Articles in Palaeobotany /
What is Palaeobotany?
Whole Plant Reconstructions
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments
Early Triassic Floras@
Silurian and Devonian Palaeobotany
! Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Progress in Palaeobotany and Palynology@
! Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record@
Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@
! Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany@
C. Álvarez-Vázquez and R.H. Wagner (2017): A revision of Annularia and Asterophyllites species from the lower Westphalian (Middle Pennsylvanian) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Abstract, Atlantic Geology, 53: 17-62. See also here (in PDF).P. Appleton et al. (2015; article starts on PDF page 21): Making the most of Brymbo’s plant fossils . Earth Heritage, 43.
A. Bashforth et al. (2016): A Middle Pennsylvanian macrofloral assemblage from wetland deposits in Indiana (Illinois Basin): a taxonomic contribution with biostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic, and paleoecologic implications. In PDF, Journal of Paleontology, 90: 589–631.
A.R. Bashforth et al. (2016): Dryland vegetation from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Indiana (Illinois Basin): The dryland biome in glacioeustatic, paleobiogeographic, and paleoecologic context. Journal of Paleontology, 40: 785–814.
A.R. Bashforth et al. (2014):
of Early Pennsylvanian vegetation on a seasonally dry tropical
landscape (Tynemouth Creek Formation, New Brunswick, Canada). In PDF,
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 229–263. See also
Note fig. 6, 7: Upright cordaitalean trees.
Fig. 8C, 8D: Upright Calamites axes.
A.R. Bashforth and W.A. DiMichele (2012): Permian Coal Forest offers a glimpse of late Paleozoic ecology. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 4717-4718.
A.R. Bashforth et al. (2010): Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
A.R. Bashforth (1999): Descriptive taxonomy, biostratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of an Upper Carboniferous macrofloral assemblage, Bay St. George Basin, Southwestern Newfoundland. Thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland. See also here (in PDF).
R.M. Bateman et al. (2016): Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology of the Loch Humphrey Burn lagerstätte and other Mississippian palaeobotanical localities of the Kilpatrick Hills, southwest Scotland PeerJ, 4.
R.W. Baxendale (1979): Plant-bearing coprolites from North-American Pennsylvanian coal balls. PDF file.
D. J. Beerling et al.(1998): The influence of Carboniferous palaeoatmospheres on plant function: an experimental and modelling assessment. PDF file, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 353, 131-140.
! J.H. Calder et al. (2006): A fossil lycopsid forest succession in the classic Joggins section of Nova Scotia: Paleoecology of a disturbance-prone Pennsylvanian wetland. Abstract, in: S.F. Greb and W.A. DiMichele (eds.): GSA Special Papers, Wetlands through Time, 399: 169-194. See also here (in PDF), and there (Google books).
C.J. Cleal et al. (2016): Spondylodendron pranabii — the dominant lycopsid of the late Mississippian vegetation of the Kashmir Himalaya. Abstract, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 40. See also here (in PDF).
! C.J. Cleal et al. (2015): Pennsylvanian fossil flora from the Velebit Mountains and Lika region (SW Croatia). In PDF, Bulletin of Geosciences, 90: 721-742.
C.J. Cleal et al. (2012): Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 114: 124-155.
! C.J. Cleal et al. (2011): Pennsylvanian vegetation and climate in tropical Variscan Euramerica. In PDF, Episodes, 34.
C. J. Cleal & B. A. Thomas: A Provisional World List of Geosites for Palaeozoic Palaeobotany. This a new project initiated by the IUGS to develop an inventory of globally important geological sites. GEOSITES provide a provisional list of candidate Palaeozoic palaeobotany sites. The results are summarized in 40 sites, which are intended to show the broad pattern of evolution in land floras from the middle Silurian to the end of the Permian.
V. Dernov (2019): Taphonomy and paleoecology of fauna and flora from deltaic sandstones of Mospinka Formation (Middle Carboniferous) of Donets Basin. In PDF, Geo & Bio, 18: 37–63.
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2017): Vegetational zonation in a swamp forest, Middle Pennsylvanian, Illinois Basin, U.S.A., indicates niche differentiation in a wetland plant community. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 487: 71–92. See also here.
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2017): Plant Fossils from the Pennsylvanian–Permian Transition in Western Pangea, Abo Pass, New Mexico. In PDF, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 99.
W.A. DiMichele (2014):
Vegetational Dynamics in the Pennsylvanian Ice Age Tropics.
Int. J. Plant Sci., 175: 123-164.
See also here
Large Sigillaria stump cast on PDF page 11. Reconstructions of coal swamps and some dryland plant reconstructions with Cordaitalean trees and Walchian conifers.
! W.A. DiMichele and H.J. Falcon-Lang (2011): Pennsylvanian "fossil forests" in growth position (T0 assemblages): origin, taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168: 585-605. See fig. 14 (PDF page 17), Animals using hollow Sigillarian stumps as refuges from fire.
William A. DiMichele et al. (2010): Cyclic changes in Pennsylvanian paleoclimate and effects on floristic dynamics in tropical Pangaea. PDF file, International Journal of Coal Geology, 83: 329-344.
W..DiMichele et al. (2007): Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest. In PDF.! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2006): From wetlands to wet spots: Environmental tracking and the fate of Carboniferous elements in Early Permian tropical floras. PDF file. In Greb, S.F., and DiMichele, W.A., Wetlands through time: Geological Society of America Special Paper 399, p. 223–248. See also here and there (Google books).
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2004):
unusual Middle Pennsylvanian flora from the Blaine Formation
(Pease River Group: Leonardian-Guadalupian Series) of King County, West Texas. Abstract,
Journal of Paleontology, 78: 765-782.
Paper awarded with the "Winfried and Renate Remy Award 2005", The Botanical Society of America.
! W.A. DiMichele and T.L. Phillips (2002): The ecology of Paleozoic ferns. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
William A. DiMichele et al. (2001): Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian plant communities to climate change. PDF file, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29: 461-4871.
M.T. Dunn et al. (2012): Winslowia tuscumbiana gen. et sp. nov. (Chaloneriaceae): A Cormose, Heterosporous, Ligulate Lycopsid Reconstructed from the Inside Out from the Pride Mountain Formation (Late Mississippian/Serpukhovian) of Northern Alabama. In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 173: 96-111.
H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2018): New insights on the stepwise collapse of the Carboniferous Coal Forests: Evidence from cyclothems and coniferopsid tree-stumps near the Desmoinesian–Missourian boundary in Peoria County, Illinois, USA. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 490: 375–392. See also here and there.
! H.J. Falcon-Lang and W.A. DiMichele (2010): What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases? PDF file, Palaios, 25: 611-617. Including a reconstruction of the Late Pennsylvanian ecosystem (fig 4).
! H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2006): The Pennsylvanian tropical biome reconstructed from the Joggins Formation of nova Scotia, Canada. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 163: 561–576. See also here.
H.J. Falcon-Lang (2005): Adpressed tree-fern trunks from the Early Pennsylvanian Joggins Formation of Nova Scotia. In PDF, Atlantic Geology, 41: 169–172.
J. Galtier et al. (1992): Anatomically preserved conifer-like stems from the upper Carboniferous of England. In PDF, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological sciences, 247. See also here.
! R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2020): The Coal Farms of the Late Paleozoic. In PDF. See also here.
R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2004): Erect forests are evidence for coseismic base-level changes in Pennsylvanian cyclothems of the Black Warrior Basin, USA. PDF file, in: J.C. Pashin and R.A. Gastaldo (eds): Sequence stratigraphy, paleoclimate, and tectonics of coal-bearing strata. AAPG Studies in Geology 51: 219-238.
! R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2004): Community heterogeneity of Early Pennsylvanian peat mires. Abstract.
! S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40. Rhacophyton and Archaeopteris in a Devonian wetland as well as Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous wetland plant reconstructions.
M. Grey and Z.V. Finkel (2011): The Joggins Fossil Cliffs UNESCO World Heritage site: a review of recent research. In PDF. Carboniferous forest reconstruction on page 192.
! A.J. J. Hetherington et al. (2016): Networks of highly branched stigmarian rootlets developed on the first giant trees. In PDF, PNAS, 113.D. Hibbett et al. (2016): Climate, decay, and the death of the coal forests. In PDF, Current Biology, 26. See also here.
Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum (HVNHM), Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Ottawa: Carboniferous Forests. Easy to read publication. Life, death, and afterlife of a coal forest.
M. Hübers and H. Kerp (2012): Oldest known mosses discovered in Mississippian (late Visean) strata of Germany. In PDF, Geology.
K.R. Johnson (2007): Forests frozen in time. In PDF. Fig. 1 shows the reconstruction of a lycopsid forest.
! H. Kerp et al. (2007): Vegetationsbilder aus dem saarpfälzischen Permokarbon. PDF file, in German. In: Schindler, T, Heidtke, U.H.J. (eds.): Kohlesümpfe, Seen und Halbwüsten. Pollichia, Sonderveröffentlichung. See also here, and there (table of contents).
Hans Kerp, Palaeobotanical Research Group, Westfälische
Wilhelms University, Münster:
A History of Palaeozoic Forests. An introductory text with many helpful
directly related to the history of Palaeozoic forests. 7 chapters provide information about:
The earliest land plants;
Towards a tree-like growth habit;
The earliest forests;
The Carboniferous coal swamp forests;
The floral change at the end of the Westphalian;
Stefanian and Rotliegend floras;
Is there a floral break in the Permian?
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! M. Krings et al. (2003): How Paleozoic vines and lianas got off the ground: on scrambling and climbing Carboniferous-early Permian pteridosperms. In PDF, The Botanical Review.
George Langford, "georgesbasement":
Flora and Fauna of the Pennsylvanian Period, Will County, Illinois.
Many fossil plant photographs, line drawings and reconstructions.
Links in the scientific names point to plates in Leo Lesquereux´s classic 1879 work,
Atlas to the Coal Flora of Pennsylvania and of the Carboniferous Formation throughout
the United States. See the
to Fossil Flora, pp 1-85..
Collecting Fossil Plants and Animals in the Pennsylvanian Deposits of the Will County, Illinois Coal Measures The Field Notes of George Langford, Sr. in the Years 1937-1960. Prepared and organized by George Langford, Jr., 1973.
See also here.
C.V. Looy et al. (2014): Evidence for coal forest refugia in the seasonally dry Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands of the Illinois Basin, USA. PeerJ., 2.
Eugene Marinus, Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape: Ferns in the Carboniferous Period (Powerpoint presentatation).
C. Martín-Closas et al. (2018): New palaeobotanical data from Carboniferous Culm deposits constrain the age of the Variscan deformation in the eastern Pyrenees. Abstract, Geologica acta, 16: 107-123. See also here and there (in PDF).
S.V. Naugolnykh (2012):
new Carboniferous pteridosperm of Angaraland: Angaranthus victorii Naugolnykh,
gen. et spec. nov.(Angaranthaceae, fam. nov., Callistophytales). In PDF,
Wulfenia. See also
Note figure 9: Reconstructions of Gondwanotheca sibirica reproductive organs.
R. Neregato and J. Hilton (2019): Reinvestigation of the Enigmatic Carboniferous Sphenophyte Strobilus Cheirostrobus Scott and Implications of In Situ Retusotriletes Spores. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 180: 811–833. See also here.
C.P. Osborne et al.(2004):
constraints on the origin of leaves inferred from the fossil record.
PDF file, PNAS, 101: 10360-10362.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G. Pacyna and D. Zdebska (2012): Carboniferous plants preserved within sideritic nodules - a remarkable state of preservation providing a wealth of information. In PDF, Acta Palaeobotanica, 52: 247-269.Paläontologische Gesellschaft: Fossil des Jahres 2018. About Lepidodendron (in German).
Mary Parrish, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Reconstructing a Carboniferous Peat Swamp.
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield:
Palaeobotany of the Bristol coalfield: a critical period of global change. Powerpoint presentation. This study aims to produce a palynological biostratigraphy for the scientifically neglected Bristol coalfield. Megafossil collections will be amalgamated and re-examined to bring together a full picture of the megafloral biostratigraphy.
H.W. Pfefferkorn et al. (2017): Impact of an icehouse climate interval on tropical vegetation and plant evolution. In PDF, Stratigraphy, 14: 365-376. See also here.
H.W. Pfefferkorn et al. (2001): Modern tropical analogs for Carboniferous standing forests: Comparison of extinct Mesocalamites with extant Montrichardia. Abstract, Historical Biology, 15.
! T.L. Phillips et al. (1976): Fossil peat of the Illinois basin: a guide to the study of coal balls of Pennsylvanian age. In PDF, Geoscience education, 11.
! Sarda Sahney et al. (2010): Rainforest collapse triggered Carboniferous tetrapod diversification in Euramerica. PDF file, Geology, 38: 1079-1082. See also here, and there (abstract).
J.W. Schneider et al. (2010): Euramerican Late Pennsylvanian/Early Permian arthropleurid/tetrapod associations - implications for the habitat and paleobiology of the largest terrestrial arthropod. PDF file, in: Lucas, S.G., Schneider, J.W. and Spielmann, J.A., (eds.): Carboniferous-Permian transition in Canon del Cobre, northern New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 49: 49-70.
Andrew C. Scott et al. (2009): Scanning Electron Microscopy and Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy of 330 Million Year Old Charcoalified Seed Fern Fertile Organs. PDF file, Microsc. Microanal., 15: 166-173. See figure 4, SEM of charcoalified pteridosperm ovule from the mid-Mississippian (Carboniferous). See also here.
B. Slater (2011): Fossil focus: Coal swamps. n PDF, Palaeontology Online. See also here.
! G.W. Stull et al. (2012): Palaeoecology of Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri, and its implications for resolving the paradox of "xeromorphic" plants in Pennsylvanian wetlands. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 331-332: 162-176.
B.A. Thomas et al. (2019):
distribution of plant fossils and their palaeoecology in Duckmantian (Bashkirian,
Lower Pennsylvanian) strata at Brymbo, North Wales, UK. Open access,
Note figure 3b: Stigmaria trunk in situ.
Note figure 17: Calamites stems and pith casts.
! B.A. Thomas and L.J. Seyfullah (2015): Stigmaria Brongniart: a new specimen from Duckmantian (Lower Pennsylvanian) Brymbo (Wrexham, North Wales) together with a review of known casts and how they were preserved. Abstract, Geological Magazine, 152: 858–870. See also here (in PDF).
Susan Trulove, Virginia Tech: Ancient climate record preserved in prehistoric plants. Ancestor of modern trees preserves record of ancient climate change. About Devonian/Carboniferous growth rings.
J.P. Wilson et al. (2017):
Carboniferous tropical forests: new
views of plant function and potential for
physiological forcing of climate. In PDF,
New Phytologist, 215: 1333–1353. See also
! Figure 2 shows the fungal evolution and abundance of coal basin sediments over the Phanerozoic.
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