All about Upper Triassic /
Insight into the Triassic World
Homepages of Triassic Workers
The Carnian Pluvial Event
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips
! Palaeobotanical Maps@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Geology@
R. Aubrecht et al. (2017):
of the Lunz Formation (Carnian) in the Western Carpathians,
Slovakia: Heavy mineral study and in situ LA–ICP–MS U–Pb detrital
zircon dating. In PDF,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 471: 233–253. See also
Please take notice: Fig. 23, paleogeographic scheme of Middle Carnian, showing probable provenance of the Lunz Formation arenites and its relation to the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin.
Loren E. Babcock (website hosted by Barbara Carrapa, Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ): Visualizing Earth History, Triassic Period (including Jurassic and Cretaceous). Brief lecture note, Powerpoint presentation.
G. Bachmann et al. (2010):
(Triassic stratigraphy, Facies and hydrocarbons of the southern Permian Basin Area (SPBA)).
Atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area.
EAGE Publications, p. 149. ISBN 9789073781610.
See also here (PDF file, with table of contents) and there (PDF file, GIS maps presented in the atlas).
J. Barnasch (2009): Der Keuper im Westteil des Zentraleuropäischen Beckens (Deutschland, Niederlande, England, Dänemark): diskontinuierliche Sedimentation, Litho-, Zyklo- und Sequenzstratigraphie. PDF file, in German. Thesis, University Halle, Germany. See also here.
P.D.W. Barnard (1973):
floras. In PDF, Special Papers in Palaeontology, 12: 175-187.
See also here.
M.J. Benton (2018):
mass extinctions: killing
models during the Permian–Triassic mass
extinction. In PDF,
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 376. See also
Note Fig. 3: Palaeogeographic map of the Permo-Triassic, showing the single supercontinent Pangaea, modelled climate belts, and the distribution of terrestrial tetrapods.
! M.J. Benton (2016): The Triassic. Open access, Current Biology, 26: R1214–R1218.
H.-P. Berners et al. (1984): Vom Westrand des Germanischen Trias-Beckens zum Ostrand des Pariser Lias-Beckens: Aspekte der Sedimentationsgeschichte. Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Geologischen Vereins, 66: 357-395. See also here (in PDF).
Department of Geology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff:
Through Geologic Time. Choose a geologic period and click on its name to view menu
of that time, then select the paleogeographic globe or a 1st order global tectonic feature.
S. Bourquin et al. (2011): The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri-Tethyan domain scale: palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 299: 265-280.
S. Bourquin et al. (2007): The Permian-Triassic boundary and Early Triassic sedimentation in Western European basins: an overview. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 33: 221-236. See also here.
W. Cao et al. (2017):
global paleogeography since the late Paleozoic
using paleobiology. In PDF,
Biogeosciences, 14: 5425–5439. See also
here, and especially
! there. (EarthByte, an internationally leading eGeoscience collaboration between several Australian Universities, international centres of excellence and industry partners.
Deep Time Maps
(produced by Colorado Plateau Geosystems, Inc.).
The maps show the varied landscapes of the ancient Earth through hundreds of millions of years of geologic time including distribution of ancient shallow seas, deep ocean basins, mountain ranges, coastal plains, and continental interiors.
Worth checking out: Paleogeography of Europe (Europe Series Thumbnails). See especially:
! Europe Triassic ca. 225 Ma.
! Europe Triassic ca. 250 Ma.
Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission:
! International Triassic Field Workshops. An informal forum for earth scientists who are interested in the Triassic system. Go to:
! Southern Germany. In PDF, by H. Hagdorn, T. Simon, E. Nitsch, T. Aigner.
! Central Germany. In PDF, by G. H. Bachmann, G. Beutler.
C.G. Diedrich (2010): The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 12; EGU General Assembly 2010.
! S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London.J. Fischer et al. (2012): Palaeoenvironments of the late Triassic Rhaetian Sea: Implications from oxygen and strontium isotopes of hybodont shark teeth. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 353–355: 60–72. See also here. Note:
A. Förster et al. (2010):
characterization of a CO2 storage aquifer: The Upper Triassic Stuttgart
Formation in the Northeast German Basin. Abstract,
Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27: 2156-2172.
Note Fig. 3: Facies map of the Stuttgart Formation in northeastern Germany.
! M. Franz et al. (2015): Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27. See also here (abstract).
M. Franz et al. (2015):
and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea
(late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF,
Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27.
Fig. 3: Reconstructions of the Upper Muschelkalk Sea.
Fig. 13: Ladinian North Pangaean palaeogeography, showing depositional environments and inferred zonal climates.
M. Franz et al. (2014):
control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the
Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic.
Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 122 :305-329. See also
Please take notice: Fig. 1, Upper Triassic palaeogeography of the Central European Basin according to Ziegler (1990).
M. Franz et al. (2012): The strong diachronous Muschelkalk/Keuper facies shift in the Central European Basin: implications from the type-section of the Erfurt Formation (Lower Keuper, Triassic) and basin-wide correlations. Abstract, International Journal of Earth Sciences.
Matthias Franz (2008), Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg:
Litho- und Leitflächenstratigraphie, Chronostratigraphie,
Zyklo- und Sequenzstratigraphie des Keupers im östlichen Zentraleuropäischen
Becken (Deutschland, Polen) und Dänischen Becken (Dänemark, Schweden).
Thesis, in German. Available in
PDF, 39,5 MB.
Note page 47, fig. 5.1.1-2: Sandstone S 1.
page 51, fig. 5.1.1-3: Grenzdolomit.
page 53, fig. 5.1.2: Grabfeld-Formation.
page 59, fig. 5.1.3: Stuttgart-Formation.
page 64, fig. 5.1.4-1: Weser-Formation.
page 67, fig. 5.1.4-2: Hauptsteinmergel.
page 71, fig. 5.1.4-3: Heldburgips.
page 76, fig. 5.1.5-1: Arnstadt-Formation.
page 79, fig. 5.1.5-2: Lower Arnstadt-Formation.
page 91, fig. 5.2.3: Exter-, Seeberg- und Bartenstein-Formation.
! M.C. Geluk (2005): Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands in the Netherlands and surrounding areas. Thesis, Utrecht University.
C. Gisler et al. (2007):
and palynological constraints on the basal Triassic sequence in Central Switzerland. Abstract,
Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 100: 263–272.
Please note Fig. 5. Palaeogeographic situation showing the location of the Vindelician High during Early Triassic and earliest Anisian.
! J. Golonka (2007): Late Triassic and Early Jurassic palaeogeography of the world. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244: 297-307. See also here.
Jan Golonka (2007): Phanerozoic paleoenvironment and paleolithofacies maps. Mesozoic. PDF file, Geologia, 33: 211-264.
J. Gravendyck (2021):
new Light on the Triass-Jurassic Transition in the Germanic Basin: Novel
insights from the Bonenburg section & palynotaxonomy and nomenclature of plant
microfossils. In PDF, Thesis, Freie Universität Berlin.
See also here.
This is a cumulative dissertation based on published and unpublished manuscripts. Table of contents on PDF-page 11.
Note fig. 1 (PDF-page 27): Geographic reconstruction of the Central European Basin and Western Tethys shelf seas in the Late Triassic.
I.P. Greig et al. (2023):
Provenance from Highly Impoverished Heavy
Mineral Suites: Detrital Apatite and Zircon Geochronology
of Central North Sea Triassic Sandstones. Open access,
Note figure 6: Generalised pre-Atlantic drift map reconstruction of the North Atlantic region showing the extent of the Caledonide orogenic belt.
Figure 7: Geological summary map of the geological units exposed on the landmasses of Scotland and SW Scandinavia with the location of Triassic basins.
C.T. Griffin et al. (2022):
dinosaurs reveal early suppression of dinosaur distribution. Abstract,
See also: here.
"... By the Late Triassic (Carnian stage, ~235 million years ago), cosmopolitan ‘disaster faunas’ had given way to highly endemic assemblages on the supercontinent.
[...] palaeolatitudinal climate belts, and not continental boundaries, are proposed to have controlled distribution. During this time of high endemism ..."
B.L.H. Horn et al.(2018):
loess deposit in the Late Triassic of southern Gondwana, and its
significance to global paleoclimate. Abstract,
Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 81: 189-203. See also
Note fig. 10: Paleomap of Late Triassic showing the climatic zones.
M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006):
- seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty
lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales.
Geological Society of London, London.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A. Iglesias et al. (2011):
evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present. Free access,
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103: 409–422.
Note fig. 1: Geographical, climatologic and biome evolution for Gondwana and southern South America.
K. Jewula et al. (2019):
late Triassic development of playa, gilgai floodplain, and fluvial
environments from Upper Silesia, southern Poland. In PDF,
Sedimentary Geology, 379: 25–45. See also
Note fig. 1A: Palaeogeographic map of the Germanic Basin in the Late Triassic.
Note fig. 9A: Schematic illustration of the gilgai palaeoenvironment at Krasiejów.
F. Käsbohrer et al. (2021):
zur Geologie des Unteren Buntsandsteins (Untertrias)
zwischen Harz und Thüringer Wald. PDF file, in German.
Hercynia, 54: 1-64.
! Note fig. 2: Extent of the Central European Basin (CEB) and faciesmap of the Lower Buntsandstein including the Harz Mountains (modified after Geluk 2005and Augutsson et al. 2018).
! Note fig. 7: Views of the giant stromatolite in the former quarry near Benzingerode.
T.G. Klausen et al. (2019): The largest delta plain in Earth’s history. Free access, Geology, 47: 470-474.
! M. Kosnik and Allister Rees et al., University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project Databases (PGAP). The older database version is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
H.W. Kozur and G.H. Bachmann (2010):
Middle Carnian Wet Intermezzo of the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein), Germanic Basin.
Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 290: 107-119. See also
Please take notice: The palaeogeographic map for the late Julian, modified from Stampfli and Borel (2004) and Stampfli and Kozur (2006) in Fig. 5.
L. Krakow and F. Schunke (2016):
clay potential in Germany Part 4: Raw materials from
the Buntsandstein group/Trias system. In PDF,
Brick and Tile Industry International, 69. See also
! Note fig. 1: Palaeogeographic position of the Central European Basin at the time of the Buntsandstein.
fig. 2: Grouping and facies areas of the Central European Basin at the time of the Buntsandstein.
! Note fig. 10: Formation of salt clays in sporadic playa lakes in the arid to semi-arid climate regions.
E. Kustatscher et al. (2014):
Floodplain habitats of braided river systems: depositional
environment, flora and fauna of the Solling Formation
(Buntsandstein, Lower Triassic) from Bremke and Fürstenberg
Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., 94: 237–270. See also
Note fig. 2: Early Triassic palaeogeography of the Central European Basin.
L. Luthardt et al. (2021):
seed ferns of seasonally-dry habitats: old and new perspectives on enigmatic elements of Late
Pennsylvanian–early Permian intramontane basinal vegetation. In PDF,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 288.
See also here.
Note figure 1: Stratigraphy and fossil record of the Medullosales in the context of palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic developments in the late Paleozoic.
Figure 2: Transverse sections of stem taxa of medullosans with information on their stratigraphy, (palaeo-) geographic origin, taphonomy and palaeo-environment.
Also of interest in this context:
Pflanzliche Botschaften aus der Urzeit (by Tamara Worzewski, November 08, 2022, Spektrum.de, in German).
T. McKie (2014):
and tectonic controls on Triassic dryland terminal fluvial system architecture, central North Sea. In PDF,
Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ., 46: 19-58.
by Google books).
Gross palaeogeographic setting of the central North Sea (after McKie & Shannon, 2011) in relation to the Southern Permian Basin and the margin of the Tethys Sea depicted in Fig. 1D.
! Palaeogeographic response to regional climate wettening depicted in Fig. 19.
Tom McKie and Brian Williams (2009):
palaeogeography and fluvial dispersal across the northwest European Basins.
Abstract, Geological Journal, 44: 711-741.
! See also here (in PDF) or there.
Stephen McLoughlin (2001):
breakup history of Gondwana and its impact on pre-Cenozoic floristic provincialism.
In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 49: 271-300. Please take notice:
Fig. 2: Late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic continental reconstructions (after Scotese 1997).
See also here (abstract).
J. Michalík (2019; article started on PDF-page 135):
sedimentary basins, current systems and life
domains in northern part of the Mediterranean Tethys Ocean. In PDF,
Carpathica, 70: 134-136.
See also here.
"... Contact of the Mediterranean Tethys with Paleoeurope has been affected by tension, rifting, and by left lateral shift since the Early Triassic. The Late Triassic/Early Jurassic evolution was controlled by convergence along border of the Meliata Ocean and by contemporaneous divergence along the Middle Atlantic/Penninic rift. ..."
J. Michalík (2011):
paleogeography and facies distribution in the
Northern Mediterranean Tethys from Western Carpathians view. In PDF,
Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences, 3: 1-9.
See also here.
Note Fig. 1: Paleogeographic sketch of Early Triassic situation of northern Mediterranean Tethys.
! C.S. Miller and V. Baranyi (2019): Triassic Climates. In PDF. See also here.
R.D. Nance (2022):
supercontinent cycle and Earth's long-term climate. Open access,
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1515: 33–49.
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of Pangea for the Late Triassic (at 200 Ma).
! Figure 7: Distribution of warm (greenhouse) and cool (icehouse) global climatic conditions for the past 1 Ga compared with times of supercontinent assembly and breakup for Rodinia, Pannotia, and Pangea.
Figure 9: Distribution of large igneous provinces (LIPs) throughout Earth history.
! Figure 10: Age and estimated volume of Phanerozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs) compared to genus extinction magnitude showing correlation between mass extinction events (peaks) and LIP emplacement.
A.J. Newell (2017): Rifts, rivers and climate recovery: A new model for the Triassic of England. Abstract, Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association.
E. Nitsch (2015):
Lettenkeuper – Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").
! Edgar Nitsch, Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau, Stuttgart (page hosted by the "Oberrheinische Geologische Verein"): Paläogeographie und Stratigraphie des Keupers in Deutschland. Keuper (Upper Triassic) palaeogeography and stratigraphy in Germany. PDF file, in German. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B. Norden and P. Frykman (2013):
modelling of the Triassic Stuttgart Formation at the Ketzin CO2 storage site,
Germany. Free access,
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 19: 756–774.
Note fig. 9: Map showing the interpretation of the connectivity in the Stuttgart sand stringers based on scattered outcrop information and transport directions.
! H. Nowak et al. (2020): Palaeophytogeographical Patterns Across the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Open access, Front. Earth Sci.
J.G. Ogg et al. (2020):
triassic period. In PDF,
Geologic Time Scale 2020,
Volume 2: 903-953. See also
! Note the generalized synthesis of selected Triassic stratigraphic scales in Figs. 25.5-25.7!
J. Pálfy and Á. Kocsis (2014):
of the Central Atlantic magmatic province as the trigger of environmental and biotic changes around the
Triassic-Jurassic boundary. PDF file. In:
Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds., Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects:
Geological Society of America Special
Paper 505: 245-261.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Global paleogeographic map at the Triassic-Jurassic transition.
! J. Paul et al. (2009): Keuper (Late Triassic) sediments in Germany: indicators of rapid uplift of Caledonian rocks in southern Norway. PDF file, Norwegian Journal of Geology, 89: 193-202.
J. Paul et al. (2008):
of siliciclastic sediments (Permian to Jurassic) in the Central
European Basin. In PDF,
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 159: 641–650. See also
Note fig. 4: Keuper palaeogeography (Upper Triassic, Ladinian–Rhaetian) in Central Europe and basement provinces of neighbouring areas.
J. Peng et al. (2021):
review of the Triassic pollen Staurosaccites: systematic and phytogeographical
implications. In PDF, Grana, 60: 407–423.
See also here.
Note figure 5. Global distribution of Staurosaccites species during the Middle and Late Triassic.
Figure 6: Global Middle Triassic palynofloras based on the distribution of Staurosaccites, Camerosporites, Enzonalasporites, Infernopollenites and Ovalipollis.
! S. Péron et al. (2005): Paleoenvironment reconstructions and climate simulations of the Early Triassic: Impact of the water and sediment supply on the preservation of fluvial systems. In PDF, Geodinamica Acta, 18: 431-446.
A. Pohl et al. (2022):
of Phanerozoic continental climate and Köppen–Geiger climate classes. Free access,
Data in Brief, 43.
See also here.
"... This dataset provides a unique window onto changing continental climate throughout the Phanerozoic that accounts for the simultaneous evolution of paleogeography. ..."
! Note figure 3: Overview of 28 Phanerozoic time slices.
D.C.G. Ravida et al. (2022):
and environmental evolution across the Permo–Triassic boundary in the south-east Germanic
Basin (north-east Bavaria). Open access,
Sedimentology, 69, 501–536. See also
Note fig. 2: Palaeogeography of the Franconian Basin during the deposition of Rotliegend, Zechstein and Buntsandstein.
Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson:
PaleoIntegration Project (PIP).
The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability
between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases,
enabling a greater understanding of the life,
geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to:
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
P.M. Rees et al. (2002):
Phytogeographic Patterns and Climate
PDF file, Journal of Geology, 110, 1–31.
See also here.
G Roghi et al. (2022):
Exceptionally Preserved Terrestrial
Record of LIP Effects on Plants in the
Carnian (Upper Triassic)
Amber-Bearing Section of the
Dolomites, Italy. In PDF,
Frontiers in Earth Science.
Note figure 1: Pangaean floristic subprovinces during the Late Triassic.
! Fig. 6: Fossil plant remains and palynomorphs enclosed in the amber droplets.
A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006):
seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF,
In P.F. Rawson, &
P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325).
Geological Society of London.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J.W. Schneider et al. (2022):
on the activities of the Carboniferous –
Permian –Triassic Nonmarine-Marine Correlation
Working Group for 2021 to 2022. In PDF,
Permophiles, 73. See also
Note chapter "Triassic" on page 38 (PDF-page 8).
! Note figure 11. Palaeogeographic map of the epicontinental Central European Basin.
C.R. Scotese and N. Wright (2018):
! PALEOMAP Paleodigital Elevation Models (PaleoDEMS) for the Phanerozoic PALEOMAP Project. A digital representation of paleotopography and paleobathymetry. The paleoDEMS describe the changing distribution of deep oceans, shallow seas, lowlands, and mountainous regions during the last 540 million years at five million year intervals. See also here (in PDF). See especially:
! Atlas of Permo-Triassic Paleogeographic Maps (Mollweide Projection). In PDF, Maps 43-52, Volumes 3 & 4 of the PALEOMAP Atlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL.
! PaleoDEM Resource – Scotese and Wright. A complete set of the PALEOMAP PaleoDEMs can be downloaded.
F. Siegel et al. (2022):
Anisian (Bithynian to Illyrian?, Middle Triassic)
Ammonoidea from Rüdersdorf (Brandenburg,
Germany) with a revision of Beneckeia Mojsisovics,
1882 and notes on migratory pathways. In PDF,
Bulletin of Geosciences, 97.
Note figure 1: Simplified palaeogeographic map of the Germanic Basin.
! M.S. Stoker et al. (2017): An overview of the Upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic stratigraphy of the NE Atlantic region. Open access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 447: 11-64.
H. Stollhofen et al. (2008):
rotliegend to early
cretaceous basin development. Abstract,
In: Littke, R., Bayer, U., Gajewski, D.,
Nelskamp, S. (eds.), Dynamics of Complex Intracontinental Basins. The Central
European Basin System. Springer, Berlin, pp. 181-210. See also
Worth checking out:
Figure 4.3.6., subcrop map of the base Solling (Hardegsen) unconformity.
Figure 4.3.8, Anisian-Ladinian Muschelkalk palaeogeography.
Figure 4.3.11. Subcrop map of the base Stuttgart unconformity.
Figure 4.3.12. Subcrop map of the base Arnstadt (Early Cimmerian) unconformity.
The Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History,
Mittlerer und Oberer Keuper.
Mittlerer Keuper vor 233 – 205 Millionen Jahren.
Unterer Keuper vor 235 – 233 Millionen Jahren.
Easy to understand informations, in German.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
J. Szulc et al. (2015):
aspects of the stratigraphy of the Upper Silesian middle Keuper, southern Poland. In PDF,
Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 85: 557–586.
Please note Fig. 4: The palaeogeographic location of Upper Silesia.
Fig. 5: Schematic representation of mid-Norian palaeogeography and sedimentary palaeoenvironments of the eastern part of Upper Silesia.
! T.H. Torsvik and L.R.M. Cocks (2004): Earth geography from 400 to 250 Ma: a palaeomagnetic, faunal and facies review. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 161: 555-572. See also here.
L.P.P. van Hinsbergen et al. (2019):
Triassic (Anisian and Rhaetian)
palaeomagnetic poles from the Germanic Basin (Winterswijk, the Netherlands). Open access,
Journal of Palaeogeography.
Note fig. 9: Palaeogeographic maps of Pangea in the Anisian and the Rhaetian times.
T. Vollmer et al. (2008):
control on Upper Triassic Playa cycles of the Steinmergel-Keuper (Norian): a new concept
for ancient playa cycles. In PDF,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 267: 1–16. See also
Note figure 1: Simplified paleogeographic map.
! Figure 6: General facies model of the SMK [the Norian Steinmergel-Keuper].
"... The Norian Steinmergel.Keuper (SMK) represents a low-latitude cyclically-bedded playa system of the Mid-German Basin.
[...] Dolomite layers reflect the lake stage (maximum monsoon) while red mudstones indicate the dry phase (minimum monsoon) of the playa cycle.
[...] humid periods reveal thick layers of dolomite beds, indicating that during those intervals the monsoonal activity was strong enough to prevent the playa system from drying out completely.
M. Warnecke et al. (2019): Asymmetry of an epicontinental basin—facies, cycles, tectonics and hydrodynamics: The Triassic Upper Muschelkalk, South Germanic Basin. In PDF, The Depositional Record.
! Wikipedia the free encyclopedia:
Trias (in German).
Keuper (in German).
Q. Wu et al. (2021): High-precision U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change, and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology. See also here.
Z. Xu et al. (2022):
Triassic super-greenhouse climate driven by vegetation collapse. In PDF, Europe PMC.
See also here.
Note figure 3, the climate graph.
"... Our reconstructions show that terrestrial vegetation collapse during the PTME, especially in tropical regions, resulted in an Earth system with low levels of organic carbon sequestration and chemical weathering, leading to limited drawdown of greenhouse gases. This led to a protracted period of extremely high surface temperatures, during which biotic recovery was delayed for millions of years. ..."
A. Zeh et al. (2021):
of Triassic Age in the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein)-Witness of Tephra Fallout
in the Central European Basin and New Constraints on the Mid-Carnian Episode. Free access,
Front. Earth Sci. See also
Note figure 1: Ladinian-Carnian global and regional palaeogeography.
! M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian–Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere. In PDF, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 9: 340–363 (translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, Vol. 9).
I.C. Zutterkirch et al. (2022):
detrital zircon geochronology mitigates bias in provenance investigations. Free access,
Journal of the Geological Society, 179.
Note fig. 1: Tectonic setting of Australia during the Late Triassic.
Note Note fig. 8: Schematic diagram illustrating how in situ zircon U–Pb measurements in thinsections are more representative of the detrital sink than measurements on processed hand-picked mounts.
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