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What is Palaeobotany?
General Palaeobotany
Plant Evolution
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments
Tertiary Palaeobotany
Cretaceous Palaeobotany
Jurassic Palaeobotany
The Rhaetian@
Triassic Palaeobotany@
Early Triassic Floras@
Permian Palaeobotany
Carboniferous Palaeobotany
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany
! Phylogeography@
! Palaeobotanical Maps@
! Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Progress in Palaeobotany and Palynology@
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@


C. Alcalde et al. (2006): Palaeophytogeographical contributions to the Iberian vegetal landscape interpretation: state of the art and new prospects for research. PDF file, in Spanish.

! J.M. Anderson et al. (1999): Patterns of Gondwana plant colonisation and diversification. In PDF, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28: 145-167.
See also here.

! A. Antonelli et al. (2023): Vascular plant description over time and space. Free access, New Phytologist, 240: 1327-1702.
Note figure 2: Vascular plant description over time and space.
Figure 3: Global distribution and diversity of vascular plants.

A. Antonelli et al. (2015): An engine for global plant diversity: highest evolutionary turnover and emigration in the American tropics. In PDF, American tropics. Front. Genet., 6. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00130
See also here.

Alexandre Antonelli and Isabel Sanmartín (2011): Why are there so many plant species in the Neotropics? PDF file, Taxon. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L. Azevedo-Schmidt et al. (2024): Ferns as facilitators of community recovery following biotic upheaval. Open access, BioScience.
! Note figure 1: Time-calibrated fern phylogeny [shows additionally major extinction events with and without fern spike].
See also here.
"... The competitive success of ferns has been foundational to hypotheses about terrestrial recolonization following biotic upheaval, from wildfires to the Cretaceous–Paleogene asteroid impact (66 million years ago). Rapid fern recolonization in primary successional environments has been hypothesized to be driven by ferns’ high spore production and wind dispersal
[...] We propose that a competition-based view of ferns is outdated and in need of reexamination ..."

! V. Baranyi (2018): Vegetation dynamics during the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian): Response to climate and environmental changes inferred from palynology. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

P.D.W. Barnard (1973): Mesozoic floras. In PDF, Special Papers in Palaeontology, 12: 175-187.
See also here.

A.R. Bashforth and W.A. DiMichele (2012): Permian Coal Forest offers a glimpse of late Paleozoic ecology. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 4717-4718.

G. Beaugrand (2023): Towards an Understanding of Large-Scale Biodiversity Patterns on Land and in the Sea. Free access, Biology, 12.

Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley, Plantae, Fossil Record: Chart of First Appearances of Major Plant Groups. Each of the taxonomic plant groups in pink boxes can be clicked upon to take you to an introduction.

P. Blomenkemper et al. (2018): A hidden cradle of plant evolution in Permian tropical lowlands. Abstract, Science, 362: 1414-1416. See also here (researchers from the University of Münster report on their findings), and there (Scinexx article, in German).
"... These fossils, which include the earliest records of conifers, push back the ages of several important seed-plant lineages. Some of these lineages appear to span the mass extinction event at the end of the Permian, which suggests that the communities they supported may have been more stable than expected over this transition ...".

M. Boersma (1980): Index of Figured Plant Megafossils: Triassic 1971-1975. Book announcement (second hand book, Amazon).

J.D. Boyko et al. (2023): The evolutionary responses of life-history strategies to climatic variability in flowering plants. Free access, New Phytologist, doi: 10.1111/nph.18971.
See also here (in PDF).
Note figure 1: Global distribution of vascular plant diversity and proportion of annual plants.

G.E. Budd et al. (2021): The use of geological and paleontological evidence in evaluating plant phylogeographic hypotheses in the Northern Hemisphere Tertiary. Free access. See also here (in PDF).

! R.J. Burnham (2009): An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós, and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.J. Burnham (2008): Hide and Go Seek: What Does Presence Mean in the Fossil Record. Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 95: 51-71. See also here (in PDF).

R.J. Burnham and K.R. Johnson (2004): South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 1595-1610.

E. Capel et al. (2023): New insights into Silurian–Devonian palaeophytogeography. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 613.

B. Cariglino et al. (2018): A Middle Triassic macroflora from southwestern Gondwana (Mendoza, Argentina) with typical Northern Hemisphere elements: Biostratigraphic, palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental implications. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 257: 1–18. See also here (in PDF).

J. Carrion et al. (2024): Greening a lost world: Paleoartistic investigations of the early Pleistocene vegetation landscape in the first Europeans’ homeland. Free access, Quaternary Science Advances, 14.
"... we present paleoartistic renderings depicting vegetation landscapes around the Orce Archaeological Zone (OAZ), encompassing sites dating from 1.6 to 1.2 million years ago during the Early Pleistocene
[...] This essay visually represents the coexistence of mesophytic, thermophytic, and xerophytic plant communities within a glacial refugium of woody species ..."

J. Carrión et al. (2022): Palearctic floras and vegetation of the Cenozoic: A tribute to Zlatko Kvacek. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 306.
See also here.

! A. Carta et al. (2021): A global phylogenetic regionalisation of vascular plants reveals a deep split between Gondwanan and Laurasian biotas. Open access, New Phytologist (bioRxiv). See also here (in PDF).

Y.-S. Chen et al. (2018): Is the East Asian flora ancient or not? In PDF, National Science Review, 0: 1–13. See also here

C.J. Cleal et al. (2001):
Geological Conservation Review Series (GCR), Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC): Mesozoic and Tertiary Palaeobotany of Great Britain (2001). PDF files, GCR Volume No. 22.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
In chapter 1 a brief explanation is given of how plant fossils are formed, and how palaeobotanists study and name them.

S.N. Césari and C.E. Colombi (2013): A new Late Triasssic phytogeographical scenario in westernmost Gondwana. Open access, Nature Communications, 8, doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00827-7.

! M. Coiro et al. (2023): Reconciling fossils with phylogenies reveals the origin and macroevolutionary processes explaining the global cycad biodiversity. Open access, New Phytologist, doi: 10.1111/nph.19010.
Note figure 1: Global distribution of Cycadales.
! Figure 2: Bayesian total-evidence dated phylogeny of Cycadales.
! Figure 3: Ages of extant genera and fossil placements. Phylogenetic relationships for extant and extinct cycads.
! Figure 4: Historical biogeography of cycads.
"... Combining molecular data for extant species and leaf morphological data for extant and fossil species, we study the origin of cycad global biodiversity patterns through Bayesian total-evidence dating analyses.
[...] Cycads originated in the Carboniferous on the Laurasian landmass and expanded in Gondwana in the Jurassic.
[...] We show the benefits of integrating fossils into phylogenies to estimate ancestral areas of origin and to study evolutionary processes explaining the global distribution of present-day relict groups ..."

! F.L. Condamine et al. (2020): The rise of angiosperms pushed conifers to decline during global cooling. Free access, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117: 28867–28875.
Note figure 1: An overview of hypothetical determinants of conifer diversification over time.
Figure 2: Global diversification of conifers inferred from a molecular phylogeny and the fossil record.
Figure 3: Drivers of conifer diversification dynamics.

! S. Deng et al. (2023): Lycopsid Lepacyclotes Emmons from the Middle Triassic of the Ordos Basin, North China and reviews of the genus. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 308.
Note figure 5D: Reconstruction of Lepacyclotes radiatus.
Figure 6: Geographical distribution of Lepacyclotes in the world.

S. Deng et al. (2022): A new species of Pleuromeia (Lycopsid) from the upper Middle Triassic of Northern China and discussion on the spatiotemporal distribution and evolution of the genus. Abstract, Geobios.
"... Spatiotemporal distribution of Pleuromeia indicates that the genus first appeared in the Induan (Early Triassic) in North China, occurred widespread and flourished in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Olenekian (late Early Triassic), declined from the Anisian (early Middle Triassic), survived in the Ladinian in North China, and may have gone extinct as early as the end of the Middle Triassic. ..."

! T. Denk et al, (2023): Cenozoic migration of a desert plant lineage across the North Atlantic. Free access, New Phytologist, 238: 2668–2684.
Note figure 5: Timing and mode of intercontinental Madrean–Tethyan disjunctions of sclerophyllous plants.
"... The fossil record suggests that Vauquelinia, currently endemic to arid and subdesert environments, originated under seasonally arid climates in the Eocene of western North America and subsequently crossed the Paleogene North Atlantic land bridge (NALB) to Europe. This pattern is replicated by other sclerophyllous, dry-adapted and warmth-loving plants ..."
Also worth checking out:
! R.S. Hill and R. Khan (2023): Past climates and plant migration – the significance of the fossil record.
A commentary on Denk et al. (2023).

Thomas Denk et al. (2019): Comment on "Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests". Free access, Science, 366. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz2189.
"... extensive paleobotanical records of Antarctica and Australia lack evidence of any Fagaceae, and molecular patterns indicate shared biogeographic histories of Castanopsis, Castanea, Lithocarpus, and Quercus subgenus Cerris, making the southern route unlikely."

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2008): The so-called "Paleophytic–Mesophytic" transition in equatorial Pangea. Multiple biomes and vegetational tracking of climate change through geological time. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268: 152-163.
See likewise here (abstract), and there (still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine).
! "... the evidence for a global “Paleophytic” vs. “Mesophytic” “vegetation” is simply unsubstantiated by the fossil record.
[...] The vegetational changes occurring in the late Paleozoic thus can be understood best when examined as spatial–temporal changes in biome-scale species pools responding to major global climate changes, locally and regionally manifested. ..."

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2005): Plant biodiversity partitioning in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian and its implications for ecosystem assembly. In PDF, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 56, Supplement I, No. 4, pp. 32-49.

D. Dimitrov et al. (2023): Diversification of flowering plants in space and time. Free access, Nature Communications, 14.
"... Using a newly generated genus-level phylogeny and global distribution data for 14,244 flowering plant genera, we describe the diversification dynamics of angiosperms through space and time. Our analyses show that diversification rates increased throughout the early Cretaceous and then slightly decreased or remained mostly stable until the end of the Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction event 66 million years ago. After that, diversification rates increased again towards the present ..."

Desa Djordjevic-Milutinovic (2010): An overview of paleozoic and mesozoic sites with macroflora in Serbia. PDF file, Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, 3: 27-46.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! I.A. Dobruskina (1994): Triassic Floras of Eurasia. In PDF, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Schriftenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommission, 10.
See also here.
Note fig. 1: Exposures of the Triassic deposits in Western Europe.

I.A. Dobruskina (1988): The history of land plants in the northern hemisphere during the Triassic with special reference to the floras of Eurasia. PDF file. See also here (abstract).

I.A. Dobruskina (1987): Phytogeography of Eurasia during the early triassic. Abstract.

M.J. Donoghue and E.J. Edwards (2014): Biome shifts and niche evolution in plants. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 45: 547-572.

E. Dowding et al. (2023): Survivorship dynamics of the flora of Devonian Angarida. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, Biological Sciences, 290.
"... survivorship dynamics of early plant communities upon the palaeocontinent Angarida have demonstrated that transgression and volcanogenic nutrient influx were key to the survival of colonizing plants ..."

I.H. Escapa et al. (2011): Triassic floras of Antarctica: plant diversity and distribution in high paleolatitude communities In PDF, Palaios, 26: 522-544.

D.K. Ferguson (1967): On the phytogeography of coniferales in the European cenozoic. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 3: 73-110. See also here.

D.G. Gavin et al. (2014): Climate refugia: joint inference from fossil records, species distribution models and phylogeography. Free access, New Phytologist, 204: 37-54.

M. Ghavidel-Syooki (2017): Cryptospore and trilete spore assemblages from the Late Ordovician (Katian–Hirnantian) Ghelli Formation, Alborz Mountain Range, Northeastern Iran: Palaeophytogeographic and palaeoclimatic implications. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 244: 217–240. See also here (in PDF).

A.V. Goman'kov (2005): Floral Changes across the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Abstract.

E.L. Gulbranson et al. (2014): Leaf habit of Late Permian Glossopteris trees from high-palaeolatitude forests. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 171: 493–507.
Note fig. 1: Comparison of modern climate and biomes with those reconstructed for the latest Permian climate and biomes.

! K. Gurung et al. (2024): Geographic range of plants drives long-term climate change. Free access, Nature Communications, 15.
Note figure 2: Maps of global biomass, runoff and silicate weathering. "... we couple a fast vegetation model (FLORA) to a spatially-resolved long-term climate-biogeochemical model (SCION), to assess links between plant geographical range, the long-term carbon cycle and climate. Model results show lower rates of carbon fixation and up to double the previously predicted atmospheric CO2 concentration due to a limited plant geographical range over the arid Pangea supercontinent.
[...] We demonstrate that plant geographical range likely exerted a major, under-explored control on long-term climate change ..."

K. Gurung et al. (2022): Climate windows of opportunity for plant expansion during the Phanerozoic. Open access, Nature Communications, 13.
Note figure 1: Approximate estimations of plant evolution and Phanerozoic time periods.
Figure 7: Potential biomass of plant functional types across the Phanerozoic.
"... we identify two key ‘windows of opportunity’ during the Ordovician and Jurassic-Paleogene capable of supporting dramatic expansions of potential plant biomass. These conditions are driven by continental dispersion, paleolatitude of continental area and a lack of glaciation, ..."

O. Hagen et al. (2021): Earth history events shaped the evolution of uneven biodiversity across tropical moist forests. Open access, PNAS, 118.
"... high biodiversity in Neotropical and Indomalayan moist forests is driven by complex macroevo- lutionary dynamics associated with mountain uplift. In contrast, lower diversity in Afrotropical forests is associated with lower speciation rates and higher extinction rates driven by sustained aridifcation over the Cenozoic. ..."

D.A.T. Harper and T. Servais (2013): Early Palaeozoic biogeography and palaeogeography: towards a modern synthesis. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 38.

R.S. Hill et al. (2018): The vegetation history of South Australia. In PDF, Swainsona, 30: 9–16.

R.S. Hill and R. Khan (2023): Past climates and plant migration – the significance of the fossil record. Free access, New Phytologist.
This article is a Commentary on Denk et al. (2023):
Cenozoic migration of a desert plant lineage across the North Atlantic.

Natalia Holden, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada: The early Angiosperms: Paleophytogeography and Depositional Settings. A slideshow.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.E. Horton et al. (2010): Influence of high-latitude vegetation feedbacks on late Palaeozoic glacial cycles. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 3, pages 572–577. See also here.
"... Glaciation during the late Palaeozoic era (340–250 Myr ago) is thought to have been episodic, with multiple, often regional, ice-age intervals, each lasting less than 10 million years.
... [We] suggest that vegetation feedbacks driven by orbital insolation variations are a crucial element of glacial–interglacial cyclicity.

W. Huang et al. (2016): New Phoenicopsis leaves (Czekanowskiales) from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou Biota, China and their roles in phytogeographic and paleoclimatic reconstruction. In PDF, Palaeoworld, 25: 388–398. See also here.

Y. Huang et al. (2015): Distribution of Cenozoic plant relicts in China explained by drought in dry season. Open access, Scientific Reports, 5.

! A. Iglesias et al. (2011): The evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present. Free access, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103: 409–422.
Note fig. 1: Geographical, climatologic and biome evolution for Gondwana and southern South America.

Report on the International Workshop for a Climatic, Biotic, and Tectonic, Pole-to-Pole Coring Transect of Triassic-Jurassic Pangea. Held June 5-9, 1999 at Acadia University, Nova Scotia, Canada. Navigate from here. Biotic change in a Hot-House world. The biotic change in a Hot-House world theme deals with biological patterns at three scales: global biogeographic patterns characteristic of the Hot-House world; Triassic-Jurassic evolution; and the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Go to: Global Climate and Phytogeography.

K.R. Johnson (2007): Forests frozen in time. In PDF, Nature, 447: 786–787.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.
Fig. 1 shows the reconstruction of a lycopsid forest.

! M. Kosnik and Allister Rees et al., University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project Databases (PGAP). The older database version is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Kovar-Eder et al. (2008): The Integrated Plant Record: An Essential Tool For Reconstructing Neogene Zonal Vegetation In Europe. In PDF, Palaios, 23: 97–111.
See also here.

V.A. Krassilov (1981): Changes of Mesozoic vegetation and the extinction of dinosaurs. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 34: 207-224. See also here (in PDF).

B. Laenen et al. (2016): Geographical range in liverworts: does sex really matter? In PDF, Journal of Biogeography, 43: 627–635. See also here (abstract).
"... Our results challenge the long-held notion that spores, and not vegetative propagules, are involved in long-distance dispersal. Asexual reproduction seems to play a major role in shaping the global distribution patterns of liverworts ..."

B.B. Lamont et al. (2022): Gondwanan origin of the Dipterocarpaceae-Cistaceae-Bixaceae is supported by fossils, areocladograms, ecomorphological traits and tectonic-plate dynamics. Free access, Frontiers of Biogeography, 14.

! A.B. Leslie et al. (2012): Hemisphere-scale differences in conifer evolutionary dynamics. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 16217-16221. See also here.

J. Li et al. (2019): Mesozoic and Cenozoic palaeogeography, palaeoclimate and palaeoecology in the eastern Tethys. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 515: 1-5. See also here, and there (in PDF).

R. Li et al. (2018): Current progress and future prospects in phylofloristics. Open access, Plant Diversity.

Xingxue Li (1995), Book announcement: Fossil Floras Of China Through The Geological Ages. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.V. Looy et al. (2014): Evidence for coal forest refugia in the seasonally dry Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands of the Illinois Basin, USA. PeerJ., 2.

! H. Ma et al. (2023): The global biogeography of tree leaf form and habit. Open access, Nature Plants,

Karl Mägdefrau (1956):
Paläobiologie der Pflanzen. PDF file (365 MB), in German. 443 p.; Fischer, Jena. DOI: 10.23689/fidgeo-3708.
See likewise here.

! S.R. Manchester et al. (2009): Eastern Asian endemic seed plant genera and their paleogeographic history throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Free access, Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 47: 1–42.

! P.D. Mannion et al. (2014): The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time. Free access, Trends in Ecology &&xnbsp;Evolution, 29: 42-50.
"... Deep-time studies indicate that a tropical peak and poleward decline in species diversity has not been a persistent pattern throughout the Phanerozoic, but is restricted to intervals of the Palaeozoic and the past 30 million years. A tropical peak might characterise cold icehouse climatic regimes, whereas warmer greenhouse regimes display temperate diversity peaks or flattened gradients. ..."
Note figure 3: The Late Cretaceous dinosaur latitudinal biodiversity gradient.
! Figure 4: The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG) through the Phanerozoic.

P.S. Manos and M.J. Donoghue (2001): Progress in Northern Hemisphere phytogeography: An introduction. PDF file, Int. Jour. Plant Sci., 162.
See also here.

! E. Martinetto et al. (2018): Worldwide temperate forests of the Neogene: Never more diverse? Abstract, in PDF. 10th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference, University College Dublin, Ireland.
See also here.

C. Mays and S. McLoughlin (2019): Caught between mass extinctions - the rise and fall of Dicroidium. In PDF.

! J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here

S. McLoughlin and C. Pott (2019): Plant mobility in the Mesozoic: Disseminule dispersal strategies of Chinese and Australian Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous plants. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 515: 47-69. See also here (in PDF).

S. McLoughlin (2011): Glossopteris - insights into the architecture and relationships of an iconic Permian Gondwanan plant. In PDF, J. Botan. Soc. Bengal 65: 1-14.

! Stephen McLoughlin (2001): The breakup history of Gondwana and its impact on pre-Cenozoic floristic provincialism. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 49: 271-300. See also here (abstract).

! I.P. Montañez et al. (2016: Climate, pCO2 and terrestrial carbon cycle linkages during late Palaeozoic glacial–interglacial cycles. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 9: 824–828.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Consensus pCO2 curves defined by LOESS analysis of combined pedogenic carbonate- and fossil plant-based CO2 estimates.

J. Murienne et al. (2015): A living fossil tale of Pangaean biogeography. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 281. See also here.

! H. Nowak et al. (2020): Palaeophytogeographical Patterns Across the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Open access, Front. Earth Sci.

! S. Opluštil et al. (2022): Carboniferous macrofloral biostratigraphy: an overview. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 512: 813-863.

Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago: Jurassic Floras and Climate.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H.S. Pardoe et al. (2021): Palaeobotanical experiences of plant diversity in deep time. 2: How to measure and analyse past plant biodiversity. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 580. See also here.

! J. Patiño and A. Vanderpoorten (2018): Bryophyte Biogeography. In PDF, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, DOI: 10.1080/07352689.2018.1482444. See also here.
Note figure 2: Worldwide patterns of bryophyte hot spots of endemism.

J. Peng et al. (2021): A review of the Triassic pollen Staurosaccites: systematic and phytogeographical implications. In PDF, Grana, 60: 407–423.
See also here.
Note figure 5. Global distribution of Staurosaccites species during the Middle and Late Triassic.
Figure 6: Global Middle Triassic palynofloras based on the distribution of Staurosaccites, Camerosporites, Enzonalasporites, Infernopollenites and Ovalipollis.

J. Peng et al. (2017): Triassic palynostratigraphy and palynofloral provinces: evidence from southern Xizang (Tibet), China. Free access, Alcheringa, 42, 67–86. See also here (in PDF).

R.J. Petit et al. (2008): Forests of the past: a window to future changes. PDF file, Science, 320.

D. Peyrot et al. (2019): The greening of Western Australian landscapes: the Phanerozoic plant record. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 102: 52-82. See also here. Worth checking out:
! Figure 9: Major plant-evolutionary events and vegetation changes in Western Australia.

! M. Philippe et al. (2017): The palaeolatitudinal distribution of fossil wood genera as a proxy for European Jurassic terrestrial climate. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 466: 373-381.

M. Pole et al. (2016): The rise and demise of Podozamites in east Asia - An extinct conifer life style. Abstract. See also here.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Mesozoic. Mesozoic topics - including PDF files - are: Jurassic phytogeography and climates (data and models); Late Jurassic climate, vegetation and dinosaur distribution; Mesozoic assembly, Asia: floras, tectonics, paleomagnetism; Paleoecology, middle Cretaceous Grebenka flora, Siberia; and Lower Jurassic floras of Hope Bay & Botany Bay, Antarctica.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Permian Phytogeography and Climate Inference. Downloadable PowerPoint Presentation, Nonmarine Permian Symposium.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

P.M. Rees et al. (2002): Permian Phytogeographic Patterns and Climate Data/Model Comparisons. PDF file, Journal of Geology, 110, 1–31.
See also here.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

Peter M.A. Rees et al.: Jurassic phytogeography and climates: new data and model comparisons. PDF file.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
In: Huber, B.T., Macleod, K.G. & Wing, S.L. (eds) Warm climates in earth history. Cambridge University Press, pp. 297-318. Read the whole article (PDF file). See also here (abstract).

Allister Rees, Fred Ziegler and David Rowley, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT (PGAP). Including a Jurassic and Permian slideshow sampler (QuickTime), paleogeographic maps (downloadable pdf files), and a bibliography of PGAP Publications (with links to abstracts).

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleobiography Project. Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
There are three databases, including a map-based search function, plotting on paleomaps, references search, genus name search for the dinosaurs and plants, and tutorial pages:
PGAP, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project Lithofacies Database. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lithofacies.
CSS, the Climate Sensitive Sediments Database. Permian and Jurassic Climate Sensitive Sediments.
DINO, the Dinosauria Distributions Database. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Dinosaur Distributions.

S.S. Renner (2005): Relaxed molecular clocks for dating historical plant dispersal events. In PDF, Trends in plant science, 10: 550-558.
See also here.

! G.J. Retallack (1977): Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. In PDF, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 1. See also here.

J.D. Richey et al. (2021): Modeled physiological mechanisms for observed changes in the late Paleozoic plant fossil record. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 562.
"... (1) The existence of pCO2 and precipitation thresholds for loss of physiological viability that provide a mechanism for replacement of wet-adapted lycopsids and medullosans by marattialean tree ferns, which were tolerant of periodic drought, and the subsequent dominance of seasonally dry-adapted cordaitaleans and conifers. ...
(2) Under drier conditions, the combination of higher drought tolerance and primary productivity for marattialean tree ferns, conifers, and cordaitaleans provided an ecophysiological advantage over lycopsids and medullosans. ...
although the shift to more drought-tolerant plants in the Late Pennsylvanian and early Permian could have led to increased biomass and surface runoff, their ability to affect climate was likely limited by aridity and changes in vegetation density. ..."

J.J. Ringelberg et al. (2023): Precipitation is the main axis of tropical plant phylogenetic turnover across space and time. Free access, Science Advances, 9.
"... 95% of speciation occurs within a precipitation niche, showing profound phylogenetic niche conservatism, and that lineage turnover boundaries coincide with isohyets of precipitation. We reveal similar patterns on different continents, implying that evolution and dispersal follow universal processes ..."

! T. Salles et al. (2023): Landscape dynamics and the Phanerozoic diversification of the biosphere. Free access, Nature, 624: 115–121.
Note figure 1: Physiographic evolution and associated patterns of erosion–deposition across the Phanerozoic.
Figure 4: Continental sediment deposition and physiographic complexity, and diversity of vascular plants, during the Phanerozoic.
"... we couple climate and plate tectonics models to numerically reconstruct the evolution of the Earth’s landscape over the entire Phanerozoic eon, which we then compare to palaeodiversity datasets from marine animal and land plant genera. Our results indicate that biodiversity is strongly reliant on landscape dynamics
[...] On land, plant expansion was hampered by poor edaphic conditions until widespread endorheic basins resurfaced continents with a sedimentary cover that facilitated the development of soil-dependent rooted flora ..."

S. Schachat et al. (2023): Vegetational change during the Middle–Late Pennsylvanian transition in western Pangaea. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 535: 337-359.
"... Results indicate no substantive taxonomic turnover across the boundary. This stands in marked contrast to patterns in mid-Pangaean coal basins where there is a large wetland vegetational turnover.
[...] immediately following the boundary in New Mexico, and for approximately half of the Missourian Stage, floras previously dominated by hygromorphs become overwhelmingly dominated by mesomorphic/xeromorphic taxa ..."

L. Scott et al. (1997): Vegetation history. PDF file, in: Cowling, R.M., Richardson, D.M. & Pierce, S.M. (eds.): The Vegetation of Southern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

D.E. Shcherbakov (2000): Permian Faunas of Homoptera (Hemiptera) in Relation to Phytogeography and the Permo-Triassic Crisis. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, Vol. 34, Suppl. 3, 2000, pp. S251–S267.

! W. Shu et al. (2022): Permian-Middle Triassic floral succession in North China and implications for the great transition of continental ecosystems. Abstract, GSA Bulletin 2022; doi:
"we provide a detailed account of floral evolution from the Permian to Middle Triassic of North China based on new paleobotanical data and a refined biostratigraphy. Five floral transition events are identified
[...] The record begins with a Cisuralian gigantopterid-dominated rainforest community, and then a Lopingian walchian Voltziales conifer-ginkgophyte community that evolved into a voltzialean conifer-pteridosperm forest community.
[...] found in red beds that lack coal deposits due to arid conditions. The disappearance of the voltzialean conifer forest community may represents the end-Permian mass extinction of plants
[...] The first post-crisis plants are an Induan herbaceous lycopsid community, succeeded by the Pleuromeia-Neocalamites shrub marsh community. A pteridosperm shrub woodland community dominated for a short time in the late Early Triassic along with the reappearance of insect herbivory. Finally, in the Middle Triassic, gymnosperm forest communities gradually rose to dominance in both uplands and lowlands ..."

D. Silvestro et al. (2016): Fossil biogeography: a new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from palaeontological data. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B, 371. See also here.

J.E. Skog (2001): Biogeography of Mesozoic leptosporangiate ferns related to extant ferns. In PDF, Brittonia, 3: 236-269.

Charles H. Smith: Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution, and Diversity Studies: To 1950 This is a bibliography and full-text archive.

L.A. Spalletti et al. (2003): Geological factors and evolution of southwestern Gondwana Triassic plants. In PDF, Gondwana Research. See also here (abstract).

A.K. Srivastava and D. Agnihotri (2010): Dilemma of late Palaeozoic mixed floras in Gondwana. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).

P. Steemans et al. (2007): Palaeophytogeographical and palaeoecological implications of a miospore assemblage of earliest Devonian (Lochkovian) age from Saudi Arabia. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 250: 237-254.
See also here.

Alycia L. Stigall, Department of Geological Sciences and OHIO Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies (website hosted by the Paleontological Society, Boulder): Tracking Species in Space and Time: Assessing the relationships between paleobiogeography, paleoecology, and macroevolution. In PDF, lecture notes, PS Centennial Short Course. See also here.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Su et al. (2022): Tracing the Evolution of Plant Diversity in Southwestern China. Open access, Diversity, 14. See also here.

Ge Sun et al. (2010): The Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic strata and floras of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 203-214.
See also here.

Ken Sytsma, Department of Botany , UW-Madison, Madison, WI:
Plant Geography. This course will examine the distributions of plants (and other organisms) from the perspectives of both ecology (biomes, climate, vegetation) and history (floristics, phylogenetics, paleobotany).
! Go to the PowerPoint Lectures (PDF files).
See especially:
Origin and Biogeography of Ancient Floras: Paleozoic (in black and white).
The same in color.
Origin and Biogeography of Ancient Floras: Mesozoic (in black and white).
The same in color.

N.J. Tabor et al. (2013): Conservatism of Late Pennsylvanian vegetational patterns during short-term cyclic and long-term directional environmental change, western equatorial Pangea. Geol Soc Spec Publ., 376: 201–234; available in PMC 2014.

! B.H. Tiffney and S.R. Manchester (2001): The Use of Geological and Paleontological Evidence in Evaluating Plant Phylogeographic Hypotheses in the Northern Hemisphere Tertiary. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162. See also here (in PDF).

A. Tyukavina et al. (2015): Pan-tropical hinterland forests: mapping minimally disturbed forests. Open access, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25.
"... Hinterland forest extent was mapped using forest cover loss data from 2000 to 2012 and hinterland forest loss was quantified from 2007 to 2013
[...] The largest extent of hinterland forests and of hinterland forest loss was found in Latin America, followed by Africa and Southeast Asia, respectively ..."

! V.A. Vakhrameev et al. (1991): Jurassic and Cretaceous floras and climates of the Earth. In PDF.
See also here (provided by Google books).

V.A. Vakhrameev et al. (1970): Paleozoic and Mesozoic Floras of Eurasia and Phytogeography of this time. Just the citation. See also here. A citation of the German issue "Paläozoische und mesozoische Floren Eurasiens und die Phytogeographie dieser Zeit".

! Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): The Jurassic fossil plant record of the UK area. PDF file, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119: 59-72. See fig. 6 (after Cleal et al. 2001), how to distinguish bennettialean leaf shapes!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H. Visscher and C.J. van der Zwan (1981): Palynology of the circum-mediterranean triassic: Phytogeographical and palaeoclimatological implications. In PDF, Geologische Rundschau, 70: 625–634.
See also here.

Robert H. Wagner and Carmen Álvarez-VÁzquez 2010): The Carboniferous floras of the Iberian Peninsula: A synthesis with geological connotations. Abstract.

J. Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDf, PNAS, 109: 4927-4932. Reconstructions of peat-forming forests of earliest Permian age in fig. 4 and 5.

Q. Wang and K.-S. Mao (2015): Puzzling rocks and complicated clocks: how to optimize molecular dating approaches in historical phytogeography. In PDF, New Phytologist. 209: 1353-1358.
See also here. (abstract).

C.H. Wellman (2017): Palaeoecology and palaeophytogeography of the Rhynie chert plants: further evidence from integrated analysis of in situ and dispersed spores. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373: 20160491. See also here.

C.H. Wellman et al. (2014): Palaeophytogeography of Ordovician-Silurian land plants. In PDF. See also here. In PDF.

C.H. Wellman (2004): Palaeoecology and palaeophytogeography of the Rhynie chert plants: evidence from integrated analysis of in situ and dispersed spores. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B 271: 985-992.

Charles H. Wellman and Jane Gray (2000): The microfossil record of early land plants. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 355: 717-732.

! E.A. Wheeler and P. Baas (1991): A Survey of the Fossil Record for Dicotiledonous Wood and its Significance for Evolutionary and Ecological Wood Anatomy. Free access, IAWA Bulletin n.s., 12: 275-332.
Note figure 1: Major ecophyletic trends of vessel element specialisation.

! J.H. Whiteside et al. (2011): Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea. Open access, PNAS, 108.
See also here.
"... . Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions. ..."

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Phytogeography.

P. Wilf and R.M. Kooyman (2023): Do Southeast Asia's paleo-Antarctic trees cool the planet?
Note figure 2: Reference paleoglobes for the early Eocene (left), south polar view with part of Patagonia at the bottom and Australia at the top, and early Miocene (right), centered on Australia.
"... Many tree genera in the Malesian uplands have Southern Hemisphere origins, often supported by austral fossil records
[...] Paleo-Antarctic trees, in all likelihood, have helped cool the planet by occupying and contributing to the weathering and CO2 consumption of uplifted terranes in Malesia over the past c. 15 Myr ..."

P. Wilf et al. (2023): The first Gondwanan Euphorbiaceae fossils reset the biogeographic history of the Macaranga-Mallotus clade. Open access, American Journal of Botany, 110: e16169.
"... The MMC [Macaranga-Mallotus clade], along with many other Gondwanan survivors, most likely entered Asia during the Neogene Sahul-Sunda collision. Our discovery adds to a substantial series of well-dated, well-preserved fossils from one undersampled region, Patagonia, that have changed our understanding of plant biogeographic history ..."
Also worth checking out:
Spurge purge: Plant fossils reveal ancient South America-to-Asia ‘escape route’. By Francisco Tutella, The Pennsylvania State University, July 24, 2023.

P. Wilf et al. (2019): Response to Comment on “Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests”. Free access, Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz2297

P. Wilf et al. (2019): Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests. Abstract, Science, 364. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw5139. See also here.

! P. Wilf and I.H. Escapa (2015): Reply to Wang & Mao (2015): Molecular dates must be independently testable. In PDF.

! P. Wilf and I.H. Escapa (2015): Green Web or megabiased clock? Plant fossils from Gondwanan Patagonia speak on evolutionary radiations. In PDF, New Phytologist, 207: 283-290.

Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press): The Evolution of Plants. Book announcement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: PowerPoint illustrations. Illustrations from the book in PowerPoint format. See also:
! Biome maps. Downloadable full-color images from the book.

S.L. Wing and W.A. DiMichele (1995): Conflict between Local and Global Changes in Plant Diversity through Geological Time. PDF file, Palaios, 10: 551-564. See also here (abstract).

! S.L. Wing et al. (1992): Mesozoic and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF. In: Behrensmeyer, A.K., Damuth, J.D., DiMichele, W.A., Potts, R., Sues, H., Wing, S.L. (eds): Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time : Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp.327–416.

! Q. Wu et al. (2021): High-precision U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change, and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology. See also here.
"... The great loss of highly diverse and abundant Cathaysian floras and the widespread invasion of the Angaran floras under arid climate conditions in the North China block happened during the late Cisuralian to Guadalupian, but its exact timing is uncertain due to the long hiatus. ..."

C. Xiong et al. (2013): Diversity Dynamics of Silurian-Early Carboniferous Land Plants in South China. PLoS ONE, 8.

X. Xu et al. (2019): Anomozamites (Bennettitales) in China: species diversity and temporo-spatial distribution. In PDF, Palaeontographica, B, 300: 21–46.

C. Yu et al. (2023): Climate paleogeography knowledge graph and deep time paleoclimate classifications. Free access, Geoscience Frontiers, 14.
"... the application of climate classification in deep time (i.e., climate paleogeography) is prohibited due to the usually qualitatively constrained paleoclimate and the inconsistent descriptions and semantic heterogeneity of the climate types. In this study, a climate paleogeography knowledge graph is established under the framework of the Deep-Time Digital Earth program
[...] We also reconstruct the global climate distributions in the Late Cretaceous according to these classifications ..."

A.M. Ziegler et al. (1996): Mesozoic assembly of Asia: constraints from fossil floras, tectonics, and paleomagnetism. PDF file, In: The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, A. Yin and M. Harrison (eds.), pp. 371-400. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993): Early Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.

A.M. Ziegler (1990): Phytogeographic patterns and continental configurations during the Permian Period. Abstract.

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