Articles in Palaeobotany /
What is Palaeobotany?
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments
Early Triassic Floras@
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany
! Palaeobotanical Maps@
! Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Progress in Palaeobotany and Palynology@
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
C. Alcalde et al. (2006): Palaeophytogeographical contributions to the Iberian vegetal landscape interpretation: state of the art and new prospects for research. PDF file, in Spanish.
! J.M. Anderson et al. (1999): Patterns of Gondwana plant colonisation and diversification. Abstract, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28: 145-l67. See also here (in PDF).
A. Antonelli et al. (2015): An engine for global plant diversity: highest evolutionary turnover and emigration in the American tropics. In PDF, Front. Genet., 6.
Alexandre Antonelli and Isabel Sanmartín (2011): Why are there so many plant species in the Neotropics? PDF file, Taxon. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! V. Baranyi (2018): Vegetation dynamics during the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian): Response to climate and environmental changes inferred from palynology. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
A.R. Bashforth and W.A. DiMichele (2012): Permian Coal Forest offers a glimpse of late Paleozoic ecology. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 4717-4718.
Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley, Plantae, Fossil Record: Chart of First Appearances of Major Plant Groups. Each of the taxonomic plant groups in pink boxes can be clicked upon to take you to an introduction.
P. Blomenkemper et al. (2018):
hidden cradle of plant evolution in Permian tropical lowlands. Abstract,
Science, 362: 1414-1416. See also
(researchers from the University of Münster report on their findings), and
(Scinexx article, in German).
"... These fossils, which include the earliest records of conifers, push back the ages of several important seed-plant lineages. Some of these lineages appear to span the mass extinction event at the end of the Permian, which suggests that the communities they supported may have been more stable than expected over this transition ...".
M. Boersma (1980): Index of Figured Plant Megafossils: Triassic 1971-1975. Book announcement (second hand book, Amazon).
G.E. Budd et al. (2021): The use of geological and paleontological evidence in evaluating plant phylogeographic hypotheses in the Northern Hemisphere Tertiary. Free access. See also here (in PDF).
R.J. Burnham (2009):
overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós,
and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
R.J. Burnham (2008): Hide and Go Seek: What Does Presence Mean in the Fossil Record. Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 95: 51-71. See also here (in PDF).
R.J. Burnham and K.R. Johnson (2004): South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 1595-1610.
Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge (developed by
Nicola Peart and Ben Roberts, with feedback from Katy Jordan,
Howard Griffiths and Beverley Glover):
Plant Evolution Timeline.
This is a cut-down version of the full tool, designed primarily to aid plant scientists
with their learning of plant evolution.
Including first occurence (or first appearance) of species and speciation and major groups of plants. See also:
Plant Evolution Timeline - Help.
Y.-S. Chen et al. (2018): Is the East Asian flora ancient or not? In PDF, National Science Review, 0: 1–13. See also here
C.J. Cleal & B.A. Thomas, Geological Conservation Review Series (GCR), Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The JNCC is the UK government's wildlife adviser, undertaking national and international conservation work on behalf of the three country nature conservation agencies English Nature, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Countryside Council for Wales. Go to: Introduction to the Mesozoic and Tertiary palaeobotany of Great Britain. PDF file.
Thomas Denk et al. (2019):
on "Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests". Free access,
"... extensive paleobotanical records of Antarctica and Australia lack evidence of any Fagaceae, and molecular patterns indicate shared biogeographic histories of Castanopsis, Castanea, Lithocarpus, and Quercus subgenus Cerris, making the southern route unlikely."
! William A. DiMichele et al. (2008): The so-called "Paleophytic-Mesophytic" transition in equatorial Pangea. Multiple biomes and vegetational tracking of climate change through geological time. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268: 152-163. See also here (abstract).
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2005): Plant biodiversity partitioning in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian and its implications for ecosystem assembly. In PDF, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 56, Supplement I, No. 4, pp. 32-49.
Desa Djordjevic-Milutinovic (2010): An overview of paleozoic and mesozoic sites with macroflora in Serbia. PDF file, Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, 3: 27-46.
I.A. Dobruskina (1988): The history of land plants in the northern hemisphere during the Triassic with special reference to the floras of Eurasia. PDF file. See also here (abstract).
I.A. Dobruskina (1987): Phytogeography of Eurasia during the early triassic. Abstract.
M.J. Donoghue and E.J. Edwards (2014): Biome shifts and niche evolution in plants. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 45: 547-572.
! Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville: Phytogeographic Inferences from Paleobotany (Powerpoint presentatation).
M. Ghavidel-Syooki (2017): Cryptospore and trilete spore assemblages from the Late Ordovician (Katian–Hirnantian) Ghelli Formation, Alborz Mountain Range, Northeastern Iran: Palaeophytogeographic and palaeoclimatic implications. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 244: 217–240. See also here (in PDF).
A.V. Goman'kov (2005): Floral Changes across the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Abstract.
D.A.T. Harper and T. Servais (2013): Early Palaeozoic biogeography and palaeogeography: towards a modern synthesis. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 38.R.S. Hill et al. (2018): The vegetation history of South Australia. In PDF, Swainsona, 30: 9–16.
Natalia Holden, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada: The early Angiosperms: Paleophytogeography and Depositional Settings. A slideshow.
D.E. Horton et al. (2010): Influence of high-latitude vegetation feedbacks on late Palaeozoic glacial cycles. Abstract, Nature Geoscience, 3. See also here.
W. Huang et al. (2016): New Phoenicopsis leaves (Czekanowskiales) from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou Biota, China and their roles in phytogeographic and paleoclimatic reconstruction. In PDF, Palaeoworld, 25: 388–398. See also here.
Y. Huang et al. (2015): Distribution of Cenozoic plant relicts in China explained by drought in dry season. Open access, Scientific Reports, 5.
Report on the International Workshop for a Climatic, Biotic, and Tectonic, Pole-to-Pole Coring Transect of Triassic-Jurassic Pangea. Held June 5-9, 1999 at Acadia University, Nova Scotia, Canada. Navigate from here. Biotic change in a Hot-House world. The biotic change in a Hot-House world theme deals with biological patterns at three scales: global biogeographic patterns characteristic of the Hot-House world; Triassic-Jurassic evolution; and the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Go to: Global Climate and Phytogeography.
K.R. Johnson (2007): Forests frozen in time. In PDF. Fig. 1 shows the reconstruction of a lycopsid forest.
! M. Kosnik and Allister Rees et al., University of Chicago: Paleogeographic Atlas Project Databases (PGAP). The older database version is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
V.A. Krassilov (1981): Changes of Mesozoic vegetation and the extinction of dinosaurs. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 34: 207-224. See also here (in PDF).
B. Laenen et al. (2016): Geographical range in liverworts: does sex really matter? In PDF, Journal of Biogeography, 43: 627–635. See also here (abstract).
! A.B. Leslie et al. (2012): Hemisphere-scale differences in conifer evolutionary dynamics. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 16217-16221. See also here.
J. Li et al. (2019): Mesozoic and Cenozoic palaeogeography, palaeoclimate and palaeoecology in the eastern Tethys. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 515: 1-5. See also here, and there (in PDF).
R. Li et al. (2018): Current progress and future prospects in phylofloristics. Open access, Plant Diversity.
Xingxue Li (1995), Book announcement: Fossil Floras Of China Through The Geological Ages. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
C.V. Looy et al. (2014): Evidence for coal forest refugia in the seasonally dry Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands of the Illinois Basin, USA. PeerJ., 2.
P.D. Mannion et al. (2014): The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 42–50. See also here.
Paul S. Manos and Michael J. Donoghue (2001): Progress in Northern Hemisphere phytogeography: An introduction. PDF file, Int. Jour. Plant Sci., 162.
E. Martinetto et al. (2018):
temperate forests of the Neogene: Never more diverse?
Abstract, in PDF. 10th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference,
University College Dublin, Ireland.
See also here.
C. Mays and S. McLoughlin (2019): Caught between mass extinctions - the rise and fall of Dicroidium. In PDF.
J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here
S. McLoughlin and C. Pott (2019): Plant mobility in the Mesozoic: Disseminule dispersal strategies of Chinese and Australian Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous plants. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 515: 47-69. See also here (in PDF).
S. McLoughlin (2011): Glossopteris - insights into the architecture and relationships of an iconic Permian Gondwanan plant. In PDF, J. Botan. Soc. Bengal 65: 1-14.
! Stephen McLoughlin (2001): The breakup history of Gondwana and its impact on pre-Cenozoic floristic provincialism. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 49: 271-300. See also here (abstract).
J. Murienne et al. (2015): A living fossil tale of Pangaean biogeography. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 281. See also here.
! H. Nowak et al. (2020): Palaeophytogeographical Patterns Across the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Open access, Front. Earth Sci.
Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago: Jurassic Floras and Climate.
J. Peng et al. (2017): Triassic palynostratigraphy and palynofloral provinces: evidence from southern Xizang (Tibet), China. Free access, Alcheringa, 42, 67–86. See also here (in PDF).
R.J. Petit et al. (2008): Forests of the past: a window to future changes. PDF file, Science, 320.
D. Peyrot et al. (2019): The greening of Western Australian landscapes: the Phanerozoic plant record. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 102: 52-82. See also here and there (in PDF).
! M. Philippe et al. (2017): The palaeolatitudinal distribution of fossil wood genera as a proxy for European Jurassic terrestrial climate. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 466: 373-381.
M. Pole et al. (2016): The rise and demise of Podozamites in east Asia - An extinct conifer life style. Abstract. See also here.
Department of Geosciences,
University of Arizona,
Mesozoic topics - including PDF files - are:
Jurassic phytogeography and climates (data and models);
Late Jurassic climate, vegetation and dinosaur distribution;
Mesozoic assembly, Asia: floras, tectonics, paleomagnetism;
Paleoecology, middle Cretaceous Grebenka flora, Siberia; and
Lower Jurassic floras of Hope Bay & Botany Bay, Antarctica.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
P.M. Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Permian Phytogeography and Climate Inference. Downloadable PowerPoint Presentation, Nonmarine Permian Symposium. 18 MB!
! P.M. Rees et al. (2002): Permian Phytogeographic Patterns and Climate Data/Model Comparisons. PDF file, The Journal of Geology, 110: 1–31.
Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson:
PaleoIntegration Project (PIP).
The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability
between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases,
enabling a greater understanding of the life,
geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to:
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.
Peter M.A. Rees et al. (2002): Jurassic phytogeography and climates: new data and model comparisons. PDF file.
Allister Rees, Fred Ziegler and David Rowley, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT (PGAP). Including a Jurassic and Permian slideshow sampler (QuickTime), paleogeographic maps (downloadable pdf files), and a bibliography of PGAP Publications (with links to abstracts).
! Allister Rees,
Department of Geosciences,
University of Arizona,
Project. Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s
There are three databases, including a map-based search function, plotting on paleomaps, references search, genus name search for the dinosaurs and plants, and tutorial pages:
PGAP, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project Lithofacies Database. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lithofacies.
CSS, the Climate Sensitive Sediments Database. Permian and Jurassic Climate Sensitive Sediments.
DINO, the Dinosauria Distributions Database. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Dinosaur Distributions.
! G.J. Retallack (1977): Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. In PDF, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 1. See also here.
D.E. Shcherbakov, Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia: Permian Faunas of Homoptera (Hemiptera) in Relation to Phytogeography and the Permo-Triassic Crisis. Paleontological Journal, Vol. 34, Suppl. 3, 2000, pp. S251–S267.
D. Silvestro et al. (2016): Fossil biogeography: a new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from palaeontological data. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B, 371. See also here.
Charles H. Smith: Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution, and Diversity Studies: To 1950 This is a bibliography and full-text archive.
L.A. Spalletti et al. (2003): Geological factors and evolution of southwestern Gondwana Triassic plants. In PDF, Gondwana Research. See also here (abstract).
A.K. Srivastava and D. Agnihotri (2010): Dilemma of late Palaeozoic mixed floras in Gondwana. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here (abstract).
Philippe Steemans et al. (2007): Palaeophytogeographical and palaeoecological implications of a miospore assemblage of earliest Devonian (Lochkovian) age from Saudi Arabia. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 250: 237-254.
Alycia L. Stigall,
Department of Geological Sciences and
OHIO Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies (website hosted by the
Paleontological Society, Boulder):
Tracking Species in Space and Time:
Assessing the relationships between paleobiogeography, paleoecology,
and macroevolution. In PDF, lecture notes,
PS Centennial Short Course.
See also here.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Ge Sun et al. (2010): The Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic strata and floras of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 203-214. See also here (in PDF).Ken Sytsma, Department of Botany , UW-Madison, Madison, WI:
N.J. Tabor et al. (2013): Conservatism of Late Pennsylvanian vegetational patterns during short-term cyclic and long-term directional environmental change, western equatorial Pangea. Geol Soc Spec Publ., 376: 201–234; available in PMC 2014.
! B.H. Tiffney and S.R. Manchester (2001): The Use of Geological and Paleontological Evidence in Evaluating Plant Phylogeographic Hypotheses in the Northern Hemisphere Tertiary. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162. See also here (in PDF).
V.A. Vakhrameev et al. (1970): Paleozoic and Mesozoic Floras of Eurasia and Phytogeography of this time. Just the citation. See also here. A citation of the German issue "Paläozoische und mesozoische Floren Eurasiens und die Phytogeographie dieser Zeit".
V.A. Vakhrameev et al. (1991): Jurassic and Cretaceous floras and climates of the Earth. Provided by Google books.
! Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008):
The Jurassic fossil plant record
of the UK area. PDF file,
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119: 59-72. See fig. 6 (after Cleal et al. 2001),
how to distinguish bennettialean leaf shapes!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Robert H. Wagner and Carmen Álvarez-VÁzquez 2010): The Carboniferous floras of the Iberian Peninsula: A synthesis with geological connotations. Abstract.
J. Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDf, PNAS, 109: 4927-4932. Reconstructions of peat-forming forests of earliest Permian age in fig. 4 and 5.
Q. Wang and K.-S. Mao (2015): Puzzling rocks and complicated clocks: how to optimize molecular dating approaches in historical phytogeography. In PDF, New Phytologist. See also here. (abstract).
C.H. Wellman (2017): Palaeoecology and palaeophytogeography of the Rhynie chert plants: further evidence from integrated analysis of in situ and dispersed spores. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373: 20160491. See also here.
C.H. Wellman et al. (2014): Palaeophytogeography of Ordovician-Silurian land plants. In PDF. See also here. In PDF.
C.H. Wellman (2004): Palaeoecology and palaeophytogeography of the Rhynie chert plants: evidence from integrated analysis of in situ and dispersed spores. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc., B 271: 985-992.
Charles H. Wellman and Jane Gray (2000): The microfossil record of early land plants. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 355: 717-732.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
P. Wilf et al. (2019): Response to Comment on “Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests”. Free access, Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz2297
P. Wilf et al. (2019): Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests. Abstract, Science, 364. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw5139. See also here.
! P. Wilf and I.H. Escapa (2015): Reply to Wang & Mao (2015): Molecular dates must be independently testable. In PDF.
! P. Wilf and I.H. Escapa (2015): Green Web or megabiased clock? Plant fossils from Gondwanan Patagonia speak on evolutionary radiations. In PDF, New Phytologist, 207: 283-290.
Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain,
Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press):
The Evolution of Plants.
Book announcement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
Illustrations from the book in PowerPoint format. See also:
! Biome maps. Downloadable full-color images from the book.
S.L. Wing and W.A. DiMichele (1995): Conflict between Local and Global Changes in Plant Diversity through Geological Time. PDF file, Palaios, 10: 551-564. See also here (abstract).
! S.L. Wing et al. (1992): Mesozoic and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF.
Q. Wu et al. (2021):
U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change,
and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology.
"... The great loss of highly diverse and abundant Cathaysian floras and the widespread invasion of the Angaran floras under arid climate conditions in the North China block happened during the late Cisuralian to Guadalupian, but its exact timing is uncertain due to the long hiatus. ..."
C. Xiong et al. (2013): Diversity Dynamics of Silurian-Early Carboniferous Land Plants in South China. PLoS ONE, 8.
X. Xu et al. (2019): Anomozamites (Bennettitales) in China: species diversity and temporo-spatial distribution. In PDF, Palaeontographica, B, 300: 21–46.
A.M. Ziegler et al. (1996): Mesozoic assembly of Asia: constraints from fossil floras, tectonics, and paleomagnetism. PDF file, In: The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, A. Yin and M. Harrison (eds.), pp. 371-400. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
! A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993): Early Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.
A.M. Ziegler (1990):
patterns and continental configurations during the Permian Period. Abstract.
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