): Palaeoenvironments of the late Triassic Rhaetian Sea: Implications from oxygen and strontium isotopes of hybodont shark teeth. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 353–355: 60–72. See also here. Note:
Fig. 1: Palaeogeographic and structural overviewmap of the late Triassic Central European Basin.
Fig. 7. Schematic palaeogeographic map of the Central European Basin illustrating successive freshening of the Rhaetian Sea from the gates to its eastern margins as the result of extensive deltaic fresh water input.

A. Förster et al. (2010): Reservoir characterization of a CO2 storage aquifer: The Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in the Northeast German Basin. Abstract, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27: 2156-2172.
Note Fig. 3: Facies map of the Stuttgart Formation in northeastern Germany.

! M. Franz et al. (2015): Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27. See also here (abstract).

M. Franz et al. (2015): Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27. See also here (abstract). Note:
Fig. 3: Reconstructions of the Upper Muschelkalk Sea.
Fig. 13: Ladinian North Pangaean palaeogeography, showing depositional environments and inferred zonal climates.

M. Franz et al. (2014): Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 122 :305-329. See also here (in PDF).
Please take notice: Fig. 1, Upper Triassic palaeogeography of the Central European Basin according to Ziegler (1990).

M. Franz et al. (2012): The strong diachronous Muschelkalk/Keuper facies shift in the Central European Basin: implications from the type-section of the Erfurt Formation (Lower Keuper, Triassic) and basin-wide correlations. Abstract, International Journal of Earth Sciences.

! Matthias Franz (2008), Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg: Litho- und Leitflächenstratigraphie, Chronostratigraphie, Zyklo- und Sequenzstratigraphie des Keupers im östlichen Zentraleuropäischen Becken (Deutschland, Polen) und Dänischen Becken (Dänemark, Schweden). Thesis, in German. Available in PDF, 39,5 MB.
Note page 47, fig. 5.1.1-2: Sandstone S 1.
page 51, fig. 5.1.1-3: Grenzdolomit.
page 53, fig. 5.1.2: Grabfeld-Formation.
page 59, fig. 5.1.3: Stuttgart-Formation.
page 64, fig. 5.1.4-1: Weser-Formation.
page 67, fig. 5.1.4-2: Hauptsteinmergel.
page 71, fig. 5.1.4-3: Heldburgips.
page 76, fig. 5.1.5-1: Arnstadt-Formation.
page 79, fig. 5.1.5-2: Lower Arnstadt-Formation.
page 91, fig. 5.2.3: Exter-, Seeberg- und Bartenstein-Formation.

M. Geluk et al. (2018): An introduction to the Triassic: current insights into the regional setting and energy resource potential of NW Europe. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 469.

! M.C. Geluk (2005): Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands in the Netherlands and surrounding areas. Thesis, Utrecht University.

C. Gisler et al. (2007): Sedimentological and palynological constraints on the basal Triassic sequence in Central Switzerland. Abstract, Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 100: 263–272. See also here (in PDF).
Please note Fig. 5. Palaeogeographic situation showing the location of the Vindelician High during Early Triassic and earliest Anisian.

! J. Golonka (2007): Late Triassic and Early Jurassic palaeogeography of the world. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244: 297-307. See also here.

Jan Golonka (2007): Phanerozoic paleoenvironment and paleolithofacies maps. Mesozoic. PDF file, Geologia, 33: 211-264.

J. Gravendyck (2021): Shedding new Light on the Triass-Jurassic Transition in the Germanic Basin: Novel insights from the Bonenburg section & palynotaxonomy and nomenclature of plant microfossils. In PDF, Thesis, Freie Universität Berlin.
See also here.
This is a cumulative dissertation based on published and unpublished manuscripts. Table of contents on PDF-page 11.
Note fig. 1 (PDF-page 27): Geographic reconstruction of the Central European Basin and Western Tethys shelf seas in the Late Triassic.

I.P. Greig et al. (2023): Establishing Provenance from Highly Impoverished Heavy Mineral Suites: Detrital Apatite and Zircon Geochronology of Central North Sea Triassic Sandstones. Open access, Geosciences,13.
Note figure 6: Generalised pre-Atlantic drift map reconstruction of the North Atlantic region showing the extent of the Caledonide orogenic belt.
Figure 7: Geological summary map of the geological units exposed on the landmasses of Scotland and SW Scandinavia with the location of Triassic basins.

C.T. Griffin et al. (2022): Africa’s oldest dinosaurs reveal early suppression of dinosaur distribution. Abstract, Nature.
See also: here.
"... By the Late Triassic (Carnian stage, ~235 million years ago), cosmopolitan ‘disaster faunas’ had given way to highly endemic assemblages on the supercontinent.
[...] palaeolatitudinal climate belts, and not continental boundaries, are proposed to have controlled distribution. During this time of high endemism ..."

B.L.H. Horn et al.(2018): A loess deposit in the Late Triassic of southern Gondwana, and its significance to global paleoclimate. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 81: 189-203. See also here.
Note fig. 10: Paleomap of Late Triassic showing the climatic zones.

M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006): Triassic - seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London, London.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A. Iglesias et al. (2011): The evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present. Free access, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103: 409–422.
Note fig. 1: Geographical, climatologic and biome evolution for Gondwana and southern South America.

K. Jewula et al. (2019): The late Triassic development of playa, gilgai floodplain, and fluvial environments from Upper Silesia, southern Poland. In PDF, Sedimentary Geology, 379: 25–45. See also here.
Note fig. 1A: Palaeogeographic map of the Germanic Basin in the Late Triassic.
Note fig. 9A: Schematic illustration of the gilgai palaeoenvironment at Krasiejów.

F. Käsbohrer et al. (2021): Exkursionsführer zur Geologie des Unteren Buntsandsteins (Untertrias) zwischen Harz und Thüringer Wald. PDF file, in German. Hercynia, 54: 1-64.
! Note fig. 2: Extent of the Central European Basin (CEB) and faciesmap of the Lower Buntsandstein including the Harz Mountains (modified after Geluk 2005and Augutsson et al. 2018).
! Note fig. 7: Views of the giant stromatolite in the former quarry near Benzingerode.

T.G. Klausen et al. (2019): The largest delta plain in Earth’s history. Free access, Geology, 47: 470-474.

C. Klug et al. (2024): The marine conservation deposits of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland, Italy): the prototype of Triassic black shale Lagerstätten. In PDF, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 143.
See likewise here.
Note figure 4: Reconstructions of some animals from Monte San Giorgio by Beat Scheffold.
Figure 6: Palaeogeographic map.

! M. Kosnik and Allister Rees et al., University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project Databases (PGAP). The older database version is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H.W. Kozur and G.H. Bachmann (2010): The Middle Carnian Wet Intermezzo of the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein), Germanic Basin. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 290: 107-119. See also here (in PDF).
Please take notice: The palaeogeographic map for the late Julian, modified from Stampfli and Borel (2004) and Stampfli and Kozur (2006) in Fig. 5.

L. Krakow and F. Schunke (2016): Current clay potential in Germany Part 4: Raw materials from the Buntsandstein group/Trias system. In PDF, Brick and Tile Industry International, 69.
! Note fig. 1: Palaeogeographic position of the Central European Basin at the time of the Buntsandstein.
fig. 2: Grouping and facies areas of the Central European Basin at the time of the Buntsandstein.
! Note fig. 10: Formation of salt clays in sporadic playa lakes in the arid to semi-arid climate regions.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2014): Floodplain habitats of braided river systems: depositional environment, flora and fauna of the Solling Formation (Buntsandstein, Lower Triassic) from Bremke and Fürstenberg (Germany). Abstract, Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 94: 237–270. See also here (in PDF).
Note fig. 2: Early Triassic palaeogeography of the Central European Basin.

M.B. Lara et al. (2023): Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic insects: state of the art on paleoentomological studies in southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 60: 418–449.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Early Mesozoic geological and climatic map showing the fossil insect localities in South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile).
"... updated review of fossil insect faunas in this paper will help settling the bases for future taxonomic, diversity, and ecological studies during a time that comprised the evolutionary history of insects through two key episodes of the geological record: the end–Permian mass extinction (EPME, ~252 Ma) and the Carnian Pluvial Event ..."

W. Lestari et al. (2023): Carbon Cycle Perturbations and Environmental Change of the Middle Permian and Late Triassic paleo-Antarctic Circle. Free access, Researchsquare. See likewise here.
Note figure 1: Permian and Triassic paleogeographical maps of the Southern Hemisphere.
"... The Bicheno-5 core from Eastern Tasmania, Australia, provides the opportunity to examine Mid-Permian and Upper Triassic sediments from the paleo-Antarctic, using high-resolution organic carbon isotope (d 13 C TOC) chemostratigraphy, pXRF, and sedimentology, combined with new palynological data integrated with the existing radiometric age model ..."

S. Lindström et al. (2017): A new correlation of Triassic–Jurassic boundary successions in NW Europe, Nevada and Peru, and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: A time-line for the end-Triassic mass extinction Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 478: 80-102. See also here.

Alan Logan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.: Triassic Period.
Please note the map "Pangea: Early Triassic Period". With indicated cold and warm water currents.

S.G. Lucas (2023): Permophiles Perspective: Nonmarine Permian Biostratigraphy, Biochronology and Correlation. In PDF, Permophiles.
Note figure 1: Map of Pangea at 270 Ma.

A. Lukeneder and P. Lukeneder (2023): New data on the marine Upper Triassic palaeobiota from the Polzberg Konservat-Lagerstätte in Austria. Free access, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 142.
Note figure 7A: Detailed palaeogeography of the Reifling Basin with the Polzberg locality during the Upper Triassic, Carnian.

! L. Luthardt et al. (2021): Medullosan seed ferns of seasonally-dry habitats: old and new perspectives on enigmatic elements of Late Pennsylvanian–early Permian intramontane basinal vegetation. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 288.
See also here.
Note figure 1: Stratigraphy and fossil record of the Medullosales in the context of palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic developments in the late Paleozoic.
Figure 2: Transverse sections of stem taxa of medullosans with information on their stratigraphy, (palaeo-) geographic origin, taphonomy and palaeo-environment.
Also of interest in this context:
Pflanzliche Botschaften aus der Urzeit (by Tamara Worzewski, November 08, 2022,, in German).

! T. McKie (2014): Climatic and tectonic controls on Triassic dryland terminal fluvial system architecture, central North Sea. In PDF, Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ., 46: 19-58. See also here (provided by Google books).
Gross palaeogeographic setting of the central North Sea (after McKie & Shannon, 2011) in relation to the Southern Permian Basin and the margin of the Tethys Sea depicted in Fig. 1D.
! Palaeogeographic response to regional climate wettening depicted in Fig. 19.

Tom McKie and Brian Williams (2009): Triassic palaeogeography and fluvial dispersal across the northwest European Basins. Abstract, Geological Journal, 44: 711-741.
! See also here (in PDF) or there.

Stephen McLoughlin (2001): The breakup history of Gondwana and its impact on pre-Cenozoic floristic provincialism. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 49: 271-300. Please take notice: Fig. 2: Late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic continental reconstructions (after Scotese 1997).
See also here (abstract).

J. Michalík (2019; article started on PDF-page 135): Mesozoic sedimentary basins, current systems and life domains in northern part of the Mediterranean Tethys Ocean. In PDF, Carpathica, 70: 134-136.
See also here.
"... Contact of the Mediterranean Tethys with Paleoeurope has been affected by tension, rifting, and by left lateral shift since the Early Triassic. The Late Triassic/Early Jurassic evolution was controlled by convergence along border of the Meliata Ocean and by contemporaneous divergence along the Middle Atlantic/Penninic rift. ..."

J. Michalík (2011): Mesozoic paleogeography and facies distribution in the Northern Mediterranean Tethys from Western Carpathians view. In PDF, Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences, 3: 1-9.
See also here.
Note Fig. 1: Paleogeographic sketch of Early Triassic situation of northern Mediterranean Tethys.

! C.S. Miller and V. Baranyi (2019): Triassic Climates. In PDF. See also here.

! R.D. Nance (2022): The supercontinent cycle and Earth's long-term climate. Open access, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1515: 33–49.
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of Pangea for the Late Triassic (at 200 Ma).
! Figure 7: Distribution of warm (greenhouse) and cool (icehouse) global climatic conditions for the past 1 Ga compared with times of supercontinent assembly and breakup for Rodinia, Pannotia, and Pangea.
Figure 9: Distribution of large igneous provinces (LIPs) throughout Earth history.
! Figure 10: Age and estimated volume of Phanerozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs) compared to genus extinction magnitude showing correlation between mass extinction events (peaks) and LIP emplacement.

A.J. Newell (2017): Rifts, rivers and climate recovery: A new model for the Triassic of England. Abstract, Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association.

S. Niegel and M. Franz (2023): Depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity evolution in sandstone reservoirs of the Stuttgart Formation (North German Basin). Free access, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 151. See also here.
Note figure 1: Central European Basin System with subbasins, major fault systems and basement exposures.
! Figure 3: Generalised N–S cross-section summarising large-scale architecture, depositional environments and stratigraphic control of the Stuttgart Formation.

S. Niegel (2023): Diagenetic controls on sandstones of the Stuttgart Formation – consequences for the porosity evolution of hydrothermal reservoirs in the North German Basin. In PDF, Dissertation, Georg-August University Göttingen, Germany. See also here.
Note figure 1.2: Central European Basin System with subbasins, major fault systems and basement exposures.

E. Nitsch (2015): 1. Der Lettenkeuper – Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Edgar Nitsch, Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau, Stuttgart (page hosted by the "Oberrheinische Geologische Verein"): Paläogeographie und Stratigraphie des Keupers in Deutschland. Keuper (Upper Triassic) palaeogeography and stratigraphy in Germany. PDF file, in German. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B. Norden and P. Frykman (2013): Geological modelling of the Triassic Stuttgart Formation at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany. Free access, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 19: 756–774.
Note fig. 9: Map showing the interpretation of the connectivity in the Stuttgart sand stringers based on scattered outcrop information and transport directions.

! H. Nowak et al. (2020): Palaeophytogeographical Patterns Across the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Open access, Front. Earth Sci.

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2020): The triassic period. In PDF, Geologic Time Scale 2020, Volume 2: 903-953. See also here.
! Note the generalized synthesis of selected Triassic stratigraphic scales in Figs. 25.5-25.7!

J. Pálfy and Á. Kocsis (2014): Volcanism of the Central Atlantic magmatic province as the trigger of environmental and biotic changes around the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. PDF file. In: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds., Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects: Geological Society of America Special Paper 505: 245-261.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Global paleogeographic map at the Triassic-Jurassic transition.

! J. Paul et al. (2009): Keuper (Late Triassic) sediments in Germany: indicators of rapid uplift of Caledonian rocks in southern Norway. PDF file, Norwegian Journal of Geology, 89: 193-202.

J. Paul et al. (2008): Provenance of siliciclastic sediments (Permian to Jurassic) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 159: 641–650. See also here (abstract).
Note fig. 4: Keuper palaeogeography (Upper Triassic, Ladinian–Rhaetian) in Central Europe and basement provinces of neighbouring areas.

J. Peng et al. (2021): A review of the Triassic pollen Staurosaccites: systematic and phytogeographical implications. In PDF, Grana, 60: 407–423.
See also here.
Note figure 5. Global distribution of Staurosaccites species during the Middle and Late Triassic.
Figure 6: Global Middle Triassic palynofloras based on the distribution of Staurosaccites, Camerosporites, Enzonalasporites, Infernopollenites and Ovalipollis.

! S. Péron et al. (2005): Paleoenvironment reconstructions and climate simulations of the Early Triassic: Impact of the water and sediment supply on the preservation of fluvial systems. In PDF, Geodinamica Acta, 18: 431-446.

! A. Pohl et al. (2022): Dataset of Phanerozoic continental climate and Köppen–Geiger climate classes. Free access, Data in Brief, 43.
See also here.
"... This dataset provides a unique window onto changing continental climate throughout the Phanerozoic that accounts for the simultaneous evolution of paleogeography. ..."
! Note figure 3: Overview of 28 Phanerozoic time slices.

D.C.G. Ravida et al. (2022): Drainage and environmental evolution across the Permo–Triassic boundary in the south-east Germanic Basin (north-east Bavaria). Open access, Sedimentology, 69, 501–536. See also here.
Note fig. 2: Palaeogeography of the Franconian Basin during the deposition of Rotliegend, Zechstein and Buntsandstein.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.M. Rees et al. (2002): Permian Phytogeographic Patterns and Climate Data/Model Comparisons. PDF file, Journal of Geology, 110, 1–31.
See also here.

! G Roghi et al. (2022): An Exceptionally Preserved Terrestrial Record of LIP Effects on Plants in the Carnian (Upper Triassic) Amber-Bearing Section of the Dolomites, Italy. In PDF, Frontiers in Earth Science.
Note figure 1: Pangaean floristic subprovinces during the Late Triassic.
! Fig. 6: Fossil plant remains and palynomorphs enclosed in the amber droplets.

! D.A. Ruban (2023): Tsunamis Struck Coasts of Triassic Oceans and Seas: Brief Summary of the Literary Evidence. Free access, Water, 15.
Note figure 3: Global distribution and certainty of evidence of palaeotsunamis from the three time slices of the Triassic Period.
Worth checking out: !Table 1. The literary evidence for judgments of Triassic tsunamis.
"The present work aims at summarizing the published information on Triassic tsunamis to document their spatiotemporal distribution and the related knowledge gaps and biases ..."

A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.W. Schneider et al. (2022): Report on the activities of the Carboniferous – Permian –Triassic Nonmarine-Marine Correlation Working Group for 2021 to 2022. In PDF, Permophiles, 73. See also here.
Note chapter "Triassic" on page 38 (PDF-page 8).
! Note figure 11. Palaeogeographic map of the epicontinental Central European Basin.

! C.R. Scotese (2021): An atlas of Phanerozoic paleogeographic maps: the seas come in and the seas go out. In PDF, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 49: 679-728.
See also here.
Note chapter 4.5. Permo–Triassic (starting on PDF page 692).
! Figure 12: A Paleozoic paleotemperature timescale.
! Figure 15: A Mesozoic paleotemperature timescale.
! Figure 19: A Cenozoic paleotemperature timescale.

C.R. Scotese and N. Wright (2018):
! PALEOMAP Paleodigital Elevation Models (PaleoDEMS) for the Phanerozoic PALEOMAP Project. A digital representation of paleotopography and paleobathymetry. The paleoDEMS describe the changing distribution of deep oceans, shallow seas, lowlands, and mountainous regions during the last 540 million years at five million year intervals. See also here (in PDF). See especially:
! Atlas of Permo-Triassic Paleogeographic Maps (Mollweide Projection). In PDF, Maps 43-52, Volumes 3 & 4 of the PALEOMAP Atlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL.
! PaleoDEM Resource – Scotese and Wright. A complete set of the PALEOMAP PaleoDEMs can be downloaded.

F. Siegel et al. (2022): Middle Anisian (Bithynian to Illyrian?, Middle Triassic) Ammonoidea from Rüdersdorf (Brandenburg, Germany) with a revision of Beneckeia Mojsisovics, 1882 and notes on migratory pathways. In PDF, Bulletin of Geosciences, 97.
Note figure 1: Simplified palaeogeographic map of the Germanic Basin.

! M.S. Stoker et al. (2017): An overview of the Upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic stratigraphy of the NE Atlantic region. Open access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 447: 11-64.

! H. Stollhofen et al. (2008): Upper rotliegend to early cretaceous basin development. Abstract, In: Littke, R., Bayer, U., Gajewski, D., Nelskamp, S. (eds.), Dynamics of Complex Intracontinental Basins. The Central European Basin System. Springer, Berlin, pp. 181-210. See also here (in PDF). Worth checking out:
Figure 4.3.6., subcrop map of the base Solling (Hardegsen) unconformity.
Figure 4.3.8, Anisian-Ladinian Muschelkalk palaeogeography.
Figure 4.3.11. Subcrop map of the base Stuttgart unconformity.
Figure 4.3.12. Subcrop map of the base Arnstadt (Early Cimmerian) unconformity.

The Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, Germany:
Mittlerer und Oberer Keuper.
Mittlerer Keuper vor 233 – 205 Millionen Jahren.
Unterer Keuper.
Unterer Keuper vor 235 – 233 Millionen Jahren.
Easy to understand informations, in German.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Szulc et al. (2015): Key aspects of the stratigraphy of the Upper Silesian middle Keuper, southern Poland. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 557–586.
Please note Fig. 4: The palaeogeographic location of Upper Silesia.
Fig. 5: Schematic representation of mid-Norian palaeogeography and sedimentary palaeoenvironments of the eastern part of Upper Silesia.

J. Szulc (2000): Middle Triassic evolution of the northern Peri-Tethys area as influenced by early opening of the Tethys Ocean. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 70: 1-48.
See likewise here.
Note figure 12: Paleofacies maps for the chosen intervals of the late Scythian-Carnian times of the Germanic Basin.

A.R. Tasistro-Hart and F.A. Macdonald (2023): Phanerozoic flooding of North America and the Great Unconformity. Free access, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 120.

! T.H. Torsvik and L.R.M. Cocks (2004): Earth geography from 400 to 250 Ma: a palaeomagnetic, faunal and facies review. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 161: 555-572. See also here.

! J.R. Underhill and N. Richardson (2022): Geological controls on petroleum plays and future opportunities in the North Sea Rift Super Basin. Open access, AAPG Bulletin, 106: 573–631.
Note figure 1: Map showing the geographical extent of the main petroleum systems of the northwestern European continental shelf and the position of the North Sea Rift Super Basin in relation to the Anglo-Polish Super Basin (or Southern Permian Basin), its Northern Permian Basin counterpart, and other significant petroleumsystems.

L.P.P. van Hinsbergen et al. (2019): Triassic (Anisian and Rhaetian) palaeomagnetic poles from the Germanic Basin (Winterswijk, the Netherlands). Open access, Journal of Palaeogeography.
Note fig. 9: Palaeogeographic maps of Pangea in the Anisian and the Rhaetian times.

! T. Vollmer et al. (2008): Orbital control on Upper Triassic Playa cycles of the Steinmergel-Keuper (Norian): a new concept for ancient playa cycles. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 267: 1–16. See also here.
Note figure 1: Simplified paleogeographic map.
! Figure 6: General facies model of the SMK [the Norian Steinmergel-Keuper].
"... The Norian Steinmergel.Keuper (SMK) represents a low-latitude cyclically-bedded playa system of the Mid-German Basin.
[...] Dolomite layers reflect the lake stage (maximum monsoon) while red mudstones indicate the dry phase (minimum monsoon) of the playa cycle.
[...] humid periods reveal thick layers of dolomite beds, indicating that during those intervals the monsoonal activity was strong enough to prevent the playa system from drying out completely.

M. Warnecke et al. (2019): Asymmetry of an epicontinental basin—facies, cycles, tectonics and hydrodynamics: The Triassic Upper Muschelkalk, South Germanic Basin. In PDF, The Depositional Record.

P.B. Wignall and D.P.G. Bond (2023): The great catastrophe: causes of the Permo-Triassic marine mass extinction. Free access, National Science Review, nwad273,
Note figure 1: Summary of geochemical, environmental and faunal events across the Permo-Triassic boundary.
! Figure 2: Lopingian and Early Triassic palaeogeographic maps showing the occurrences of common marine groups (ammonoids, bivalves, brachiopods, conodonts, corals (rugose and tabulate), foraminifers, ostracods).

! Wikipedia the free encyclopedia:
Trias (in German).
Germanic Trias.
Keuper (in German).

Q. Wu et al. (2021): High-precision U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change, and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology. See also here.

Z. Xu et al. (2022): Early Triassic super-greenhouse climate driven by vegetation collapse. In PDF, Europe PMC.
See also here.
Note figure 3, the climate graph.
"... Our reconstructions show that terrestrial vegetation collapse during the PTME, especially in tropical regions, resulted in an Earth system with low levels of organic carbon sequestration and chemical weathering, leading to limited drawdown of greenhouse gases. This led to a protracted period of extremely high surface temperatures, during which biotic recovery was delayed for millions of years. ..."

! A. Zeh et al. (2021): Zircon of Triassic Age in the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein)-Witness of Tephra Fallout in the Central European Basin and New Constraints on the Mid-Carnian Episode. Free access, Front. Earth Sci. See also here.
Note figure 1: Ladinian-Carnian global and regional palaeogeography.

P. Zhang et al. (2023): Floral response to the Late Triassic Carnian Pluvial Episode. In PDF, Front. Ecol. Evol., 11:
See also here.
Note figure 1: Environmental and geochemical changes during the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE).
Figure 3: Major floristic changes in relation to C-isotope and temperature variations recorded during the Carnian period.

! M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian–Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere. In PDF, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 9: 340–363 (translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, Vol. 9).

I.C. Zutterkirch et al. (2022): Thin-section detrital zircon geochronology mitigates bias in provenance investigations. Free access, Journal of the Geological Society, 179.
Note fig. 1: Tectonic setting of Australia during the Late Triassic.
Note Note fig. 8: Schematic diagram illustrating how in situ zircon U–Pb measurements in thinsections are more representative of the detrital sink than measurements on processed hand-picked mounts.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated April 14, 2024