Images of Plant Fossils /
Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions
Websites, showing Plant Fossils
Sources of Fossil Clip Art
Whole Plant Reconstructions@
! Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
! Palaeobotanical Maps@
! Scientific Drawing@
! Classical Textbooks and Monographs in Palaeobotany@
Photography and Scanning@
Digital Image Processing@
H.M. Anderson et al. (2008): Stems with attached Dicroidium leaves from the Ipswich Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia. PDF file, Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 52: 1-12. See also here.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC): The age of reptiles, Oz fossils Dioramas. PDF files.
David L. Alles, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA: Biology 101: An Introduction to Science and Biology. (PDF files). Go to: Illustrated Lecture Presentations, The Mesozoic Era.
American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY: Division of Paleontology, Frontdoor. Go to: Artwork of E.S. Christman, and Artwork of C. Knight.
Natural History Museum, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California: Life Through Time. Go to: Permian Period, and Triassic Period.
Argumenta Palaeobotanica. From Münster, Germany. Reconstruction of the gametophyte Kidstonophyton discoides and Langiophyton mackiei.
The Banff & Buchan Arts Forum (an organisation in the North Aberdeenshire area of north east Scotland):
Reconstruction of the Devonian plant Ventarura lyonii. See also:
The Royal Society's Summer Science Exhibition in London 2004. A Rhynie diorama (page hosted by the Rhynie chert Research Group, the University of Aberdeen).
Daniel Barthélémy, l'UMR CIRAD-CNRS-INRA-Université Montpellier II: Botanique et Bioinformatique de l'Architecture des Plantes (AMAP). In French. Go to: Equipe 1. A research report. Including some reconstructions of Zygopteridales and Cladoxylales and a palaeovegetation reconstruction of the Carboniferous (Thesis V. Daviero).
A.R. Bashforth et al. (2010): Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See fig. 11, a reconstruction of plant communities on braided-river plain.
Ernst-Georg Beck, 2001 Biokurs: Ablauf der Evolution (in German). Scroll down to the Permian.
C.M. Belcher et al. (2010):
Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major
questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF. See especially
(the slides). Go to PDF page 22: "East Greenland 200 Million years ago".
! M.J. Benton (2010):
Function and Behavior in the Fossil Record.
PDF file, PLoS Biology, 8: 1-5.
See also here.
Wilhelm Bölsche (via Library University of Oldenburg, Germany): Tiere der Urwelt. Animal and palaeovegetation reconstructions (in German). Go to: Page 48, Ceratodus.
Botanical art. A meeting place for botanical artists. See e.g. here.
Paleobotanical Section, Botanical Society of America: Online Bibliography of American Paleobotany 2007 (PDF file). Go to PDF page 4: Reconstruction of Eospermatopteris/Wattieza, drawn by Frank Mannolini; from W.E. Stein et al. (2007): "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the Earth´s earliest forest stumps at Gilboa". Nature 446: 904-907.
Silvio Brandt, Halle/Saale, Germany: www.kupferschiefer.de. Upper Permian Fossils (in German). Go to: Zechstein (Upper Permian) reconstruction. Modified after Mägdefrau.
Mariana Brea et al. (2009): Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835. PDF file, Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64: 21-31. Fig. 5 shows the reconstruction of the Triassic Darwin Forest landscape in a high sinuosity fluvial system. The canopy is integrated by two arboreal strata and emergent trees with conifers and corystosperms, the understorey is formed by ferns. Fig. 7 shows the reconstruction of a Triassic horsetail landscape in the flood-plain of a fluvial environment (reconstructions painted by Jorge Gonzalez).
MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author´s name appears on the title page for each section): Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation. Go to: The Flora of the Rhynie Chert. Diagrammatic reconstructions of Rhynia, Aglaophyton, Horneophyton.
The palaeofiles. Articles here have all been prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol: Failures, frauds, fakes, and fixes in palaeontology. This website is about the frauds and errors that have been made by palaeontologists through the years, the implications the mistakes have had on the science of palaeontology, and how these frauds and errors are being uncovered and fixed. Some reconstruction images here.
Robert Buckley, Trabuco Canyon, California, (Illustrations by Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick and Mark Hallet), The Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida (PACSOF): The Fossil Cycads. Reconstruction of the Carboniferous Period, the leaves of the seed-fern Gigantopteris (Early Permian), a reconstruction of Lyssoxylon grigsbyi (Triassic) and a cycadeoid being enjoyed by Heterodontosaurus, the Pseudoctenis-type Cycadales, Early Jurassic, a Pentoxylon reconstruction and a Nilsonia-type cycadale lived during the Jurassic, Williamsonia, and belonging to the Bennettitales (Jurassic through Cretaceous).
Karen Carr Studio,
Silver City, NM:
You Can Paint Digitally!
Karen Carr (website maintained by Ralph Gauer of The Fernleaf): Triassic Landscape. This painting is on permanent display at The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, in Norman, Oklahoma.
Michelle Carr, Cosmos Online: Wattieza is world´s oldest tree. (with reconstruction of the crown portion).
Matt Celeskey: Permocarboniferous Sketchbook.
Christopher J. Cleal et al. (2005): Illustrations and illustrators during the "Golden Age" of palaeobotany: 1800–1840. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 241: 41-61.
C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1999): Plant Fossils: The History of Land Vegetation. In PDF. See also here (Google books).
The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland OH: Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries. Including the Mesozoic Liaoning Forest diorama.
! Colossal Fossil Site: Links by period. A gallery (actually a link directory) of period dioramas.
Mark Crowell (?): The Vintage Dinosaur Book Web Page. Go to: Index of Vintage Dinosaur Books and other vintage books on prehistoric animals. A cornucopia of dinosaur illustrations and palaeo reconstructions.
J. William Dawson (1888): The Chain of Life in Geological Time. A Sketch of the Origin and Succession of Animals and Plants. Many illustrations! A Project Gutenberg EBook.
Allen A. Debus, Fossil News: The Art of Paleocatastrophe. How paleoartists have portrayed catastrophic events in life´s past.
David L. Dilcher, Terry A. Lott, and Brian J. Axsmith: Fossil Plants from the Union Chapel Mine, Alabama. PDF file, from: Buta, R.J., Rindsberg, A.K., and Kopaska-Merkel, D.C., eds., 2005, Pennsylvanian Footprints in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. Alabama Paleontological Society Monograph no. 1. Images of Lepidophloios, Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobus, Lepidostrobophyllum, Lepidophylloides, Calamites, Calamostachys, Asterophyllites charaeformis, phenopteris, Neuralethopteris, Trigonocarpus ampulliforme, Whittleseya elegans. Please take notice: FIGURE 6. Reconstruction of coal swamp trees (Calamites, Sigillaria, Medullosa, Cordaites, Lepidodendron/ Lepidophloios, Psaronius; modified from Phillips et al. 1976).
! W.A. DiMichele and H.J. Falcon-Lang (2011): Pennsylvanian "fossil forests" in growth position (T0 assemblages): origin, taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168: 585-605. See fig. 14 (PDF page 17), Animals using hollow Sigillarian stumps as refuges from fire.
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Catastrophically buried Middle Pennsylvanian Sigillaria and calamitean sphenopsids from Indiana, USA: What kind of vegetation was this? PDF file, Palaios, 24: 159-166. Reconstruction of a Sigillaria vegetation during early stages of flooding and burial in fig. 6.
DK Images London: Science > Earth Sciences > Palaeontology > Prehistoric Plants. Some reconstructions.
dmoz, the Open Directory Project: Science: Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Art: Artists, and Science: Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Art.
Alex Dueben, Comic Book Resources: The Many Careers of William Stout. See also here (Wikipedia).
Scott Elrick (Coal Section of the Illinois State Geological Survey), Bill DiMichele, & Howard Falcon-Lang: A 300 Million Year Old Pennsylvanian Age Mire Forest. The Carboniferous Riola Mine in east central Illinois.
Ignacio H. Escapa et al. (2010): Evolution and relationships of the conifer seed cone Telemachus: Evidence from the Triassic of Antarctica. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 171: 560-573. See fig. 6: Hypothetical reconstructions of Telemachus elongatus and Telemachus antarcticus ovulate cones.
Mark A. Evans, "Pittsburgh Area Geologic Sites": Fossils in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Scroll down to: "Plant Fossils". Plant reconstructions in a good resolution!
Mike Everhart and Doug Henderson: Doug Henderson's Marine Paleo-Life Art.
H.J. Falcon-Lang and W.A. DiMichele (2010): What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases? PDF file, Palaios, 25: 611-617. Including a reconstruction of the Late Pennsylvanian ecosystem (fig 4).
Mike Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to: PALEOBIOLOGY: FOSSILS AND TIME, PALEOBIOLOGY: THE PRECAMBRIAN: LIFE'S GENESIS AND SPREAD, PALEOBIOLOGY: THE EARLY PALEOZOIC, PALEOBIOLOGY: THE LATE PALEOZOIC, and PALEOBIOLOGY: THE MESOZOIC, AGE OF CYCADS AND DINOSAURS.
Z. Feng et al. (2012):
horsetails became giants. In PDF, Chinese Science Bulletin, 57.
Reconstruction of the horsetail tree Arthropitys bistriata. See also here.
The Field Museum, Chicago: Evolving Planet. Depicting a basic overview, image gallery and evolutionary essentials of geological periods.
Ben Fletcher, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield: Stomata control how the atmosphere affects plants. A project about the earliest plants that grew on land and their evolution. Reconstructions of Cooksonia, Zosterophyllum, Sigillaria.
J.-C. Gall, Strasbourg; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS): Evolution. Go to: Le Trias et l'ébauche des grands groupes modernes. In French. A drawing of Voltzia heterophylla.
Solange Gay-Crosier & Frank Lugon-Moulin, Finhaut, Switzerland: Les Traces des Dinosaures. A Triassic reconstruction with Plateosaurus.
Geologyshop: Dinosaur Pictures (and other contemporaneous taxa). A huge link list to some of the best images of the most famous dinosaurs. Some of them showing paleovegetation reconstructions.
A.K. Gonzales (2010): The Visual Rhetoric of Craftsmanship. In PDF, Department of English at Digital Archive. English Theses, Paper 93, Department of English at Digital Archive.
S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40. Rhacophyton and Archaeopteris in a Devonian wetland as well as Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous wetland plant reconstructions. See also here.
M. Grey and Z.V. Finkel (2011): The Joggins Fossil Cliffs UNESCO World Heritage site: a review of recent research. In PDF. Carboniferous forest reconstruction on page 192.
! Greenworks Organic-Software, Berlin, Germany: XfrogPlants V 2.0 Plant Library. XfrogPlants are 22 different 3D Plant Libraries, each containing 20 Species x 3 ages, and created using Xfrog procedural organic software. Samples of each plant in each library available, go to: Fossil Plants. Excellent!
Øyvind Hammer, Computational Paleontology, Computer graphics reconstructions. Go to: Big Calamites, and Big Sigillaria.
T.M. Harris (1961): The fossil cycads. PDF file.
Jody L. Haynes (c/o Palm and Cycad Societies of Florida): Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia. Information bout cycad taxonomy, biology, evolution, horticulture, conservation, etc. Go to: "Jurassic Age" by Charles R. Knight.
Oswald Heer (1865): Die Urwelt der Schweiz (in German). Provided by Google books. Including some palaeovegetation reconstructions. PDF download available.
! Douglas Henderson, Whitehall, MT: Earth History Illustrations. A gallery of scientific illustrations (including palaeovegetation) representing earth´s ancient life, including an illustrated geologic timeline.
Harvey Henson (and the Students of BIG), Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale: Basics In Geology (an informal earth science educational program for students in local junior and senior high schools), Pennsylvanian Fossil Study.
Susanne Henssen, PalaeoWerkstatt, Goch, Germany: Rconstruction of Sphenobaiera spectabilis.
Elizabeth J. Hermsen et al. (2009): Morphology and ecology of the Antarcticycas plant. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 153: 108-123. Antarcticycas plant reconstruction on page 112.
Juliane K. Hinz et al. (2010): A high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction of a fossil forest (Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation, Junggar Basin, Northwest China). Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 203-214. See also here (in PDF).
Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign: Plant fossils. A reconstruction of Medullosa.
Informationsdienst Wissenschaft (Brigitte Nussbaum, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster: Momentaufnahmen aus dem Erdaltertum. Reconstructions of Devonian climbing plants.
! T.H. Jefferson (1987): The preservation of conifer wood: examples from the Lower Cretaceous of Antarctica. In PDF, Palaeontology, 30. With instructive line drawings.
K.R. Johnson (2007): Forests frozen in time. In PDF. Fig. 1 shows the reconstruction of a lycopsid forest.
! Karen Carr Studio,
Silver City, NM:
Late Triassic plant community,
or Triassic Landscape, Coelophysis detail.
M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos: Triassic. A scene from the late Carnian of south-west Pangea (Gondwana), as represented by fossil remains from the Ischigualasto Formation, San Juan Province, Argentina.
M. Alan Kazlev and Toby White: Palaeos - The trace of Life on Earth. The Palaeos Site is dedicated to providing a detailed and - at least in parts - comprehensive overview of the history of life on Earth. Go to: Paleozoic Plants. Reconstructions of a Carboniderous swamp forest (from The Fossil Book - Fenton & Fenton, 1958, Doubleday & Co.), Early Devonian land plants (from Augusta & Burian), and the increasing terrestrial plant root depth penetration with time during the Devonian.
! K.-P. Kelber (2009): Lebensbilder der Unterkeuperzeit im Spiegel der paläontologischen Forschung. PDF file (8.5 MB), in German. Veröffentlichungen Naturhistorisches Museum Schleusingen, 24: 27-52. Life pictures from the Lower Keuper in the mirror of palaeontological research. A selection of Lower Keuper swamp reconstructions from the germanotype Triassic (Ladinian, Triassic).
Heinz Kowalski, Moers, Germany: Steinkohlen aus der Eifel. In German. A palaeovegetation reconstruction of the Carboniferous (by H. POTONIE 1899) and of Taeniocrada decheniana (by Kräusel & Weyland 1930).
M. Krings et al. (2011): Fungal sporocarps from the Carboniferous: An unusual specimen of Traquairia. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168: 1-6.
! Conrad C. Labandeira (1998): Plant-Insect Associatons from the Fossil Record. PDF file, Geotimes. With instructive illustrations.
George Langford, "georgesbasement":
Flora and Fauna of the Pennsylvanian Period, Will County, Illinois.
Many fossil plant photographs, line drawings and reconstructions.
Links in the scientific names point to plates in Leo Lesquereux´s classic 1879 work,
Atlas to the Coal Flora of Pennsylvania and of the Carboniferous Formation throughout
the United States. See the
to Fossil Flora, pp 1-85..
Collecting Fossil Plants and Animals in the Pennsylvanian Deposits of the Will County, Illinois Coal Measures The Field Notes of George Langford, Sr. in the Years 1937-1960. Prepared and organized by George Langford, Jr., 1973.
See also here.
! The Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize Link List. See also here ("John Lanzendorf" in Wikipedia).
Cindy V. Looy, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ecological success of Early Triassic isoetaleans. A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergi from the Early Triassic.
! A. Lukeneder (2012): Computed 3D visualisation of an extinct cephalopod using computer tomographs. In PDF, Computers & Geosciences, 45: 68-74.
Adriana C. Mancuso et al. (2007): The Triassic insect fauna from the Los Rastros Formation (Bermejo Basin), La Rioja Province (Argentina): its context, taphonomy and paleobiology. Paleobiological reconstruction in fig. 6.
Janet Marinelli, Brooklyn Botanic Garden; Plants & Gardens News Volume 18, Number 2; 2003: Power Plants — The Origin of Fossil Fuels. A palaeovegetation reconstruction by Maud H. Purdy.
PaleoNet is a system of listservers, www pages, and ftp sites designed to enhance
electronic communication among paleontologists. Scroll down to:
! "The PaleoNet Gallery". The PaleoNet Gallery is a part of the PaleoNet web site that features the work of artists and illustrators on palaeontological topics.
Josef Moravec: Timeline Dinosaur Gallery. A collection of paintings, sorted by geological time period (including palaeovegetation).
! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, COAL SWAMP FORESTS. Link list page with picture rankings. Several dioramas of coal swamp forests. The links give the most direct connections to illustrations available on the web.
Dennis C. Murphy, ("Devonian Times", a paleontology web site featuring Red Hill): Who's Who at Red Hill. Go to: "Tracheophytes" (Vascular Plants).
The Natural History Museum London: Dino Directory. Dinosaur information (including some palaeoflora reconstructions) alphabetically, by time period (Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous), by country, or by body shape. Go to: Upper Triassic. See: Plateosaurus.
! K.M. Northcut (2004): The making of knowledge in science: case studies of paleontology illustration. In PDF. Dissertation, Texas Tech University. See also here. Abstract of: Insights from Illustrators: The Rhetorical Invention of Paleontology Representations.
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University: Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew: Plant Evolution. Images of models to represent extinct plant forms with modern versions of 'primitive' plants, the entire display conveyed in dramatic fashion the dramatic change in plant form over the ages.
! Paleoartistry (Eon Epoch Productions). A 180 year retrospective of extinct animal illustration. From the very first scientific descriptions of prehistoric reptiles in the 1830s to the first descriptions of the most famous dinosaurs in the 1890s. From the Dinosaur Renaissance of the 1970s-80s, and its post-Jurassic Park pop culture resurgence in the 1990s. From the 2000s Chinese fossil rush confirming feathered dinosaurs as ancestral relatives to present day birds. This website documents the evolving portrait of dinosaurs (and their landscape) over nearly 200 years by the greatest paleoartists. Excellent!
Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, Inc. (PACSOF): The fossil Cycads. With paintings and reconstructions of Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick, and Mark Hallett. Go to: Jurassic Cycadales. Pentoxylon, Nilsonnia. See also the pair of diplodoci make their way across a floodplain dotted with cycadeoid- type plants.
! Mary Parrish, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Reconstructing a Carboniferous Peat Swamp.
Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven: The Age of Reptiles Mural at the Yale Peabody Museum. Reconstructions, (including palaeovegetation) from the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous & the Devonian. See also here.
Allister Rees, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT, Two drawings of eighteen community level illustrations, designed to bring to life the Permian floras from various parts of the world. Illustrations prepared by Sergei Naugolnykh.
Luis V. Rey, London (website by Janet Smith): Luis V. Rey´s Art Gallery Dinosaurs and Paleontology, and Gallery. Worth checking out: The Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize Link List.
R. Rößler et al. (2012): The largest calamite and its growth architecture - Arthropitys bistriata from the Early Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 185: 64-78. Reconstruction of Arthropitys bistriata on PDF page 4.
Ronny Rößler & Robert Noll (website hosted by fossilien-journal.de): Calamitea COTTA 1832. Fossile Pflanze zwischen Historie und aktueller Forschung. PDF file, in German.
Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Angiophytes: Using Whole Plant Concepts to Interpret Angiosperm Origins, Taxa that Provide Data: Selected Examples. Images and reconstructions of Archaeanthus, Caloda reynoldsii, Joffrea speirsii, Polyptera manningii, Limnobiophyllum scutatum, Macginitea, Eorhiza/Princetonia.
Senckenberg Natural History Museum and Centre for Biodiversity Research, Frankfurt am Main: Entwicklung der Pflanzenwelt. Image and reconstruction of Cycadeoidea.
B. Slater (2011): Fossil focus: Coal swamps. n PDF, Palaeontology Online. See also here.
Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.
! Department of Paleobiology,
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.:
This website provides information about taking proper care of illustrations and discusses techniques for
creating palaeontological and other scientific illustrations. Go to:
! What is paleontological illustration, and Illustration Care. To provide archival care (conservation treatment) for historical illustrations. Don´t miss the
Historical Art Gallery and the Bibliography of Historical Art. Some highlights from the Department of Paleobiology. Last but not least:
! Reconstructing an ancient environment. Reconstructing of invertebrates, vertebrates and fossil plants.
Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Underground Carboniferous Forest (Riola mine, Illinois). A Carboniferous coal-swamp reconstruction.
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology: Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize. The John J. Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize was created to recognize outstanding achievement in paleontological scientific illustration.
Doug Soltis, Amber Tilley and Hongshan Wang, Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), University of Florida: Deep Time. A comprehensive phylogenetic tree of living and fossil angiosperms. Go to: Virtual Fossil Collection. Reconstruction of Archaefructus sinensis, Androdecidua endressii.
Hans Steur, The Netherlands: Reconstruction of a swamp with horsetail trees in the Upper-Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian). From the Northern Zoo in Emmen (The Netherlands).
Brian Switek (2009): Book review: Jane P. Davidson, "A History of Paleontology Illustration" Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 12, No. 1.
Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of
Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
BOT335 Lecture Schedule.
Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present;
UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.
V. Vajda and S. Turner (2009): The Jurassic: In the forefront of science outreach. PDF file, GFF, 131: 1-3. See fig. 1: Mid Jurassic terrestrial landscape with Australian flora.
The Natural History Museum Vienna: Palaeo reconstructions (in German).
J. Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDf, PNAS, 109: 4927-4932. Reconstructions of peat-forming forests of earliest Permian age in fig. 4 and 5.
Jun Wang et al. (2012):
Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia
and its implications for landscape paleoecology
and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDF, PNAS. See also:
forest is "Permian Pompeii"
(S. Perkins, Nature).
Penn researcher helps discover and characterize a 300-million-year-forest.
The Lost Forest.
Jun Wang and Hermann W. Pfefferkorn (2010): Nystroemiaceae, a new family of Permian gymnosperms from China with an unusual combination of features. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc., B, 277: 301-309. See also here.
! Webshots, Twofold Photos, Inc.: Triassic Forest. A swampy forest in Chinle area of Arizona during the Triassic period. See also: Community: Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics: A hungry Herrerasaurus stalks a Rhynchosaur in the Late Triassic of Argentina.
! Webshots, Twofold Photos, Inc.: Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics: Brachiosaurus brancai, Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics 2: Australian Jurassic Scene, and Jurassic Scene 2.
! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
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