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! The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian@
! Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction@
! Permian Palaeobotany@
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
! Focused on the Evolution of Plants@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
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Early Triassic Floras

! A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012): The record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires: Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel? In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 96–97: 60–71.
See also here (abstract).

! Friedrich August von Alberti (1834): Beitrag zu einer Monographie des bunten Sandsteins, Muschelkalks und Keupers und die Verbindung dieser Gebilde zu einer Formation. Hosted by Hathi Trust Digital Library, a collaboration of universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the University of California system to establish a repository for their digitized collections.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2011): Macrofossil evidence for pleuromeialean lycophytes from the Triassic of Antarctica. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. PDF file. See also here.

V. Borruel-Abadía et al. (2015): Climate changes during the Early–Middle Triassic transition in the E. Iberian plate and their palaeogeographic significance in the western Tethys continental domain. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 440: 671–689.
See also here.

S. Bourquin et al. (2011): The Permian-Triassic transition and the onset of Mesozoic sedimentation at the northwestern peri-Tethyan domain scale: palaeogeographic maps and geodynamic implications. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 299: 265-280.

BOTTJER, David J., Department of Earth Sciences, Univ of Southern California, Los Angeles: THE EARLY TRIASSIC AND THE SUPERCONTINENT CYCLE. Abstract, 2004 Denver GSA Annual Meeting (November 7-10, 2004).

S. Bourquin et al. (2007): The Permian-Triassic boundary and Early Triassic sedimentation in Western European basins: an overview. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 33: 221-236. See also here.

! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2012): Plant fossil record and survival analyses. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 71-82. See also here (abstract).

Bill Chaloner & Geoff Creber, Royal Holloway, University of London (website hosted by The International Organisation of Palaeobotany, IOP): Unexpected occurrences, An unexpected exposure: Pleuromeia.

Chumakov N.M. and Zharkov M.A., Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia: Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2002, pp. 586-602. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2002, pp. 62-81. See also:
Climate during the Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations. Article 2: Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: General Inferences. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2003, pp. 361-375. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2003, pp. 55-70. PDF files.

N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003): Climate during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2. Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70.

Clare Davies et al. (2010): Deposition in the Kuznetsk Basin, Siberia: Insights into the Permian-Triassic transition and the Mesozoic evolution of Central Asia. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 307-322.

Deutschlandfunk (a German radio station): An Sauerstoffmangel eingegangen. Easy to understand information about the Permian/Triassic mass extinction aftermath and thin air (with statements of Robert Berner, Robert Dudley, Raymond Huey, Peter Ward). In German. You can also listen to this article ("Audio on demand").

Maarten J. de Wit, Joy G. Ghosh, Stephanie de Villiers, Nicolas Rakotosolofo, James Alexander, Archana Tripathi, and Cindy Looy: Multiple Organic Carbon Isotope Reversals across the Permo-Triassic Boundary of Terrestrial Gondwana Sequences: Clues to Extinction Patterns and Delayed Ecosystem Recovery. Journal of Geology, vol. 110, no.2, pp.227-246, 2002.

! William A. DiMichele et al. (2008): The so-called "Paleophytic-Mesophytic" transition in equatorial Pangea. Multiple biomes and vegetational tracking of climate change through geological time. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268: 152-163. See also here (abstract).

I.A. Dobruskina (1987): Phytogeography of Eurasia during the early triassic. Abstract.

Dan Dorritie, Berkeley Echo Lake Camp: Killer in our midst. Go to: Early Triassic Aftermath 1, and Early Triassic Aftermath 2.

Earth System Processes - Global Meeting (June 24-28, 2001) Edinburgh: Session No. T7 Tuesday, June 26, 2001; Global Change in the Late Paleozoic. Abstracts.

! S. Feist-Burkhardt et al. (2008): 13 Triassic (starting on page 749). In: Tom McCann (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe: Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Vol. 2. The Geological Society, London..

Bruce W. Fouke, Department of Geology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: History of Life. Lecture notes. This introductory course is an overview of the successive stages of development of life on Earth over the last 3.8 billion years, which includes all forms of life from bacteria to dinosaurs and humans. Go to: Early Mesozoic 1. Scroll down to: "Terrestrial Flora."

R. Fuglewicz (1973): Megaspores of Polish Buntersandstein and their stratigraphic significance. PDF file, Acta palaeont pol, 18: 401-453.

! J.-C. Gall and L. Grauvogel-Stamm (2005): The early Middle Triassic "Grès à Voltzia" Formation of eastern France: a model of environmental refugium. PDF file, C. R. Palevol, 4: 637-652. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.A. Gastaldo and M.W. Rolerson (2008): Katbergia gen. nov., a new trace fossil from Upper Permian and Lower Triassic rocks of the Karoo Basin: Implications for palaeoenvironmental conditions at the P/Tr extinction event. PDF file, Palaeontology, 51: 215-229.


Anna Goodwin, Jon Wyles and Alex Morley, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: The palaeofiles, The end-Permian mass extinction. Go to: What life was present, Vascular plants.

Léa Grauvogel-Stamm and Sidney R. Ash (2005): Recovery of the Triassic land flora from the end-Permian life crisis. Abstract, C. R. Palevol, 4.

Léa Grauvogel-Stamm & Bernard Lugardon, (2001): The Triassic Lycopsids Pleuromeia and Annalepis: Relationships, Evolution, and Origin. PDF file, American Fern Journal 91: 115-149.

Mikko Haaramo, Department of Geology, Section of Geology and Palaeontology, University of Helsinki: Late Paleozoic Impacts. Go to: "Cycads and gingko's started to appear in early Late Permian flora...."

! D.W. Haig et al. (2015): Early Triassic (early Olenekian) life in the interior of East Gondwana: mixed marine–terrestrial biota from the Kockatea Shale, Western Australia. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 417: 511-533.

E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237.

E. Hermann et al. (2011): Terrestrial ecosystems on North Gondwana following the end-Permian mass extinction. Abstract.

Georg Heumann: Neuropteridium intermedium Schimper et Mougeot 1844 - a pteridophyte from the Upper Buntsandstein of Western Germany. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

Carmen Heunisch and Heinz-Gerd Röhling, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover: Permo-Triassic climatic development. Research report (via wayback archive, in German).

Carmen Heunisch, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung, Hannover: Die Bedeutung der Palynologie für Biostratigraphie und Fazies in der Germanischen Trias. - In: Hauschke, N. & Wilde, V. (Hrsg.); 1999: Trias - eine ganz andere Welt, Europa am Beginn des Erdmittelalters (via wayback archive, in German).

Keith Holmes, National Botanical Institute, Pretoria: Equisetalean Plant Remains from the Early to Middle Triassic of New South Wales, Australia. PDF file.

Randall B. Irmis and Jessica H. Whiteside (2012): Delayed recovery of non-marine tetrapods after the end-Permian mass extinction tracks global carbon cycle. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 279: 1310-1318.

Yu Jianxin (2008): Floras and the evolutionary dynamics across the Permian-Triassic boundary nearby the border of Guizhou and Yunnan, South China. Abstract (PDF file).

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC): Permian - Triassic.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Alan Kazlev, Palaeos: The Olenekian Age of the Early Triassic Epoch: 245 to 250 million years ago.

M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos, The Evolutionary History of Green Plants. This website illustrates the diversity of green plants, according to modern palaeobotanical and paleontological understanding. Go to: The Early Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era 250 to 242 million years ago. Also worth checking out: Class Lycopsida. Go to: Order Pleuromeiales.

! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
Please take notice of figure 9 (PDF page 10): A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergii and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch.

Hans Kerp: Permian floras: where does it begin, where does it end? Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

Hans Kerp, Abdallah Abu Hamad, Klaus Bandel & Birgit Niemann: A new Upper Permian flora from the Middle East with typical Triassic Gondwana elements. Abstract, The 15th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Naturalis, National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands, 12-13th November 2004.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H. Kerp (1991): Is There Anything More to Say About Keuper and Buntsandstein Floras?. In PDF, Albertiana. A review of: Mader, D. (1990) Palaeoecology of the Flora in Buntsandstein and Keuper in the Triassic of Middle Europe (Fischer, Stuttgart).

KIDDER, David L. and WORSLEY, Thomas R., Geological Sciences, Ohio Univ, Athens: Storms in the Late Permian and early Triassic. Abstract.

E. Kon´no (1973): New species of Pleuromeia and Neocalamites from the Upper Scythian Bed in the Kitakami Massif, Japan: with a brief note on some Equisetacean Plants from the Upper Permian Bed in the Kitakami Massif. In PDF.

H.W. Kozur and R.E. Weems (2011): Detailed correlation and age of continental late Changhsingian and earliest Triassic beds: Implications for the role of the Siberian Trap in the Permian-Triassic biotic crisis? Abstract.

V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2009): Paleofloristic evidence of climate change near and beyond the Permian-Triassic boundary. PDF file, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 284: 326-336.

V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2008): First evidence of plant-arthropod interaction at the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Volga Basin, European Russia. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 247-252.

V.A. Krassilov and Y.D. Zakharov (1975): Pleuromeia from the Lower Triassic of the Far East of the USSR. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

Kustatscher, E., van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. & Gianolla, P. (2006): The Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Pra della Vacca (Prags/Braies Dolomites, Northern Italy): An attempt to reconstruct an Anisian (lower Middle Triassic) palaeoenvironment. PDF file, 9th International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, 27-29.05.06, Manchester, Abstract and Proceedings Volume, p. 63-66, 164.

Kustatscher, E., Wachtler, M. & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A., (2007): Horsetails and seedferns from the Anisian locality Kühwiesenkopf (Dolomites, Northern Italy). PDF file, Palaeontology 50 (5): 1277-1298.

Evelyn Kustatscher, Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert & Michael Wachtler: Seedferns and horsetails from the Anisian plant locality Kühwiesenkopf / Monte Prà della Vacca (Dolomites, N-Italy). Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

Evelyn Kustatscher, Johanna van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Carmen Broglio Loriga and R. Posenato: The Anisian macroflora from Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Prà della Vacca in the Northern Dolomites (Italy). Abstract, The International Plant Taphonomy Meeting 2002, Bonn, Goldfuss Museum, Institute of Paleontology, Germany.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Looy and I. Duijnstee (2010), Behind the scenes, Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley: Museum nomads. About Pleuromeia fossils in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

Cindy V. Looy, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ecological success of Early Triassic isoetaleans. A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergi from the Early Triassic.

C. V. Looy1, W. A. Brugman1, D. L. Dilcher2, and H. Visscher1. 1Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University; 2Paleobotany Laboratory, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville: The delayed resurgence of equatorial forests after the Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis. PNAS Online, Vol. 96, Issue 24, 13857-13862, November 23, 1999.

E.D. Lukashevich et al. (2010): The oldest occurrence of immature Diptera (Insecta), Middle Triassic, France. PDF file, Ann. soc. entomol. Fr. (n.s.), 46: 4-22.

McGowan, Alistair J., Ziegler, Alfred M.: PATTERNS OF GLOBAL PLANT DIVERSITY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE IN THE PERMIAN AND TRIASSIC.- Abstract, Summit 2000, Reno, Nevada; The Geological Society of America (GSA).
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Morales (1987): Terrestrial fauna and flora from the Triassic Moenkopi Formation of the southwestern United States. In PDF, Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science.

Simon Morten, Matt Robinson, Sally Stephens, and Tim Kerr, Palaeontology Research Group, University of Bristol: The Late Triassic Website. This site, written by 3rd year MSci students, is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to: Ecology of the Triassic. See also: Triassic Plants.

S.V. Naugolnykh (2013): The heterosporous lycopodiophyte Pleuromeia rossica Neuburg, 1960 from the Lower Triassic of the Volga River basin (Russia): organography and reconstruction according to the "Whole-Plant" concept. In PDF, Wulfenia, 20: 1-16.

A.J. Newell et al. (2010): Disruption of playa-lacustrine depositional systems at the Permo-Triassic boundary: evidence from Vyazniki and Gorokhovets on the Russian Platform. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 167: 695-716.

Igor V. Novikov & Andrey G. Sennikov, Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow: The Tikhvinskoye continental Early Triassic locality: geological setting, fauna and flora. Abstract, First European Workshop on Vertebrate Palaeontology, Copenhagen.

La Passion des Minéraux et Fossiles: Les Vosges et l´Alsace à travers les Ages géologiques, L'ère Secondaire (-230 à -65 millions d'années) 32 - Le delta des grès à Voltzia (in French). A reconstruction of Voltzia heterophylla.

J.L. Payne et al. (2006): The Pattern and Timing of Biotic Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction on the Great Bank of Guizhou, Guizhou Province, China. In PDF, Palaios, 21: 63-85.

H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004): The complexity of mass extinction. Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.

Hermann W. Pfefferkorn, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA: Commentary: Recuperation from Mass Extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96.

S.B. Pruss and D.J. Bottjer (2004): Late Early Triassic microbial reefs of the western United States: a description and model for their deposition in the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211: 127-137.

! P. McAllister Rees (2002): Land-plant diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. PDF file, Geology, 30: 827-830. See also here (abstract).

REES, Peter McA., McGOWAN, Alistair J., and ZIEGLER, Alfred M., Dept. of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago: PATTERNS OF GLOBAL PLANT DIVERSITY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE IN THE PERMIAN AND TRIASSIC. Abstract, GSA 2000, Reno, Nevada.

Gregory J. Retallack et al.: Multiple Early Triassic greenhouse crises impeded recovery from Late Permian mass extinction. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

G.J. Retallack et al. (2005): The Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. PDF file, Antarctic Science, 17: 241-258. w

G.J. Retallack (2002): Lepidopteris callipteroides, an earliest Triassic seed fern of the Sydney Basin, southeastern Australia. PDF file, Alcheringa 26:475-500.

! G.J. Retallack and E.S Krull (1999): Landscape ecological shift at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. In PDF, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G.J. Retallack (1997): Earliest Triassic origin of Isoetes and quillwort evolutionary radiation. PDF file, Journal of Paleontology, 71: 500-521. See also here.

G.J. Retallack (1995): An early Triassic fossil flora from Culvida Soak, Canning Basin, Western Australia. PDF file, Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 78: 57-66.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Gregory J. Retallack (Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene), John J. Veevers & Ric Morante (School of Earth Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia): Global coal gap between Permian–Triassic extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants. PDF file, Geological Society of America Bulletin, February 1996. See also here (abstract).

G. Retallack (1975): The life and times of a Triassic lycopod. PDF file, Alcheringa.

Peter D. Roopnarine et al. (2007): Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 274: 2077-2086. See also here.

R. Saito et al. (2013): A terrestrial vegetation turnover in the middle of the Early Triassic. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 105: 152-159.

E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al. (2014): Vegetation history across the Permian–Triassic boundary in Pakistan (Amb section, Salt Range). Gondwana research, 27: 911-924.
See also here, and there (in PDF).

E. Schneebeli-Hermann et al.: Terrestrial ecosystems during and following the end-Permian mass extinction - or from spore spike to spore spike. In PDF.

Wenjie Shen et al. (2011): Evidence for wildfire in the Meishan section and implications for Permian-Triassic events. PDF file, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75: 1992-2006.

Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic life on land: the great transition. Provided by Google books.

Y. Sun et al. (2012): Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse. In PDF, Science, 338.
See also here (abstract). Also worth to check out:
N. Goudemand et al. (2012): Comment on "Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse".


! Edith L. Taylor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Natural History Museum, University of Kansas: Paleobotanical Database.  This database contains 48,000+ bibliographic entries in paleobotany, palynology, Antarctic paleobiology and women in science. Entries are searchable by various ws. Search for "Triassic". Excellent!

R. Todesco et al. (2008): Preliminary report on a new vertebrate track and flora site from Piz da Peres (Anisian-Illyrian): Olang Dolomites, Northern Italy. In PDF, Geo.Alp, 5: 21-137.

Dieter Uhl et al. (2010): Evidence of paleowildfire in the early Middle Triassic (early Anisian) Voltzia Sandstone: The oldest post-Permian macroscopic evidence of wildfire discovered so far. Abstract, PDF file, Palaios, 25: 837-842. See also here.

! D. Uhl et al. (2008): Permian and Triassic wildfires and atmospheric oxygen levels. In PDF, 1st WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science and Enginering, Malta.

Birgit Vörding, Abdallah Abu Hamad and Hans Kerp: Cuticular features of Dicroidium from the uppermost Permian of Jordan. Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

Wang Zi-qiang (1996): Recovery of vegetation from the terminal Permian massextinction in North China. Abstract, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 91: 121-142.

P.D. Ward et al. (2011): The terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary event bed is a nonevent: COMMENT. In PDF.

Yang Hengren, Wang Zhen, Li Manying, Huang Baoyu, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, (page hosted by Matthew Carrano, Poylglot Paleontologist, English Translations of Non-English Paleontological Literature): Stratigraphic Subdivision, Correlation, Paleofaunas, and Floras of South China Mesozoic to Early Tertiary Red Beds (PDF file). From Mesozoic and Cenozoic Red Beds of South China, Selected Papers from the "Cretaceous-Tertiary Workshop", Nanxiong, Guangdong Province. Edited by the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology, Paleoanthropology & Nanjing Institute of Paleontology Science Press, 1979 pp. 58-78. Translated By Will Downs, Bilby Research Center, Northern Arizona University, May, 1998

Conghui Xiong and Qi Wang (2011): Permian-Triassic land-plant diversity in South China: Was there a mass extinction at the Permian/Triassic boundary? PDF file, Paleobiology, 37: 157-167.

Jianxin Yu et al. (2010): Annalepis, a pioneering lycopsid genus in the recovery of the Triassic land flora in South China. Abstract, Comptes Rendus Palevol., 9: 479-486.

M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov, Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia: Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere (PDF file). Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2001, pp. 340-363. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2001, pp. 29-54.

! A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993): Early Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.

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