Home / Images of Plant Fossils / Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions

Websites, showing Plant Fossils
Sources of Fossil Clip Art
Plant Photographs

! Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes@
! Whole Plant Reconstructions@
! Classical Textbooks and Monographs in Palaeobotany@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
Palaeobotanical Maps@
! Scientific Drawing@
Image Collections@
Photography and Scanning@
Digital Image Processing@

Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions

David L. Alles, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA: Biology 101: An Introduction to Science and Biology. (PDF files). Go to: Illustrated Lecture Presentations, The Mesozoic Era.

American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY: Division of Paleontology, Frontdoor. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
Artwork of E.S. Christman, and Artwork of C. Knight.

H.M. Anderson et al. (2008): Stems with attached Dicroidium leaves from the Ipswich Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia. PDF file, Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 52: 1-12. See also here.

! M. Ansón et al. (2015): Paleoart: term and conditions (a survey among paleontologists). In PDF.

Wayne P. Armstrong, Pacific Horticulture: The Araucaria Family: Past & Present. Please take notice the diorama of an araucariad forest from 200 million years ago (Diorama on display at the Rainbow Forest Museum, Petrified Forest National Park).

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC): The age of reptiles, Oz fossils Dioramas. PDF files.

Natural History Museum, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California: Life Through Time. Go to: Permian Period, and Triassic Period.

Argumenta Palaeobotanica. From Münster, Germany. Reconstruction of the gametophyte Kidstonophyton discoides and Langiophyton mackiei.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.R. Ash and S.T. Hasiotis (2013): New occurrences of the controversial Late Triassic plant fossil Sanmiguelia Brown and associated ichnofossils in the Chinle Formation of Arizona and Utah, USA. In PDF, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 268: 65-82. Reconstructed Triassic landscape with Sanmiguelia on PDF page 7.

B.J. Axsmith et al. (2003): The enigmatic Paleozoic plants Spermopteris and Phasmatocycas reconsidered. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 90: 1585-1595.

J.H. Balfour (1872): Introduction to the study of palaeontological botany. A Project Gutenberg EBook. See also here (Google books).

The Banff & Buchan Arts Forum (an organisation in the North Aberdeenshire area of north east Scotland): S. Caine. Reconstruction of the Devonian plant Ventarura lyonii. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
The Royal Society's Summer Science Exhibition in London 2004. A Rhynie diorama (page hosted by the Rhynie chert Research Group, the University of Aberdeen).

R. Barboni and T.L. Dutra (2013): New "flower" and leaves of Bennettitales from Southern Brazil and their implication in the age of the Lower Mesozoic deposits. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 50: 14-32.

Daniel Barthélémy, l'UMR CIRAD-CNRS-INRA-Université Montpellier II: Botanique et Bioinformatique de l'Architecture des Plantes (AMAP). In French. Go to: Equipe 1. A research report. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Including some reconstructions of Zygopteridales and Cladoxylales and a palaeovegetation reconstruction of the Carboniferous (Thesis V. Daviero).

A.R. Bashforth et al. (2010): Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See fig. 11, a reconstruction of plant communities on braided-river plain.

Ernst-Georg Beck, 2001 Biokurs: Ablauf der Evolution (in German). Scroll down to the Permian.

C.M. Belcher et al. (2010): Burning Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF. See especially here (the slides). Go to PDF page 22: "East Greenland 200 Million years ago".

! J.P. Benca et al. (2014): Applying morphometrics to early land plant systematics: A new Leclercqia (Lycopsida) species from Washington State, USA. American Journal of Botany 101: 510–520. See also here, and there:
George Dvorsky, Gizmodo.com:
An Incredibly Life-Like Reconstruction Of A 400 Million-Year-Old Plant. Reconstruction of Leclercqia scolopendra.

! M.J. Benton (2010): Studying Function and Behavior in the Fossil Record. PDF file, PLoS Biology, 8: 1-5.
See also here.

Wilhelm Bölsche (via Library University of Oldenburg, Germany): Tiere der Urwelt. Animal and palaeovegetation reconstructions (in German). Go to: Page 48, Ceratodus.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2014): Habit and Ecology of the Petriellales, an Unusual Group of Seed Plants from the Triassic of Gondwana. In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2013): Whole-Plant Concept and Environment Reconstruction of a Telemachus Conifer (Voltziales) from the Triassic of Antarctica. See also here (abstract).

Botanical art. A meeting place for botanical artists. See e.g. here.

Paleobotanical Section, Botanical Society of America: Online Bibliography of American Paleobotany 2007 (PDF file). Go to PDF page 4: Reconstruction of Eospermatopteris/Wattieza, drawn by Frank Mannolini; from W.E. Stein et al. (2007): "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the Earth´s earliest forest stumps at Gilboa". Nature 446: 904-907.

Silvio Brandt, Halle/Saale, Germany: www.kupferschiefer.de. Upper Permian Fossils (in German). Go to: Zechstein (Upper Permian) reconstruction. Modified after Mägdefrau.

Mariana Brea et al. (2009): Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835. PDF file, Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64: 21-31. Fig. 5 shows the reconstruction of the Triassic Darwin Forest landscape in a high sinuosity fluvial system. The canopy is integrated by two arboreal strata and emergent trees with conifers and corystosperms, the understorey is formed by ferns. Fig. 7 shows the reconstruction of a Triassic horsetail landscape in the flood-plain of a fluvial environment (reconstructions painted by Jorge Gonzalez).

MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author´s name appears on the title page for each section): Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation. Go to: The Flora of the Rhynie Chert. Diagrammatic reconstructions of Rhynia, Aglaophyton, Horneophyton.

The palaeofiles. Articles here have all been prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol: Failures, frauds, fakes, and fixes in palaeontology. This website is about the frauds and errors that have been made by palaeontologists through the years, the implications the mistakes have had on the science of palaeontology, and how these frauds and errors are being uncovered and fixed. Some reconstruction images here.

! C.R. Brodersen and A.B. Roddy (2016): New frontiers in the three-dimensional visualization of plant structure and function. American journal of botany, 103: 184-188.

Robert Buckley, Trabuco Canyon, California, (Illustrations by Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick and Mark Hallet), The Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida (PACSOF): The Fossil Cycads. Reconstruction of the Carboniferous Period, the leaves of the seed-fern Gigantopteris (Early Permian), a reconstruction of Lyssoxylon grigsbyi (Triassic) and a cycadeoid being enjoyed by Heterodontosaurus, the Pseudoctenis-type Cycadales, Early Jurassic, a Pentoxylon reconstruction and a Nilsonia-type cycadale lived during the Jurassic, Williamsonia, and belonging to the Bennettitales (Jurassic through Cretaceous).

J. Buehl (2014): Toward an Ethical Rhetoric of the Digital Scientific Image: Learning From the Era When Science Met Photoshop, Technical Communication Quarterly, 23. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).

Can Stock Photo: Paleobotany illustrations and clipart.

Karen Carr, Karen Carr Studio, Silver City, NM:
You Can Paint Digitally!

Karen Carr (website maintained by Ralph Gauer of The Fernleaf): Triassic Landscape. Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This painting is on permanent display at The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, in Norman, Oklahoma.

Michelle Carr, Cosmos Online: Wattieza is world´s oldest tree. (with reconstruction of the crown portion).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Matt Celeskey: Permocarboniferous Sketchbook. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Choo et al. (2016): Monotypic colonies of Clathropteris meniscioides (Dipteridaceae) from the Early Jurassic of central Patagonia, Argentina: implications for taxonomy and palaeoecologyand palaeoecology. In PDF, Palaeontographica B, 294: 85-109. See also here.

Christopher J. Cleal et al. (2005): Illustrations and illustrators during the "Golden Age" of palaeobotany: 1800–1840. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 241: 41-61.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1999): Plant Fossils: The History of Land Vegetation Fossils Illustrated. In PDF, (Boydell & Brewer Ltd).
See also here (Amazon) and there (Google books).

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland OH: Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries. Including the Mesozoic Liaoning Forest diorama.

! Colossal Fossil Site: Links by period. A gallery (actually a link directory) of period dioramas. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Mark Crowell (?): The Vintage Dinosaur Book Web Page. Go to: Index of Vintage Dinosaur Books and other vintage books on prehistoric animals. A cornucopia of dinosaur illustrations and palaeo reconstructions.

J. William Dawson (1888): The Chain of Life in Geological Time. A Sketch of the Origin and Succession of Animals and Plants. Many illustrations! A Project Gutenberg EBook.

Allen A. Debus, Fossil News: The Art of Paleocatastrophe. How paleoartists have portrayed catastrophic events in life´s past.

David L. Dilcher, Terry A. Lott, and Brian J. Axsmith: Fossil Plants from the Union Chapel Mine, Alabama. PDF file, from: Buta, R.J., Rindsberg, A.K., and Kopaska-Merkel, D.C., eds., 2005, Pennsylvanian Footprints in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. Alabama Paleontological Society Monograph no. 1. Images of Lepidophloios, Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobus, Lepidostrobophyllum, Lepidophylloides, Calamites, Calamostachys, Asterophyllites charaeformis, phenopteris, Neuralethopteris, Trigonocarpus ampulliforme, Whittleseya elegans. Please take notice: FIGURE 6. Reconstruction of coal swamp trees (Calamites, Sigillaria, Medullosa, Cordaites, Lepidodendron/ Lepidophloios, Psaronius; modified from Phillips et al. 1976).

! W.A. DiMichele (2014): Wetland-Dryland Vegetational Dynamics in the Pennsylvanian Ice Age Tropics. Int. J. Plant Sci., 175: 123-164. See also here (in PDF).
Large Sigillaria stump cast on PDF page 11. Reconstructions of coal swamps and some dryland plant reconstructions with Cordaitalean trees Walchian conifers.

! W.A. DiMichele and H.J. Falcon-Lang (2011): Pennsylvanian "fossil forests" in growth position (T0 assemblages): origin, taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168: 585-605. See fig. 14 (PDF page 17), Animals using hollow Sigillarian stumps as refuges from fire.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Catastrophically buried Middle Pennsylvanian Sigillaria and calamitean sphenopsids from Indiana, USA: What kind of vegetation was this? PDF file, Palaios, 24: 159-166. Reconstruction of a Sigillaria vegetation during early stages of flooding and burial in fig. 6.

DK Images London: Science > Earth Sciences > Palaeontology > Prehistoric Plants. Some reconstructions.

dmoz, the Open Directory Project: Science: Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Art: Artists, and Science: Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Art.

M.J. Donoghue (2005): Key innovations, convergence, and success: macroevolutionary lessons from plant phylogeny. In PDF, Paleobiology, 31: 77-93. See fig. 6, sample of growth forms in extinct lycophytes, and fig. 7, diversity of form among extinct treelike plants from the Devonian and Carboniferous.

Alex Dueben, Comic Book Resources: The Many Careers of William Stout. See also here (Wikipedia).

! A. Elgorriaga et al. (2015): Reconstruction and Phylogenetic Significance of a New Equisetum Linnaeus Species from the Lower Jurassic of Cerro Bayo (Chubut Province, Argentina). In PDF, Ameghiniana, 52. Nodal reconstruction of Equisetum dimorphum on page 146!

Scott Elrick (Coal Section of the Illinois State Geological Survey), Bill DiMichele, & Howard Falcon-Lang: A 300 Million Year Old Pennsylvanian Age Mire Forest. The Carboniferous Riola Mine in east central Illinois.

Ignacio H. Escapa et al. (2010): Evolution and relationships of the conifer seed cone Telemachus: Evidence from the Triassic of Antarctica. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 171: 560-573. See fig. 6: Hypothetical reconstructions of Telemachus elongatus and Telemachus antarcticus ovulate cones.

Mark A. Evans, "Pittsburgh Area Geologic Sites": Fossils in Southwestern Pennsylvania. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Scroll down to: "Plant Fossils". Plant reconstructions.

Mike Everhart and Doug Henderson: Doug Henderson's Marine Paleo-Life Art.

H.J. Falcon-Lang and W.A. DiMichele (2010): What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases? PDF file, Palaios, 25: 611-617. Including a reconstruction of the Late Pennsylvanian ecosystem (fig 4).

H.J. Falcon-Lang and A.R. Bashforth (2005): Morphology, anatomy, and upland ecology of large cordaitalean trees from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Newfoundland. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 135: 223-243. See Fig. 11: Whole plant reconstruction of a large cordaitalean tree.

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:

! Z. Feng et al. (2012): When horsetails became giants. In PDF, Chinese Science Bulletin, 57.
Reconstruction of the horsetail tree Arthropitys bistriata. See also here.

The Field Museum, Chicago: Evolving Planet. Depicting a basic overview, image gallery and evolutionary essentials of geological periods.

Ben Fletcher, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield: Stomata control how the atmosphere affects plants. A project about the earliest plants that grew on land and their evolution. Reconstructions of Cooksonia, Zosterophyllum, Sigillaria.

Fotosearch: Paleobotany illustrations and clipart.

J.E. Francis et al. (2007): 100 million years of Antarctic climate evolution: evidence from fossil plants. In PDF. Related Publications from ANDRILL Affiliates. Paper 3.
Pay attention to fig. 3, reconstruction of the forest environment on Alexander Island during the Cretaceous.

J.-C. Gall, Strasbourg; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS): Evolution. Go to: Le Trias et l'ébauche des grands groupes modernes. In French. A drawing of Voltzia heterophylla.

O.F. Gallego et al. (2011): The most ancient Platyperlidae (Insecta, Perlida= Plecoptera) from early Late Triassic deposits in southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 48: 447-461. See also here (abstract).
Please take notice: Fig. 8, the reconstruction by Carsten Brauckmann and Elke Gröening. A plecopteran nymph over a Dicroidium leaf under the water surface.

R. Garrouste et al. (2016): Insect mimicry of plants dates back to the Permian. Nat. Commun., 7: 13735.
Figure 3 shows a reconstruction of Permotettigonia gallica gen. et sp. nov. on Taeniopteris sp.

Solange Gay-Crosier & Frank Lugon-Moulin, Finhaut, Switzerland: Les Traces des Dinosaures. A Triassic reconstruction with Plateosaurus. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Geologyshop: Dinosaur Pictures (and other contemporaneous taxa). A huge link list to some of the best images of the most famous dinosaurs. Some of them showing paleovegetation reconstructions.

P. Giesen and C.M. Berry (2013): Reconstruction and growth of the early tree Calamophyton (Pseudosporochnales, Cladoxylopsida) based on exceptionally complete specimens from Lindlar, Germany (mid-Devonian): organic connection of Calamophyton branches and Duisbergia trunks. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 174: 665-686.

B. Gomez et al. (2015): Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm. PNAS, 112: 10985-10988.
Reconstructions of Montsechia vidalii on PDF page 3.

A.K. Gonzales (2010): The Visual Rhetoric of Craftsmanship. In PDF, Department of English at Digital Archive. English Theses, Paper 93, Department of English at Digital Archive.

S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40. Rhacophyton and Archaeopteris in a Devonian wetland as well as Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous wetland plant reconstructions. See also here.

M. Grey and Z.V. Finkel (2011): The Joggins Fossil Cliffs UNESCO World Heritage site: a review of recent research. In PDF. Carboniferous forest reconstruction on page 192.

! Greenworks Organic-Software, Berlin, Germany (a version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine): XfrogPlants V 2.0 Plant Library. XfrogPlants are 22 different 3D Plant Libraries, each containing 20 Species x 3 ages, and created using Xfrog procedural organic software. Samples of each plant in each library available, go to: Fossil Plants. Excellent!

Øyvind Hammer, Computational Paleontology, Computer graphics reconstructions. Go to: Big Calamites, and Big Sigillaria.

! G. Han et al. (2016): A Whole Plant Herbaceous Angiosperm from the Middle Jurassic of China. In PDF, Acta Geologica Sinica. See also here (abstract) and there (in German, with photograph and reconstruction).

T.M. Harris (1961): The fossil cycads. PDF file.

Jody L. Haynes (c/o Palm and Cycad Societies of Florida): Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia. Information bout cycad taxonomy, biology, evolution, horticulture, conservation, etc. Go to: "Jurassic Age" by Charles R. Knight.

Oswald Heer (1865): Die Urwelt der Schweiz (in German). Provided by Google books. Including some palaeovegetation reconstructions. PDF download available.

! Douglas Henderson, Whitehall, MT: Earth History Illustrations. A gallery of scientific illustrations (including palaeovegetation) representing earth´s ancient life, including an illustrated geologic timeline.

Harvey Henson (and the Students of BIG), Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale: Basics In Geology (an informal earth science educational program for students in local junior and senior high schools), Pennsylvanian Fossil Study.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Susanne Henssen, PalaeoWerkstatt, Goch, Germany: Rconstruction of Sphenobaiera spectabilis.

E.J. Hermsen et al. (2009): Morphology and ecology of the Antarcticycas plant. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 153: 108-123. Antarcticycas plant reconstruction on page 112.

F. Herrera et al. (2017): The presumed ginkgophyte Umaltolepis has seed-bearing structures resembling those of Peltaspermales and Umkomasiales. PNAS, 114. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. See also here (in PDF).
Reconstruction of Umaltolepis mongoliensis on PDF page 4.

! A.J. J. Hetherington et al. (2016): Networks of highly branched stigmarian rootlets developed on the first giant trees. In PDF, PNAS, 113. See fig 4, reconstruction of stigmarian root systems with highly branched systems of rootlets.

Juliane K. Hinz et al. (2010): A high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction of a fossil forest (Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation, Junggar Basin, Northwest China). Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 203-214. See also here (in PDF).

Elaine R.S. Hodges (ed.), Guild of Natural Science Illustrators (U.S.): The Guild Handbook of Scientific Illustration, 2nd Edition, (2003). 656 pages, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). This is an indispensable reference guide for anyone who produces, assigns, or simply appreciates scientific illustration. See also here.
! Some chapters are available via Google books.

W.B.K. Holmes and H.M. Anderson (2013): A synthesis of the rich Gondwana Triassic megafossil flora from Nymboida, Australia. PDF file; In Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin, 61: 296-305.
Including a reconstruction of the floodplain of the Nymboida Subbasin during mid Triassic time (from Retallack 1977).

D.M. Hoskins (1999): (illustrations drafted by A.E. Van Olden and J.G. Kuchinski): Common Fossils of Pennsylvania. In PDF, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th ser., Educational Series 2.
Please take notice: dinosaur in a mesozoic vegetation, depicted in fig. 1 (on PDF page 1).

Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign: Plant fossils. A reconstruction of Medullosa.

Informationsdienst Wissenschaft (Brigitte Nussbaum, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster: Momentaufnahmen aus dem Erdaltertum. Reconstructions of Devonian climbing plants.

! The Interactive Geology Project (by Paul Weimer et al., Energy and Minerals Applied Research Center, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, University of Colorado.
The goal of this website is producing short 3D animations about the geologic evolution of key US national parks. Go to: ! Video Library. Excellent!
See especially (scroll down): "Triassic Thickets: Placerville, Colorado, 225 Million Years Ago."
This scene shows the plants developed on a broad coastal plain in western Colorado near Placerville. Plants depicted: Neocalamites, Sanmiguelia. This version is part of a joint project between the Interactive Geology Project at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. See also here.

! T.H. Jefferson (1987): The preservation of conifer wood: examples from the Lower Cretaceous of Antarctica. In PDF, Palaeontology, 30. With instructive line drawings.

K.R. Johnson (2007): Paleobotany: Forests frozen in time. In PDF. Fig. 1 shows the reconstruction of a lycopsid forest.

! Karen Carr Studio, Silver City, NM:
Late Triassic plant community,
Triassic Landscape,
or Triassic Landscape, Coelophysis detail.

E.V. Karasev (2009): A New Genus Navipelta (Peltaspermales, Pteridospermae) from the Permian/Triassic Boundary Deposits of the Moscow Syneclise. PDF file, Paleontological Journal, 43: 1262-1271.

M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos: Triassic. A scene from the late Carnian of south-west Pangea (Gondwana), as represented by fossil remains from the Ischigualasto Formation, San Juan Province, Argentina.

M. Alan Kazlev and Toby White: Palaeos - The trace of Life on Earth. The Palaeos Site is dedicated to providing a detailed and - at least in parts - comprehensive overview of the history of life on Earth. Go to: Paleozoic Plants. Reconstructions of a Carboniderous swamp forest (from The Fossil Book - Fenton & Fenton, 1958, Doubleday & Co.), Early Devonian land plants (from Augusta & Burian), and the increasing terrestrial plant root depth penetration with time during the Devonian.

K.-P. Kelber and R. Schoch (2015): 18. Lebensbilder des Lettenkeupers im Wandel der Zeiten. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

! K.-P. Kelber (2009): Lebensbilder der Unterkeuperzeit im Spiegel der paläontologischen Forschung. PDF file (8.5 MB), in German. Veröffentlichungen Naturhistorisches Museum Schleusingen, 24: 27-52. Life pictures from the Lower Keuper in the mirror of palaeontological research. A selection of Lower Keuper swamp reconstructions from the germanotype Triassic (Ladinian, Triassic).

! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
Please take notice of figure 9 (PDF page 10): A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergii and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch.

E. Kon´no (1960): Schizoneura manchuriensis Kon´no and its Fructification (Manchurostachys n. gen.) from the Gigantopteris-nicotianaefolia-bearing Formation in Penchihu Coal-field, Northeastern China. In PDF.

Heinz Kowalski, Moers, Germany: Steinkohlen aus der Eifel. In German. A palaeovegetation reconstruction of the Carboniferous (by H. POTONIE 1899) and of Taeniocrada decheniana (by Kräusel & Weyland 1930).
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Krings et al. (2011): Fungal sporocarps from the Carboniferous: An unusual specimen of Traquairia. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168: 1-6.

! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also here (in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.

! Conrad C. Labandeira (1998): Plant-Insect Associatons from the Fossil Record. PDF file, Geotimes. With instructive illustrations.

George Langford, "georgesbasement": Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Pennsylvanian Period, Will County, Illinois. Many fossil plant photographs, line drawings and reconstructions. Links in the scientific names point to plates in Leo Lesquereux´s classic 1879 work, Atlas to the Coal Flora of Pennsylvania and of the Carboniferous Formation throughout the United States. See the Index to Fossil Flora, pp 1-85..
Collecting Fossil Plants and Animals in the Pennsylvanian Deposits of the Will County, Illinois Coal Measures The Field Notes of George Langford, Sr. in the Years 1937-1960. Prepared and organized by George Langford, Jr., 1973.
See also here.

! The Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize Link List. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here ("John Lanzendorf" in Wikipedia).

S.H. Leach (2016): Scientific Imagining: Studio Based Research into Genre Images of Science and How Art Might Interpret Modern Science. In PDF, thesis, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University, Melbourne.

Natural History Museum, London: Mesozoic forests of Britain. This project aims to investigate the productivity of important Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous forests of southern England.

Cindy V. Looy, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ecological success of Early Triassic isoetaleans. A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergi from the Early Triassic.

! A. Lukeneder (2012): Computed 3D visualisation of an extinct cephalopod using computer tomographs. In PDF, Computers & Geosciences, 45: 68-74.

S.R. Manchester et al. (2014): Assembling extinct plants from their isolated parts. In PDF.

Adriana C. Mancuso et al. (2007): The Triassic insect fauna from the Los Rastros Formation (Bermejo Basin), La Rioja Province (Argentina): its context, taphonomy and paleobiology. Paleobiological reconstruction in fig. 6.

Janet Marinelli, Brooklyn Botanic Garden; Plants & Gardens News Volume 18, Number 2; 2003: Power Plants — The Origin of Fossil Fuels. A palaeovegetation reconstruction by Maud H. Purdy.

P. Matysová (2016): Study of fossil wood by modern analytical methods: case studies. Doctoral Thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
Please take notice: Fig. (PDF page 37): Artistic reconstruction of wood deposition and silicification in river sediments. Fig. 7 (PDF page 37): Artistic reconstruction of plant burial by volcanic fall-out.

N. MacLeod, PaleoNet. PaleoNet is a system of listservers, www pages, and ftp sites designed to enhance electronic communication among paleontologists. Scroll down to:
! "The PaleoNet Gallery". The PaleoNet Gallery is a part of the PaleoNet web site that features the work of artists and illustrators on palaeontological topics.

S. McLoughlin et al. (2015): Paurodendron stellatum: A new Permian permineralized herbaceous lycopsid from the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 220: 1-15. Reconstruction on PDF page 11.
See also here.

Josef Moravec: Timeline Dinosaur Gallery. A collection of paintings, sorted by geological time period (including palaeovegetation).

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, COAL SWAMP FORESTS. Link list page with picture rankings. Several dioramas of coal swamp forests. The links give the most direct connections to illustrations available on the web.

Dennis C. Murphy, ("Devonian Times", a paleontology web site featuring Red Hill): Who's Who at Red Hill. Go to: "Tracheophytes" (Vascular Plants).

The Natural History Museum London: Dino Directory. Dinosaur information (including some palaeoflora reconstructions) alphabetically, by time period (Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous), by country, or by body shape. Go to: Upper Triassic. See: Plateosaurus.

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2012): Vetlugospermum and Vetlugospermaceae: A new genus and family of peltasperms from the Lower Triassic of Moscow syneclise (Russia). In PDF, Geobios, 45: 451-462.
Embedment of plant remains in block-diagram reconstructions!

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2012): Sporophyll morphology and reconstruction of the heterosporous lycopod Tomiostrobus radiatus Neuburg emend. from the Lower Triassic of Siberia (Russia). In PDF, The Palaeobotanist, 61: 387-405.

K.M. Northcut (2011): Insights from illustrators: The rhetorical invention of paleontology representations. Abstract, Technical Communication Quarterly.

K.M. Northcut (2007): Introduction: visual communication in life sciences. Technical Writing and Communication, 37.

K.M. Northcut (2004): The making of knowledge in science: Case studies of paleontology illustration. Dissertation, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. See also here (in PDF).

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University: Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew: Plant Evolution. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Images of models to represent extinct plant forms with modern versions of 'primitive' plants, the entire display conveyed in dramatic fashion the dramatic change in plant form over the ages.

S. Oplustil et al. (2014): T0 peat-forming plant assemblage preserved in growth position by volcanic ash-fall: A case study from the Middle Pennsylvanian of the Czech Republic. In PDF, see also here (abstract).

! J.M. Ottino (2003): Is a picture worth 1,000 words? Abstract, Nature.
! See also here (in PDF).

! Paleoartistry (Eon Epoch Productions). A 180 year retrospective of extinct animal illustration. From the very first scientific descriptions of prehistoric reptiles in the 1830s to the first descriptions of the most famous dinosaurs in the 1890s. From the Dinosaur Renaissance of the 1970s-80s, and its post-Jurassic Park pop culture resurgence in the 1990s. From the 2000s Chinese fossil rush confirming feathered dinosaurs as ancestral relatives to present day birds. This website documents the evolving portrait of dinosaurs (and their landscape) over nearly 200 years by the greatest paleoartists. Excellent!

Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, Inc. (PACSOF): The fossil Cycads. With paintings and reconstructions of Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick, and Mark Hallett. Go to: Jurassic Cycadales. Pentoxylon, Nilsonnia. See also the pair of diplodoci make their way across a floodplain dotted with cycadeoid- type plants.

! Mary Parrish, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Reconstructing a Carboniferous Peat Swamp.

G.A. Pattemore et al. (2015): Triassic-Jurassic pteridosperms of Australasia: speciation, diversity and decline. In PDF, Boletín Geológico y Minero, 126: 689-722.

G.A. Pattemore et al. (2015): Palissya: A global review and reassessment of Eastern Gondwanan material. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 210: 50-61.

Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven: The Age of Reptiles Mural at the Yale Peabody Museum. Reconstructions, (including palaeovegetation) from the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous & the Devonian. See also here.

! H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004): The complexity of mass extinction. Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.

J. Psenicka and S. Oplustil (2013): The epiphytic plants in the fossil record and its example from in situ tuff from Pennsylvanian of Radnice Basin (Czech Republic). In PDF, Bulletin of Geosciences, 88. A reconstruction of Selaginella growing on lycopsid stem.

Allister Rees, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT, Two drawings of eighteen community level illustrations, designed to bring to life the Permian floras from various parts of the world. Illustrations prepared by Sergei Naugolnykh.

G.J. Retallack (2015): Silurian vegetation stature and density inferred from fossil soils and plants in Pennsylvania, USA. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society.
Reconstructed Siluro-Devonian plants on PDF page 14.
See also here (abstract).

! G.J. Retallack (1977): Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. In PDF, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 1. See also here.

G. Retallack (1975): The life and times of a Triassic lycopod. PDF file, Alcheringa.

Luis V. Rey, London (website by Janet Smith): Luis V. Rey´s Art Gallery Dinosaurs and Paleontology, and Gallery. Worth checking out: The Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize Link List.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Rößler et al. (2014): The root systems of Permian arborescent sphenopsids: evidence from the Northern and Southern hemispheres. In PDF, see also here (abstract).

R. Rößler et al. (2012): The largest calamite and its growth architecture - Arthropitys bistriata from the Early Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 185: 64-78. Reconstruction of Arthropitys bistriata on PDF page 4.

Ronny Rößler & Robert Noll (website hosted by fossilien-journal.de): Calamitea COTTA 1832. Fossile Pflanze zwischen Historie und aktueller Forschung. PDF file, in German.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Angiophytes: Using Whole Plant Concepts to Interpret Angiosperm Origins, Taxa that Provide Data: Selected Examples. Images and reconstructions of Archaeanthus, Caloda reynoldsii, Joffrea speirsii, Polyptera manningii, Limnobiophyllum scutatum, Macginitea, Eorhiza/Princetonia.

J.W. Schneider et al. (2010): Euramerican Late Pennsylvanian/Early Permian arthropleurid/tetrapod associations - implications for the habitat and paleobiology of the largest terrestrial arthropod. PDF file, in: Lucas, S.G., Schneider, J.W. and Spielmann, J.A., (eds.): Carboniferous-Permian transition in Canon del Cobre, northern New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 49: 49-70.
See fig. 11: Reconstruction of the Arthropleura habitat in well-drained areas of alluvial environments with calamitaleans stands.

Senckenberg Natural History Museum and Centre for Biodiversity Research, Frankfurt am Main: Entwicklung der Pflanzenwelt. Easy to understand introduction (in German). Image and reconstruction of Cycadeoidea. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B.J. Slater et al. (2014): A high-latitude Gondwanan lagerstätte: The Permian permineralised peat biota of the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. In PDF, Gondwana Research. On PDF page 16: Reconstruction of the Lambert Graben Middle Permian Alluvial valley palaeoecosystem, With bracket fungus on a fallen log in the foreground.

B. Slater (2011): Fossil focus: Coal swamps. Reconstruction of a Carboniferous coal swamp. In PDF, Palaeontology Online. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also here.

Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.

! Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Paleo Art. This website provides information about taking proper care of illustrations and discusses techniques for creating palaeontological and other scientific illustrations. Go to:
! What is paleontological illustration, and Illustration Care. To provide archival care (conservation treatment) for historical illustrations. Don´t miss the
Historical Art Gallery and the Bibliography of Historical Art. Some highlights from the Department of Paleobiology. Last but not least:
! Reconstructing an ancient environment. Reconstructing of invertebrates, vertebrates and fossil plants.

Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Underground Carboniferous Forest (Riola mine, Illinois). A Carboniferous coal-swamp reconstruction. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Society of Vertebrate Paleontology: Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize. The John J. Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize was created to recognize outstanding achievement in paleontological scientific illustration.

Doug Soltis, Amber Tilley and Hongshan Wang, Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), University of Florida: Deep Time. A comprehensive phylogenetic tree of living and fossil angiosperms. Go to: Virtual Fossil Collection. Reconstruction of Archaefructus sinensis, Androdecidua endressii.

Hans Steur, The Netherlands: Reconstruction of a swamp with horsetail trees in the Upper-Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian). From the Northern Zoo in Emmen (The Netherlands).

Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.
Go to: Unterer Keuper (Lower Keuper, Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). In German.
! Don´t miss the photograph of the Equisetites arenaceus reconstructions in life position.
Wikipedia also provided a larger view of the Lettenkeuper diorama on its Batrachotomus website.

Brian Switek (2009): Book review: Jane P. Davidson, "A History of Paleontology Illustration" Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 12, No. 1.

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.

Jim Vadeboncoeur Jr., Palo Alto: JVJ Publishing. Go to: Illustrators, e.g. Zdenek Burian.

V. Vajda et al. (2016): Disrupted vegetation as a response to Jurassic volcanism in southern Sweden. In PDF, from: Kear, B. P., Lindgren, J., Hurum, J. H., Milàn, J. & Vajda, V. (eds): Mesozoic Biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic Territories. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 434.
PDF page 17 shows a reconstruction of a volcanic landscape in central Skåne during the late Early Jurassic, with deposition of pyroclastic and lahar sediments and fossilization of autochthonous and allochthonous plant material.

V. Vajda and S. Turner (2009): The Jurassic: In the forefront of science outreach. PDF file, GFF, 131: 1-3. See fig. 1: Mid Jurassic terrestrial landscape with Australian flora.

The Natural History Museum Vienna: Palaeo reconstructions (in German).

J. Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDf, PNAS, 109: 4927-4932. Reconstructions of peat-forming forests of earliest Permian age in fig. 4 and 5.

Jun Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDF, PNAS. See also: Ash-covered forest is "Permian Pompeii" (S. Perkins, Nature).
Penn researcher helps discover and characterize a 300-million-year-forest.
The Lost Forest.

J. Wang and H.W. Pfefferkorn (2010): Nystroemiaceae, a new family of Permian gymnosperms from China with an unusual combination of features. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc., B, 277: 301-309. See also here. Reconstruction of Nystroemia reniformis: an advanced branching system with entire leaves carrying primitive ovules.

Jim Vadeboncoeur Jr., Palo Alto: JVJ Publishing. Go to: Illustrators, e.g. Zdenek Burian.

! Webshots, Twofold Photos, Inc.: Triassic Forest. A swampy forest in Chinle area of Arizona during the Triassic period. See also: Community: Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics: A hungry Herrerasaurus stalks a Rhynchosaur in the Late Triassic of Argentina.

! Webshots, Twofold Photos, Inc.: Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics: Brachiosaurus brancai, Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics 2: Australian Jurassic Scene, and Jurassic Scene 2.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Paleoart.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! See especially the diorama of the Lettenkeuper swamp (Unterer Keuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). The Batrachotomus reconstruction in the background is surrounded by shafts of the horsetail Equisetites arenaceus. Photograph taken in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.

Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press): The Evolution of Plants. Book announcement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
! PowerPoint illustrations. Illustrations from the book in PowerPoint format. See also:
! Biome maps. Downloadable full-color images from the book.

! J.-W. Zhang et al. 2010): A new species of Leptocycas (Zamiaceae) from the Upper Triassic sediments of Liaoning Province, China. Abstract, Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 48: 286–301. See also here (in PDF).
See fig. 9: Reconstruction of Leptocycas yangcaogouensis, resembling like that of Dioon edule.

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