Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Articles in Palaeobotany / Plant Evolution

What is Palaeobotany?
General Palaeobotany
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments
Tertiary Palaeobotany
Cretaceous Palaeobotany
Jurassic Palaeobotany
The Rhaetian@
Triassic Palaeobotany@
Early Triassic Floras@
Permian Palaeobotany
Carboniferous Palaeobotany
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany

! Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
! Web Sites about Evolution@
! Teaching Documents about Evolution@
! Phylogeography@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Progress in Palaeobotany and Palynology@
Classical Monographs and Textbooks in Palaeobotany@

Plant Evolution

Stephen T. Abedon, The Bacteriophage Ecology Group, Mansfield, Ohio State University, Columbus: Evolution of Plants. Brief lecture notes.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! K.L. Adams and J.F. Wendel (2005): Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants. In PDF, Current opinion in plant biology.
Some references have been highlighted and annotated for recommended reading.

! J. Anderson et al. (2007): Brief history of the gymnosperms: classification, biodiversity, phytogeography and ecology. In PDF, Strelitzia, 20, 279 p. See also here (abstract).

J.M. Anderson et al. (1999): Patterns of Gondwana plant colonisation and diversification. PDF file, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28: 145-l67.

A. Antonelli et al. (2015): An engine for global plant diversity: highest evolutionary turnover and emigration in the American tropics. In PDF, Front. Genet., 6.

L. Augusto et al. (2014): The enigma of the rise of angiosperms: can we untie the knot? In PDF, Ecology Letters.

Francisco J. Ayala, Walter M. Fitch, and Michael T. Clegg (eds.): Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins. Online book, National Academy of Sciences (2000).

S.-N. Bai (2017): Reconsideration of Plant Morphological Traits: From a Structure-Based Perspective to a Function-Based Evolutionary Perspective. Front. Plant Sci., 8: 345.

E. Barley and K. Fitzpatrick, lecture presentation for Campbell Biology, ninth edition: Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants. Powepoint presentation.

! R.M. Bateman et al. (1998): Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29: 263-292. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! R.M. Bateman and W.A. DiMichele (1994): Heterospory: the most iterative key innovation in the evolutionary history of the plant kingdom. In PDF, Biological Reviews.

BBC News, Friday, 3 May, 2002: "Oldest flower" found in China.

J.M. Beaulieu et al. (2015): Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution and diversification could explain the Triassic age estimate for angiosperms. Abstract.

D.J. Beerling (2013): Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years? In PDF, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci., 367: 477-482.

! D. Beerling (2010): The Emerald Planet. How Plants Changed Earth´s History. In PDF.

D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2005): Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. In PDF, PNAS, 102.

! C.D. Bell et al. (2010): The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 97: 1296-1303.

! H. Beraldi-Campesi (2013): Early life on land and the first terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Ecological Processes, 2. See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley, Plantae, Fossil Record: Chart of First Appearances of Major Plant Groups. Each of the taxonomic plant groups in pink boxes can be clicked upon to take you to an introduction.

! R.A. Berner et al. (2007): Oxygen and evolution. In PDF, Science, 316. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Robert A. Berner, Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut: The Rise of Plants and Their Effect on Weathering and Atmospheric CO2 (now via wayback archive). See also here.

Michael Bernstein, Washington and New Orleans, March 21-27, 2003: (American Chemical Society, EurekAlert): Scientists find evidence for crucial root in the history of plant evolution.

! J.A. Berry et al. (2010): Stomata: key players in the earth system, past and present. Abstract, Current opinion in plant biology, 13: 232–239. See also here (in PDF).

! M.I. Bidartondo et al. (2011): The dawn of symbiosis between plants and fungi. In PDF, Biology Letters.

E. Biffin et al. (2013): Leaf evolution in Southern Hemisphere conifers tracks the angiosperm ecological radiation. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 279: 341-348.

B. Blonder et al. (2011): Venation networks and the origin of the leaf economics spectrum. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 14: 91-100.

W.J. Bond and A.C. Scott (2010): Fire and the spread of flowering plants in the Cretaceous. In PDF, New Phytologist, 188: 1137-1150.

Boston College: BC Scientist´s Fossil Discovery May Indicate Life on Land Evolved Earlier than Thought.

C.K. Boyce and J.-E. Lee (2017): Plant Evolution and Climate over Geological Timescales. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 45.

C.K. Boyce and M.A. Zwieniecki (2012): Leaf fossil record suggests limited influence of atmospheric CO2 on terrestrial productivity prior to angiosperm evolution. In PDF, PNAS, 109.

C. Kevin Boyce (2010): The evolution of plant development in a paleontological context. PDF file, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13: 102-107.

C. Kevin Boyce et al. (2009). Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative. PDF file, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276: 1771-1776. See also here (abstract).

! Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Paleobotany Short-Course. Lecture notes, with downloadable Power Point presentations:
Paleobotany Overview; Life moves to land.
Diversification of land plants.
Rise and dominance of seed plants.
Origin and diversification of flowering plants.

J. Boyer (2008): Testing the Telome Concept: A Modeling Approach for Understanding the Growth of Early Vascular Plants. In PDF, Ph.D. Dissertation, Binghamton University State University of New York. See also here (Google books).

J.C. Briggs (2014): Invasions, adaptive radiations, and the generation of biodiversity. In PDF, Environmental Skeptics and Critics, 3: 8-16.

The palaeofiles. Articles here have all been prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol:
! Purported Triassic angiosperms.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The palaeofiles. Articles here have all been prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol:
! The origin and evolution of angiosperms.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Stephen P. Broker, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: The Evolution of Plants. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The evolution of plants is briefly treated primarily in terms of a consideration of the concepts of time and change, and an appreciation of the great diversity of life on earth today (without images). Recommended for Biology, 9th and 10th grade level, and Botany, 11th and 12th grade level.

J.W. Brown and S.A. Smith (2017): The Past Sure Is Tense: On Interpreting Phylogenetic Divergence Time Estimates. See also here (in PDF).

M.C. Brundrett (2002): Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. In PDF, New phytologist, 154: 275-304.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Neil Buckley, Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY: Bio 102 General Biology II Class Notes. Powerpoint presentations. Go to:
An overview of Plant Evolution. Key Moments in the life of Kingdom Plantae.

R.J. Burnham (2008): Hide and Go Seek: What Does Presence Mean in the Fossil Record. Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 95: 51-71. See also here (in PDF).

! Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge (developed by Nicola Peart and Ben Roberts, with feedback from Katy Jordan, Howard Griffiths and Beverley Glover): Plant Evolution Timeline. This is a cut-down version of the full tool, designed primarily to aid plant scientists with their learning of plant evolution.
Click: "Timeline".
Including first occurence (or first appearance) of species and speciation and major groups of plants. See also:
Plant Evolution Timeline - Help.

Alison Campbell et al., Biology & Earth Science, The University of Waikato, New Zealand: Evolution for Teaching. This website has been developed to provide a web based resource for use by secondary teachers, especially in the science fields of evolution and geological time. Go to: Plant and Animal Evolution.

P.D. Cantino et al. (2007): Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. PDF file, Taxon, 56: 822-846.

Sean Carrington, Department of Biological & Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados: The Plant Kingdom. An introduction to the world of plants from an evolutionary perspective.
Have a look for handouts and PDF files, or
navigate from here.

! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2013): The plant fossil record reflects just two great extinction events. Abstract.

! A.S. Chanderbali et al. (2016): Evolving Ideas on the Origin and Evolution of Flowers: New Perspectives in the Genomic Era. In PDF, Genetics, 202: 1255–1265. See also here.

B. Cascales-Miñana and J.B. Diez (2012): The effect of singletons and interval length on interpreting diversity trends from the palaeobotanical record. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica.

David D. Cass, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Earliest Evidence of Flowering Plants. 32 slides.

(?), University of Virginia, Charlottesville:
! Evolution of Land Plants.
Evolution of Seed Plants.
Powerpoint presentations.

! J. Chave et al. (2009): Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 12: 351–366.

S.M. Chaw et al. (1997): Molecular phylogeny of extant gymnosperms and seed plant evolution: analysis of nuclear 18S rRNA sequences. In PDF.

(?), University of Virginia, Charlottesville:
Evolution of Land Plants.
Evolution of Seed Plants.
Powerpoint presentations.

Paul F. Ciesielski, Dept. Geological Sciences, University of Florida: Evolution of Earth and Life. Go to: Transition of plants to land.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.T. Clarke et al. (2011): Establishing a time-scale for plant evolution. PDF file, New Phytologist. See also here.

Regine Claßen-Bockhoff (2001): Plant Morphology: The Historic Concepts of Wilhelm Troll, Walter Zimmermann and Agnes Arber. Free PDF file, Annals of Botany, 88: 1153-1172.

C.J. Cleal and B. Cascales-Miñana (2014): Composition and dynamics of the great Phanerozoic Evolutionary Floras. Abstract.

J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson (2005): Ecology and Behaviour of Mesozoic Reptiles, The Mesozoic Environment. In PDF. See also here,

J.C. Coates et al. (2011): Plants and the Earth system - past events and future challenges. In PDF, New Phytologist, 89: 370-373.

C. Coiffard et al. (2012): Rise to dominance of angiosperm pioneers in European Cretaceous environments . Abstract. See also here ( and there (

F.L. Condamine et al. (2015): Origin and diversification of living cycads: a cautionary tale on the impact of the branching process prior in Bayesian molecular dating. In PDF, BMC Evolutionary Biology.

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Comparing Plant and Animal Evolution.

C.J. Cox et al. (2014): Conflicting Phylogenies for Early Land Plants are Caused by Composition Biases among Synonymous Substitutions. Syst. Biol., 63: 272-279.

! P.R. Crane and A.B. Leslie (2013): Major Events in the Evolution of Land Plants. In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution.
1. Phylogenetic framework.
2. Origin and diversification of land plants.
3. Origin and diversification of vascular plants.
4. Origin and diversification of seed plants.
5. Origin and diversification of flowering plants.
6. Innovation in the land plant body.
7. Innovation in land plant reproduction.
8. Co-evolution with animals.
9. Patterns of extinction.
See also here, and there (Google books).

P.R. Crane et al. (2010): Darwin and the Evolution of Flowers. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 365: 347-350.

Peter R. Crane et al. (2004): Fossils and plant phylogeny. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1683-1699. See also here.

! W.L. Crepet and K.J. Niklas (2009): Darwin´s second "abominable mystery": Why are there so many angiosperm species? PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 366-381. See also here (abstract).

! W.L. Crepet (2008): The Fossil Record of Angiosperms: Requiem or Renaissance? Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

! W.L. Crepet et al. (2004): Fossil evidence and phylogeny: the age of major angiosperm clades based on mesofossil and macrofossil evidence from Cretaceous deposits. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1666-1682.

Cyberinfrastructure for Phylogenetic Research (CIPRES). Building the Tree of Life: A National Resource for Phyloinformatics and Computational Phylogenetics. CIPRES is a collaboration of many american museums and institutions. Go to:
! Getting to the Roots of Plant Evolution (Powerpoint presentation). See also the Exercise Handout (PDF file).

D. J. Daniels, Glendale High School, Glendale, Arizona: Advanced Placement Biology 2000, D. J. Daniels´ Glendale High Biology Page, Land Plants, Evolution and Diversity.

C.C. Davis and H. Schaefer (2011): Plant Evolution: Pulses of Extinction and Speciation in Gymnosperm Diversity. See also here (abstract).

H.J. de Boer et al. (2012): A critical transition in leaf evolution facilitated the Cretaceous angiosperm revolution. In PDF, Nature Communications, 3.

O. De Clerck et al. (2012): Diversity and Evolution of Algae: Primary Endosymbiosis. In PDF, Advances in Botanical Research, 64.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.M. Delaux et al. (2012): Molecular and biochemical aspects of plant terrestrialization. In PDF, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 14: 49-59.

! C.F. Delwiche and E.D. Cooper (2015): The Evolutionary Origin of a Terrestrial Flora. Abstract, Current Biology. Please take notice:
! From algae to land plants (and vice versa). Did some freshwater algae descend from a terrestrial ancestor? In PDF.

Melanie DeVore, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Georgia College and State University: Plant Origin and Evolution. PowerPoint presentation (87.4 MB!).

D.L. Dilcher (2001): Paleobotany: some aspects of non-flowering and flowering plant evolution. In PDF, Taxon.
For early angiospermous fossil floras see fig 1 (on PDF page 4).

David Dilcher (2000): Toward a new synthesis: Major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record. PDF file, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 97: 7030-7036. See also here.

Adam Dimech, Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport & Resources (DEDJTR), Australia. How did the world´s plants evolve? A guide to the history of the plant kingdom.

! William A. DiMichele et al. (2008): The so-called "Paleophytic-Mesophytic" transition in equatorial Pangea. Multiple biomes and vegetational tracking of climate change through geological time. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268: 152-163. See also here (abstract).

! W.A. DiMichele and R.M. Bateman (2005): Evolution of Land Plant Diversity: Major Innovations and Lineages through Time. In PDF, In: Krupnick, G.A. & Kress, W.J. (eds): Plant Conservation. A Natural History Approach. Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL, 3–14.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2004): Long-term stasis in ecological assemblages: evidence from the fossil record. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 35: 285-322. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Adam Dimech, Burnley College, University of Melbourne, Australia: Plant Evolution. This website is designed to serve as an introduction to the theory behind the evolution of the world's flora, with some emphasis placed on the Australian flora.

D.S. Domozych et al. (2013): The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity. In PDF.

M.J. Donoghue and E.J. Edwards (2014): Biome shifts and niche evolution in plants. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 45: 547-572.

M.J. Donoghue (2005): Key innovations, convergence, and success: macroevolutionary lessons from plant phylogeny. In PDF, Paleobiology, 31: 77-93.

J.A. Doyle and P.K. Endress (2014): Integrating Early Cretaceous Fossils into the Phylogeny of Living Angiosperms: ANITA Lines and Relatives of Chloranthaceae Int. J. Plant Sci., 175: 555–600. See also here.

! J.A. Doyle (2012): Molecular and fossil evidence on the origin of angiosperms. In PDF, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 40: 301-26.

James A. Doyle, Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis: PHYLOGENY OF VASCULAR PLANTS. Abstract, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1998. 29:567-599. See also here.

D. Edwards and P. Kenrick (2015): The early evolution of land plants, from fossils to genomics: a commentary on Lang (1937) "On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales". In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370. See also here.

Peter K. Endress (2011): Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution. In PDF, Annals of Botany, 107: 1465-1489.

M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College, Phoenix, Arizona:
! On-Line Biology Book. Table of Contents. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:
! The modern view of evolution.

Jeffrey A. Fawcett and Yves Van de Peer (2010): Angiosperm polyploids and their road to evolutionary success. Trends in Evolutionary Biology.

T.S. Feild et al. (2011): Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution. In PDF, PNAS, 108: 8363-8366.

J. Folsom, The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, CA: Plant Trivia Timeline. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
here (PDF file). The Timeline gives world history from the viewpoint of a botanist. It is the story of plant discovery and use, and addresses the roles of plants in human civilization.

David Ford, Canopy Dynamics Lab, School of Environmental and Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA:
! Biol220 TAs. Botany lecture notes (Powerpoint presentations). See especially:
The Importance of Plants, their origins and ways of life.
Plant evolution timeline on Powerpoint slide 11, 18 and 22!

! C.S.P. Foster (2016): The evolutionary history of flowering plants. In PDF, Journal & Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 149: 65-82.

P.J. Franks et al. (2012): Megacycles of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration correlate with fossil plant genome size. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 367: 556-564.

William E. Friedman and Martha E. Cook (2000): The origin and early evolution of tracheids in vascular plants: integration of palaeobotanical and neobotanical data. Abstract and PDF file, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 355.

Else Marie Friis, Kaj Raunsgaard Pedersen and Peter R. Crane (2010): Diversity in obscurity: fossil flowers and the early history of angiosperms. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 365: 369-382. Some of the specimens are charcoalified and have retained their original three-dimensional shape. See also here.

! M.W. Frohlich & M.W. Chase (2007): After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a great mystery. Abstract, Nature 450: 1184-1189. See also here (in PDF).

! D.J. Futuyma and A.A. Agrawal (2009): Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores. In PDF.

Robert A. Gastaldo and Timothy M. Demko (2011): The Relationship Between Continental Landscape Evolution and the Plant-Fossil Record: Long Term Hydrologic Controls on Preservation. PDF file, Topics in Geobiology, 32: 249-285. See also here (abstract).

! Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: Plant Associations of the Mesophytic. Lecture Notes.

P. Gerrienne et al. (2016): Plant evolution and terrestrialization during Palaeozoic times - the phylogenetic context. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

Philippe Gerrienne et al. (2011): A Simple Type of Wood in Two Early Devonian Plants. Abstract, Science, 333. See also here (E. Brown, The Sacramento Bee), and there.

Philippe Gerrienne and Paul Gonez (2010): Early evolution of life cycles in embryophytes: A focus on the fossil evidence of gametophyte/sporophyte size and morphological complexity. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 49: 1-16.

! M.R. Gibling et al. (2014): Palaeozoic co-evolution of rivers and vegetation: a synthesis of current knowledge. In PDF, Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association, 125: 524-533.

! M.R. Gibling and N.S. Davies (2012): Palaeozoic landscapes shaped by plant evolution. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 5. See also here (abstract).

B. Gieren (2006): Die Landpflanzenevolution im Phanerozoikum aus petrographischer und geochemischer Sicht. PDF file, in German. Thesis, Georg-August-Universität, Gõttingen.

R. Gorelick and K. Olson (2011): Is lack of cycad (Cycadales) diversity a result of a lack of polyploidy? Abstract, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 165: 156-167.

R. Gorelick (2001): Did insect pollination cause increased seed plant diversity? PDF file, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74: 407-427.

S.R. Gradstein and H. Kerp (2012): A Brief History of Plants on Earth. Google books, The Geologic Time Scale 2012. See also here (Table of contents, Elsevier).

Alan Graham (1993): 3. History of the Vegetation: Cretaceous (Maastrichian) - Tertiary. PDF file, Vol. 1. Flora of North America north of Mexico. See also here.

! Linda E. Graham et al. (2000): The origin of plants: Body plan changes contributing to a major evolutionary radiation. Abstracts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97: 4535-4540.
! See also at here. (in PDF).

! S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40. Rhacophyton and Archaeopteris in a Devonian wetland as well as Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous wetland plant reconstructions.

S.G. Hao and J.Z. Xue (2013): Earliest record of megaphylls and leafy structures, and their initial diversification. In PDF, Chin. Sci. Bull., 58: 2784-2793.

C.J. Harrison (2017): Development and genetics in the evolution of land plant body plans. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 372. See also here (abstract).

M. Haworth et al. (2011): Stomatal control as a driver of plant evolution. In PDF, J. Exp. Bot., 62: 2419-2423.

Alan Haywood, Leeds: Plants and Earth History. Powerpoint presentation.

Scott A. Heckathorn, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA:
Biodiversity lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See especially:
Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land.
Plant Diversity II:  The Evolution of Seed Plants.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.B. Hedges (2004): A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life. BMC evolutionary biology.

! University of Heidelberg, Germany:
Aktuelle Themen in der pflanzlichen Biodiversitätsforschung (in PDF). Lecture notes, in German.
J. Griller, PDF page 1-18: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Moose".
A. Olbrich, PDF page 19-55: "Verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen der Farnpflanzen".
(?), PDF page 56-92: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Gymnospermen".
F. Haßfeld, PDF page 93-102: "Die verwandtschaftliche Stellung der Angiospermen".

! P.S. Herendeen et al. (2017): Palaeobotanical redux: revisiting the age of the angiosperms. In PDF, Nature Plants 3. See also here.

F. Herrera et al. (2015): A New Voltzian Seed Cone from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia and Its Implications for the Evolution of Ancient Conifers. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 176: 791-809.

Kent E. Holsinger, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT: Reproductive systems and evolution in vascular plants (PDF file).

M. Hübers and H. Kerp (2012): Oldest known mosses discovered in Mississippian (late Visean) strata of Germany. In PDF, Geology.

! C.E. Hughes et al. (2015): Evolutionary plant radiations: where, when, why and how? In PDF, New Phytologist, 207: 249-253. See also here.

! Norman F. Hughes (1994): The Enigma of Angiosperm Origins. 405 pages. Provided by Cambridge University Press through the Google Print Publisher Program.

Norman F. Hughes (1982): Palaeobiology of Angiosperm Origins: Problems of Mesozoic Seed-Plant Evolution. Provided by Google books.

K. Ishizaki (2017): Evolution of land plants: insights from molecular studies on basal lineages. Abstract, Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 81.

K. Jordan et al.: An Interactive Timeline of Plant Evolution. In PDF. See also here.

N.A. Jud (2015): Fossil evidence for a herbaceous diversification of early eudicot angiosperms during the Early Cretaceous. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B, 282. See also here.

Kenneth G. Karol, Richard M. McCourt, Matthew T. Cimino, and Charles F. Delwiche, Science Magazine: The Closest Living Relatives of Land Plants. This analysis supports the hypothesis that the land plants are placed phylogenetically within the Charophyta, identifies the Charales (stoneworts) as the closest living relatives of plants.

M. Alan Kazlev and Toby White, Australia: Palaeos: The trace of Life on Earth. The Palaeos Site is dedicated to providing a detailed and - at least in parts - comprehensive overview of the history of life on Earth. Use the menu bars at the top and (in longer pages) bottom of the page to navigate. Go to: The Evolutionary History of Green Plants. All in a nutshell about green plant evolution-related topics, including textbook illustrations and the coverage of major phyla and kingdoms.

! J.E. Keeley et al. (2011): Fire as an evolutionary pressure shaping plant traits. PDF file, Trends in Plant Science, 16.

Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.

P. Kenrick and C. Strullu-Derrien (2014): The Origin and Early Evolution of Roots. In PDF, Plant Physiology, 166: 570-580. See also here (abstract).

! P. Kenrick et al. (2012): A timeline for terrestrialization: consequences for the carbon cycle in the Palaeozoic. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367: 519-536.
Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Paul Kenrick (2011): Timescales and timetrees. PDF file, New Phytologist, 192. See also here.

P. Kenrick (2000): The relationships of vascular plants. PDF file.

! Paul Kenrick & Peter R. Crane: The origin and early evolution of plants on land. PDF file, Nature 1997.

Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster: A History of Palaeozoic Forests. An introductory text with many helpful links directly related to the history of Palaeozoic forests. 7 chapters provide information about: The earliest land plants; Towards a tree-like growth habit; The earliest forests; The Carboniferous coal swamp forests; The floral change at the end of the Westphalian; Stefanian and Rotliegend floras; Is there a floral break in the Permian?
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Michael Knee, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University, Columbus: General Plant Biology Online Resources. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Lecture notes. Go to: Evolution and diversity of angiosperms.

A.H. Knoll (2014): Paleobiological Perspectives on Early Eukaryotic Evolution. In PDF, see also here.

Michael Koltzenburg and Gerd Weitbrecht, Reutlingen, Germany: Floren- und Vegetationsgeschichte Plant evolution in a nutshell (DOC file, in German).

Valentin A. Krassilov (1987): Palaeobotany of the mesophyticum: state of the art. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 50: 231-254. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M. Krings et al. (2012): Fungal Endophytes as a Driving Force in Land Plant Evolution: Evidence from the Fossil Record. In PDF; D. Southworth (ed.): Biocomplexity of Plant-Fungal Interactions (John Wiley & Sons).

! U. U. Kutschera and K.J. Niklas (2004): The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis. PDF file, Naturwissenschaften, 91: 255-276.

! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also here (in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.

Conrad C. Labandeira (2010): The Pollination of Mid Mesozoic Seed Plants and the Early History of Long-proboscid Insects. Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97: 469-513.

C.C. Labandeira (2005): Invasion of the continents: cyanobacterial crusts to tree-inhabiting arthropods. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20.

! B. Laenen et al. (2014): Extant diversity of bryophytes emerged from successive post-Mesozoic diversification bursts. In PDF. See also here (abstract).

A.D.B. Leakey and J.A. Lau (2012): Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2]. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 367: 613-629. See als here (in PDF).

A.R. Leitch and I.J. Leitch (2012): Ecological and genetic factors linked to contrasting genome dynamics in seed plants. In PDF, New Phytologist, 194: 629-646.

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T.M. Lenton et al. (2016): Earliest land plants created modern levels of atmospheric oxygen. In PDF, PNAS.

! T.M. Lenton (2001): The role of land plants, phosphorus weathering and fire in the rise and regulation of atmospheric oxygen. In PDF, Global Change Biology, 7: 613-629.

! A.B. Leslie et al. (2015): Integration and macroevolutionary patterns in the pollination biology of conifers. In PDF, Evolution, 69: 1573-1583.

! A.B. Leslie et al. (2012): Hemisphere-scale differences in conifer evolutionary dynamics. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 16217-16221. See also here.

Gerhard Leubner, The Seed Biology Place, University Freiburg, Germany: Seed evolution. Origin and evolution of the seed habit.

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! A. Linkies et al. (2010). The evolution of seeds. In PDF, New Phytologist, 186: 817-831. See also here (abstract).

B.H. Lomax et al. (2013): Reconstructing relative genome size of vascular plants through geological time. In PDF, New Phytologist.

! C.V. Looy et al. (2014): The late Paleozoic ecological-evolutionary laboratory, a land-plant fossil record perspective. In PDF, The Sedimentary Record, 12: 4-18. See also here.

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Susana Magallón and Amanda Castillo (2009): Angiosperm diversification through time. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 349-365.

! S. Magallón et al. (2013): Land plant evolutionary timeline: Gene effects are secondary to fossil constraints in relaxed clock estimation of age and substitution rates. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 100: 556-573.

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K. Mao et al. (2012): Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. In PDF, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 109: 7793-7798.

P.D. Mannion et al. (2014): The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 42–50. See also here.

A.O. Marron et al. (2016): The Evolution of Silicon Transport in Eukaryotes. In PDF, Mol. Biol. Evol. See also here.

! C. Martín-Closas (2003): The fossil record and evolution of freshwater plants: a review. PDF file, Geologica Acta, 1: 315-338.

Patrick T. Martone et al. (2009): Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell-Wall Architecture. Abstract, Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 2, 169-175. See also here.

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S. McLoughlin and B.P. Kear (2014): Gondwanan Mesozoic biotas and bioevents. Abstract.

J.C. McElwain et al. (2016): Assessing the role of atmospheric oxygen in plant evolution. Abstract, starting on PDF page 44.
Abstracts, XIV International Palynological Congress, X International Organisation of Palaeobotany Conference, Salvador, Brazil.

! Stephen McLoughlin (2001): The breakup history of Gondwana and its impact on pre-Cenozoic floristic provincialism. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 49: 271-300. See also here (abstract).

Sebastian Molnar, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Evolution and the Origins of Life. A directory of introductions concerning evolution, with a bias to Plant Biology and Evolution. Excellent examples about how evolution works can be seen from the plant world. Go to: Angiosperm Origins and Evolution, or The Evolution of Polyploidy, and Summary: Polyploid Evolution.

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N.S. Nagalingum et al. (2011): Recent Synchronous Radiation of a Living Fossil. Abstract.
"Using fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies, we show that cycads underwent a near synchronous global rediversification beginning in the late Miocene, followed by a slowdown toward the Recent. Although the cycad lineage is ancient, our timetrees indicate that living cycad species are not much older than ~12 million years". See also here. In PDF, Science 334.

Nature Science Update (December 8, 1999): One for the Vine. "A prickly climbing vine", Vasovinea tianii (Gigantopteridales), that lived more than 250 million years ago could shed light on the origin of flowering plants.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K.J. Niklas et al. (2017): The evolution of hydrophobic cell wall biopolymers: from algae to angiosperms. Abstract, J. Exp. Bot.

Karl J. Niklas (2016): Plant Evolution: An Introduction to the History of Life. Book announcement.
! See also here (Google books).

! K.J. Niklas (2015): Measuring the tempo of plant death and birth. In PDF, New Phytologist.

K.J. Niklas (2004): Computer models of early land plant evolution. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 32: 47-66.

Karl Niklas, Plant Biology, Cornell University (page hosted by Access Excellence): Plant Evolution: Adaptation or Historical Accident?. See also here, and there.

Karl J. Niklas and Thomas Speck (2001): Evolutionary trends in safety factors against wind-induced stem failure. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 88: 1266-1278.

! K.J. Niklas (2000): The Evolution of Plant Body Plans - A Biomechanical Perspective. In PDF, Annals of Botany, 85: 411-438.

Karl Niklas, (Section of Plant Biology, Cornell University), Access Excellance, BioForum 4, "Theoretical Issues in Plant Biology". Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
BioForum is a series of lectures, presented by California Academy of Sciences, in which scientists share their research results with high school biology teachers. Plant Evolution: Adaptation or Historical Accident? Is plant evolution largely adaptive or is it contingent on historical accidents? Dr. Niklas discuss in some detail a computer generated model dealing with the early evolution of land plants that can be used to predict how plant architecture must change to assure evolutionary success as the environment changes.

A.B. Nicotra et al. (2011): The evolution and functional significance of leaf shape in the angiosperms. In PDF, Functional Plant Biology, 38: 535-552.

T. Nyman et al. (2012): Climate-driven diversity dynamics in plants and plant-feeding insects. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 14: 1-10. See also here.

A.A. Óladóttir, Iceland GeoSurvey, Reykjavik, Iceland: An Introduction to the Mesozoic Palaeobotany. In PDF.

J. Ollerton and E. Coulthard (2009): Evolution of Animal Pollination. In PDF, Science, 326.

Mark E. Olson (2012): Linear Trends in Botanical Systematics and the Major Trends of Xylem Evolution. In PDF.

Available from The Paleontology Society:
! The Oldest Fossil Evidence of Life. In PDF, prepared by J. William Schopf and designed by Diane Lonardelli.

Barry A. Palevitz, "Discovering Relatives in the Flowering Plant Family Tree". The Scientist, Volume 13, 1999: Search for: "flowering plant". Registration procedure required.

Jeffrey D. Palmer et al. (2004): The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1437-1445. See also here.

Pearson Education, Inc.: Overview of Land Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Rémy J. Petit and Arndt Hampe (2006): Some Evolutionary Consequences of Being a Tree. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 37: 187-214.

! A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International journal of evolutionary biology.

N.D. Pires and L. Dolan (2012): Morphological evolution in land plants: new designs with old genes. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367: 508-518.

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J. Pittermann (2010): The evolution of water transport in plants: an integrated approach. In PDF, Geobiology.

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Tõnu Ploompuu, Biology, Tallinn Pedagogical University, Tallinn, Estonia: Resting and active evolution. Possible preadaptations in the early evolution of Angiosperms. See also here.

Z.A. Popper et al. (2011): Evolution and Diversity of Plant Cell Walls: From Algae to Flowering Plants. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 62: 567-590.

Z.A. Popper and M.G. Tuohy (2010): Beyond the Green: Understanding the Evolutionary Puzzle of Plant and Algal Cell Walls. PDF file, Plant Physiology, 53: 373-383.

Ernst Probst, fossilien-news, Mainz-Kostheim, Germany: Rekorde der Urzeit aus der Pflanzenwelt (in German).

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Yin-Long Qiu and Jeffrey D. Palmer (1999): Phylogeny of early land plants: insights from genes and genomes. In PDF.

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S. Ratti et al. (2011): Did Sulfate Availability Facilitate the Evolutionary Expansion of Chlorophyll a+c Phytoplankton in the Oceans? In PDF, Geobiology 9, no. 4: 301–312. See also here (abstract).

J.A. Raven and M. Andrews (2010): Evolution of tree nutrition. In PDF, Tree Physiology, 30: 1050-1071. See also here.

J.A. Raven (2002): Selection pressures on stomatal evolution. PDF file, New Phytologist.

J.A. Raven and D. Edwards (2001): Roots: evolutionary origins and biogeochemical significance. PDF file, J. Exp. Bot., 52: 381-401.

! Allister Rees, GEON SDSC Meeting Webcast Archive, San Diego Supercomputer Center: GEON SDSC Meeting, webcast live: Go to: Dinosaurs and More: Integration of the DINO and PGAP Databases (August 22, 2005). Biomes, climates and floral development from the Permian to the Jurassic.

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Authored by the The Rhynie Chert Research Group, University of Aberdeen, with contributions and support by the Palaeobotanical Research Group, University of Münster, Germany, the Centre for Palynology, University of Sheffield, The Natural History Museum, London, and The Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems, The Rhynie Chert. A resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of this unique geological deposit (including a glossary and bibliography pages). The website´s second part provides guidance for teachers in this subject area and as such will require a password to enter (obtainable from the authors).

J.P. Rose et al. (2016): Shape analysis of moss (Bryophyta) sporophytes: Insights into land plant evolution. Am. J. Bot., 103: 652-662. See also here.

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Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. Archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. Go to Cordaitales and Coniferales (PDF file).

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Angiophytes: Using Whole Plant Concepts to Interpret Angiosperm Origins.

Nick Rowe and Thomas Speck (2005): Plant growth forms: an ecological and evolutionary perspective. PDF file, New Phytologist, 166: 61-72. See also here.

Dmitry A. Ruban (2012): Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new? In PDF.

Paula J. Rudall and Richard M. Bateman (2010): Defining the limits of flowers: the challenge of distinguishing between the evolutionary products of simple versus compound strobili. In PDF, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, B Biol. Sci., 365: 397-409. See also here (abstract).

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Tyson Sacco, Cornell University: Trends in Green Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation.

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I. Sanmartín and F. Ronquist (2004): Southern Hemisphere Biogeography Inferred by Event-Based Models: Plant versus Animal Patterns. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 216-243.

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H. Schneider, (2006), starting on PDF page 65: Plant morphology as the cornerstone to the integration of fossil and extant taxa in phylogenetic systematics. PDF file, in German. Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, 1. Themenheft Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen: Der Stellenwert der Morphologie in der heutigen Phylogenetische Systematik.
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H. Schneider et al. (2004): Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. In PDF, see also here (abstract).

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D.H. Scott (1909), President of the Linnean Society: Darwin and Modern Science: The Palaeontological Record: Plants. Website hosted by "The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive".

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M.A. Selosse and C. Strullu-Derrien (2015): Origins of the terrestrial flora: A symbiosis with fungi? In PDF, BIO Web of Conferences, 4.

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Stephen A. Smith et al. (2010): An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants. PDF file, PNAS, 107: 5897-5902. See also here, and there.

Stephen A. Smith and Jeremy M. Beaulieu (2009): Life history influences rates of climatic niche evolution in flowering plants. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 276: 4345-4352. See also here.

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Pamela Soltis (website by American Institute of Biological Sciences): Flowering Plants: Keys to Earth´s Evolution and Human Well-Being.

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! Doug Soltis, Amber Tilley and Hongshan Wang, Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), University of Florida: Deep Time. A comprehensive phylogenetic tree of living and fossil angiosperms. Deep Time explore the ways in which angiosperm fossils can be appropriately integrated into the phylogenetic framework for extant taxa, with the ultimate goal of forming a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of living and fossil angiosperms. This includes the evaluation and prioritization of the fossil record, the critical appraisal of the age of fossils, the construction of a morphological data matrix for fossils and extant angiosperms, the integration of fossils into the angiosperm tree and the calibration of divergence times.

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A.K. Srivastava, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, India: Taxonomy, palaeobotany and biodiversity About the angiosperm origin (PDF file, page 2). CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 81, NO. 10.

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Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
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Ruth A. Stockey, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton: Paleobotany of Angiosperm Origins. Go to: Course Outline. Chiefly bibliographies and weblinks.

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Paul K. Strother, Palaeobotany Laboratory, Weston Observatory, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Boston College, Weston, Massachusetts: Links to Resources in Paleobotany, go to: Lectures, "Cryptospores and the Origin of Land Plants" (Powerpoint presentation). Attention, 132 MB!

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Greg Thorn, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario: Evolution of Plants (Powerpoint presentations). Navigate from here with information from the Syllabus. See e.g. Lecture 16: Evolution of Plants. The evolution of early angiosperms.

A.S. Thorpe et al. (2011): Interactions among plants and evolution. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 99: 729-740. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Bruce H. Tiffney (University of California, Santa Barbara), Access Excellance, BioForum 4, "Theoretical Issues in Plant Biology". BioForum is a series of lectures, presented by California Academy of Sciences, in which scientists share their research results with high school biology teachers. The Influence of Plants on the Evolution of Terrestrial Communities. "The Influence of Plants on the Evolution of Terrestrial Communities" is a tour de force through some 450 million years of plant evolution, giving you a feeling for the life forms based on sequential evidence of the fossil records and a consideration of the climates and major physical events that prevail.

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A.M.F. Tomescu (2016): Development: Paleobotany at the High Table of Evo-Devo. In PDF, Current Biology.

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! Elizabeth Anne Viau, Charter College of Education, California State University, Los Angeles: World Builders, Session Eight, Terrestrial Botany, Plants on Land. Go to: Important Landmarks in the Evolution of Land Plants.

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Biology Department, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington: Plant Evolution. Powerpoint presentation. See also here, or there.

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Niklas Wikström et al. (2001): Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B, 268: 2211-2220.

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D.M. Wilkinson and T.N. Sherratt (2016): Why is the world green? The interactions of top-down and bottom-up processes in terrestrial vegetation ecology. In PDF, Plant Ecology & Diversity, 9: 127-140. See also here.

K.J. Willis and K.J. Niklas (2004): The role of Quaternary environmental change in plant macroevolution: the exception or the rule? In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 159-172.

Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press): The Evolution of Plants. Book announcement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: PowerPoint illustrations. Illustrations from the book in PowerPoint format. See also:
! Biome maps. Downloadable full-color images from the book.

Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press): The Evolution of Plants. Book announcement. Go to: Chapter 06, Flowering plant origins (PDF file).

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Kathy Willis and Jennifer McElwain: Flowering plant origins. In PDF, from: The Evolution of Plants (Oxford University Press).
Worth checking out: Second Edition.

! S.L. Wing et al. (1992): Mesozoic and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF.

C. Xiong et al. (2013): Diversity Dynamics of Silurian-Early Carboniferous Land Plants in South China. PLoS ONE, 8.

! H.S. Yoon et al. (2004): A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes. PDF file, Mol. Biol. Evol., 21: 809-818. See also here.

! A.E. Zanne et al. (2014): Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. In PDF, Nature. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

N.E. Zavialova (2015): Evolutionary Transformations of Sporoderm Ultrastructure in Certain Monophyletic Lineages of Higher Plants. In PDF, Botanica Pacifica, 4.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated May 04, 2017

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