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! ! ! Whole Plant Reconstructions@
! Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes@
! Classical Textbooks and Monographs in Palaeobotany@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
Palaeobotanical Maps@
! Scientific Drawing@
Image Collections@
Photography and Scanning@
Digital Image Processing@


Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions


Worth checking out:
! Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes@
! Whole Plant Reconstructions@



David L. Alles, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA: Biology 101: An Introduction to Science and Biology. (PDF files). Go to: Illustrated Lecture Presentations, The Mesozoic Era.

American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY: Division of Paleontology, Frontdoor. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
Artwork of E.S. Christman, and Artwork of C. Knight.

! J.M. Anderson and H.M. Anderson (2023): Molteno Kannaskoppia: Mid-Triassic gymnosperm case study for whole-plant taxonomy. In PDF, 82 MB!. Palaeontologia africana, 57 (Special issue). Annals of the Evolutionary Studies Institute University of Witwatersrand.
See likewise here.
"... The flora from the Upper Triassic Molteno Formation, southern Africa, is the most extensively collected and documented macro-flora in the Gondwana Triassic
[...] In this volume, the genus Kannaskoppia and affiliates, in the order Petriellales, are described in greater detail
[...] Whole-plant species from the Molteno have been recognized, based on considerations of affiliation and taphonomy ..."

! H. Anderson and J. Anderson (2018): Molteno Sphenophytes: Late Triassic Biodiversity in Southern Africa. Palaeont. afr., 53 (Special Issue): i–ix + 1–391. See also here. In PDF (slow download, 183 MB!).
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J. Anderson et al. (2007): Brief history of the gymnosperms: classification, biodiversity, phytogeography and ecology. In PDF, Strelitzia, 20, 279 p.
Including many line drawings of plant reconstructions. Excellent!
See also here (abstract).

H.M. Anderson et al. (2008): Stems with attached Dicroidium leaves from the Ipswich Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia. PDF file, Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 52: 1-12. See also here.

! M. Ansón et al. (2015): Paleoart: term and conditions (a survey among paleontologists). In PDF.

Wayne P. Armstrong, Pacific Horticulture: The Araucaria Family: Past & Present. Please take notice the diorama of an araucariad forest from 200 million years ago (Diorama on display at the Rainbow Forest Museum, Petrified Forest National Park).

W.P. Armstrong, WAYNE´S WORD, (1999): Plants of Jurassic Park. Easy to understand article (modified from Pacific Horticulture 55: 42-48).
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC): The age of reptiles, Oz fossils Dioramas. PDF files.

Natural History Museum, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California: Life Through Time.
Go to: Permian Period, and Triassic Period.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Argumenta Palaeobotanica. From Münster, Germany. Reconstruction of the gametophyte Kidstonophyton discoides and Langiophyton mackiei.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.R. Ash and S.T. Hasiotis (2013): New occurrences of the controversial Late Triassic plant fossil Sanmiguelia Brown and associated ichnofossils in the Chinle Formation of Arizona and Utah, USA. In PDF, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 268: 65-82. Reconstructed Triassic landscape with Sanmiguelia on PDF page 7.

! B. Axsmith et al. (2018): A Triassic Mystery Solved: Fertile Pekinopteris From the Triassic of North Carolina, United States. PDF file, Chapter 10; in: M. Krings, C.J. Harper, N.R. Cuneo and G.W. Rothwell (eds.): Transformative Paleobotany Papers to Commemorate the Life and Legacy of Thomas N. Taylor.
Note fig. 10.1: A suggested reconstruction of Pekinopteris auriculata.

B.J. Axsmith et al. (2003): The enigmatic Paleozoic plants Spermopteris and Phasmatocycas reconsidered. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 90: 1585-1595.

Brian J. Axsmith et al. (2001): A filmy fern from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina (USA). Open access, American Journal of Botany, 288: 1558-1567.
Note fig. Fig. 21: Suggested reconstructions of Hopetedia praetermissa.

B.J. Axsmith et al. (2000): New perspectives on the Mesozoic seed fern order Corystospermales based on attached organs from the Triassic of Antarctica. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 87: 757-768.
Note Fig. 21: Reconstruction of an Umkomasia uniramia cupulate organ.

L. Baisas (2024): World’s oldest known fossilized forest discovered in England. Popular Science.
See also here.

J.H. Balfour (1872): Introduction to the study of palaeontological botany. A Project Gutenberg EBook. See also here (Google books).

The Banff & Buchan Arts Forum (an organisation in the North Aberdeenshire area of north east Scotland): S. Caine. Reconstruction of the Devonian plant Ventarura lyonii. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also:
The Royal Society's Summer Science Exhibition in London 2004. A Rhynie diorama (page hosted by the Rhynie chert Research Group, the University of Aberdeen).

M. Barbacka et al. (2022): Polish Palaeobotany: 750 Million Years of Plant History as Revealed in a Century of Studies. Mesozoic Macroflora. Open access, Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 91.
See also here.
Note figure 4: A reconstruction of Patokaea silesiaca.
Figure 10. Leaves of selected Late Cretaceous plants from Poland.

R. Barboni and T.L. Dutra (2013): New "flower" and leaves of Bennettitales from Southern Brazil and their implication in the age of the Lower Mesozoic deposits. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 50: 14-32.

C. Barbosa et al. (2022): Phyllotheca douroensis sp. nov., a new equisetalean fossil-species from the Douro Carboniferous Basin (Upper Pennsylvanian; NW Portugal): palaeobiogeographical, systematic and evolutionary implications. Free access, Biosis: Biological Systems, 3:e001. https://doi.org/10.37819/biosis.003.01.0162.
See also here.
Note fig. 4: Phyllotheca (Raniganjia?) etheridgei Arber 1905.

Daniel Barthélémy, l'UMR CIRAD-CNRS-INRA-Université Montpellier II: Botanique et Bioinformatique de l'Architecture des Plantes (AMAP). In French. Go to: Equipe 1. A research report. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Including some reconstructions of Zygopteridales and Cladoxylales and a palaeovegetation reconstruction of the Carboniferous (Thesis V. Daviero).

! A.R. Bashforth et al. (2021): The environmental implications of upper Paleozoic plant-fossil assemblages with mixtures of wetland and drought-tolerant taxa in tropical Pangea. Geobios, 68: 1–45. See also here.
Note fig. 2: Distribution of wetland and dryland biomes in late Paleozoic landscapes of equatorial Pangea.

A.R. Bashforth et al. (2010): Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See fig. 11, a reconstruction of plant communities on braided-river plain.

! R.M. Bateman et al. (2006): Morphological and molecular phylogenetic context of the angiosperms: contrasting the ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches used to infer the likely characteristics of the first flowers. Free access, Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 57, No. 13, pp. 3471–3503. Major Themes in Flowering Research Special Issue.
Note fig. 1C: Male and female reproductive structures of Caytonia (Caytoniales).
Fig. 1D: Reproductive structure of Williamsoniella (Bennettitales).

C. Beans (2022): Artists join paleobotanists to bring ancient plants to life—and pique viewer interest. Free access, PNAS, 119.
Note reconstruction on PDF-page 2: The depiction of Pleuromeia thriving amongst animals called Lystrosaurus. The scene is meant to illustrate the low biodiversity in the aftermath of the End-Permian extinction.
Note on PDF-page 3: Reconstructions of Thaumatopteris brauniana (by Marlene Hill Donnelly).
Worth to visit: A Fossil Plant Gallery (by J. McElwain et al. (2021), Tropical Arctic).

Ernst-Georg Beck, 2001 Biokurs: Ablauf der Evolution (in German). Scroll down to the Permian.

C.M. Belcher et al. (2010): Burning Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF.
See also here (the slides). Go to PDF page 22: "East Greenland 200 Million years ago".
See also there (Linklist: Fire Safety Engineering in the UK: The State of the Art. University of Edinburgh).
These expired links are still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.P. Benca (2022): Reconstructing Lycopsids Lost to the Deep Past. PDF file, In: Valérie Bienvenue et al. (eds.): Animals, Plants and Afterimages: The Art and Science of Representing Extinction (!free full text PDF).
See likewise here.
"... Accurate and conservative palaeobotanical reconstructions most often accompany scientific studies that can be difficult for the public to access. However, these works serve as indispensable guides for a growing number of palaeoartists undertaking more holistic ecosystem reconstructions that can, in turn, be presented to the public ..."

! J.P. Benca et al. (2014): Applying morphometrics to early land plant systematics: A new Leclercqia (Lycopsida) species from Washington State, USA. Free access, American Journal of Botany 101: 510–520. See also here, and there:
George Dvorsky, Gizmodo.com:
An Incredibly Life-Like Reconstruction Of A 400 Million-Year-Old Plant. Reconstruction of Leclercqia scolopendra.

M.J. Benton (2010): Studying Function and Behavior in the Fossil Record. Free access, PLoS Biol, 8: e1000321.
Note figure 3: T. rex trotting along beside a T. rex-sized chicken.

M. Bernardi et al. (2018): Permian–Triassic terrestrial ecosystems of the Dolomites (Southern Alps): Field trip on the occasion of the Paleodays 2018. In PDF, Geo.Alp, 5.
Note fig. 17 (PDF page 19): The late Permian reconstruction of the Dolomites region, Northern Italy. Artwork by Davide Bonadonna.

C.M. Berry (2019): The evolution of the first forests in the Devonian. In PDF. See also here.
Note figure 1: Schematic timeline of known Devonian forest types.
Figure 2: Reconstruction of stand of Calamophyton (cladoxylopsid) trees (2—3 m high) based on fossils from Lindlar, Germany (Mid Eifelian age).
Figure 3: Reconstruction of forest showing upright cladoxylopsid trees (up to at least 8 m) and recumbent aneurophytaleans, from Gilboa, New York.
Figure 4: Reconstruction of forest of lycopsids with cormose bases and attached rootlets, from Munindalen, Svalbard.

C. Blanco-Moreno and Á.D. Buscalioni (2023): Revision of the Barremian fern Coniopteris laciniata from Las Hoyas and El Montsec (Spain): Highlighting its importance in the evolution of vegetation during the Early Cretaceous. Open access, Taxon. Note figure 8: Whole plant schematic reconstruction showing general habit and pinnule morphological diversity.
"... The similarities between these species [Coniopteris laciniata and Sphenopteris wonnacottii], observed in a study of a total of 66 hand specimens from both localities, indicate that they are conspecific ..."

C. Blanco-Moreno et al. (2020): New insights into the affinities, autoecology, and habit of the Mesozoic fern Weichselia reticulata based on the revision of stems from Bernissart (Mons Basin, Belgium). In PDF, 7: 1351-1372.
See also here.
Note figure 1: Representation of all the reconstructions of Weichselia reticulata to date.

J. Bodnar and I.H. Escapa (2016): Towards a whole plant reconstruction for Austrohamia (Cupressaceae): New fossil wood from the Lower Jurassic of Argentina. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 234: 186-197. See also here (in PDF).
Note Figure 2: The vegetation of the Cerro Bayo landscape (Early Jurassic, Patagonia), consisting mainly of Austrohamia minuta. In the understorey dipteridaceous, osmundaceous and marattiaceous ferns.

M. Boersma (1988): Wie und warum man Pflanzenfossilien sammelt. Einführende Gedanken zur Paläobotanik. In German. Please take notice:
Fig. 8: Rekonstruction of Cordaites (from Thomas 1981).
Fig. 9: Vegetation of the Carboniferous (from Goldfuss 1841-44).
Fig. 10: Vegetation of the Carboniferous (from Daber 1978).

Wilhelm Bölsche (in German, via Google books): Tiere der Urwelt. Animal and palaeovegetation reconstructions.
See also here (in German).

B. Bomfleur et al. (2014): Habit and Ecology of the Petriellales, an Unusual Group of Seed Plants from the Triassic of Gondwana. Free access, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 175: 1062–1075.

! B. Bomfleur et al. (2013): Whole-Plant Concept and Environment Reconstruction of a Telemachus Conifer (Voltziales) from the Triassic of Antarctica. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 174: 425–444. See also here (abstract).
Note fig. 8 (PDF page 16): Reconstructions of various organs of the Triassic conifer Telemachus.

E.M. Bordy et al. (2020): Tracking the Pliensbachian–Toarcian Karoo firewalkers: Trackways of quadruped and biped dinosaurs and mammaliaforms. Open access, PLoS ONE 15: e0226847.
Note fig 13: Wildfire reconstruction of the Highlands ichnosite at the Pliensbachian–Toarcian boundary. Massive outpouring basaltic lavas, which turned the main Karoo Basin into a land of fire.

Botanical art. A meeting place for botanical artists. See e.g. here.

Paleobotanical Section, Botanical Society of America: Online Bibliography of American Paleobotany 2007 (PDF file).
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to PDF page 4: Reconstruction of Eospermatopteris/Wattieza, drawn by Frank Mannolini; from W.E. Stein et al. (2007): "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the Earth´s earliest forest stumps at Gilboa". Nature 446: 904-907.

Silvio Brandt, Halle/Saale, Germany: www.kupferschiefer.de. Upper Permian Fossils (in German). Go to: Zechstein (Upper Permian) reconstruction. Modified after Mägdefrau.

Mariana Brea et al. (2009): Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835. PDF file, Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64: 21-31. Fig. 5 shows the reconstruction of the Triassic Darwin Forest landscape in a high sinuosity fluvial system. The canopy is integrated by two arboreal strata and emergent trees with conifers and corystosperms, the understorey is formed by ferns. Fig. 7 shows the reconstruction of a Triassic horsetail landscape in the flood-plain of a fluvial environment (reconstructions painted by Jorge Gonzalez).

MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author´s name appears on the title page for each section):
Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation. Go to:
Mazon Creek.
Websites still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author´s name appears on the title page for each section):
Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation. Go to: The Flora of the Rhynie Chert.
Diagrammatic reconstructions of Rhynia, Aglaophyton, Horneophyton.
Some reconstruction images here.
Websites still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

The palaeofiles. Articles here have all been prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol: Failures, frauds, fakes, and fixes in palaeontology.
This website is about the frauds and errors that have been made by palaeontologists through the years, the implications the mistakes have had on the science of palaeontology, and how these frauds and errors are being uncovered and fixed.
Some reconstruction images here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.R. Brodersen and A.B. Roddy (2016): New frontiers in the three-dimensional visualization of plant structure and function. Open access, American journal of botany, 103: 184-188.

! Robert Buckley Trabuco Canyon, California, (Illustrations by Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick and Mark Hallet), The Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida (PACSOF): The Fossil Cycads. See also
! here (in PDF).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Robert Buckley, Trabuco Canyon, California, (Illustrations by Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick and Mark Hallet), The Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida (PACSOF):
The Fossil Cycads.
Reconstruction of the Carboniferous Period,
the leaves of the seed-fern Gigantopteris (Early Permian),
a reconstruction of Lyssoxylon grigsbyi (Triassic)
and a cycadeoid being enjoyed by Heterodontosaurus
, the Pseudoctenis-type Cycadales, Early Jurassic,
a Pentoxylon reconstruction and a Nilsonia-type cycadale lived during the Jurassic,
Williamsonia, and belonging to the Bennettitales (Jurassic through Cretaceous).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Buehl (2014): Toward an Ethical Rhetoric of the Digital Scientific Image: Learning From the Era When Science Met Photoshop, Technical Communication Quarterly, 23. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).

Karen Carr, Karen Carr Studio, Silver City, NM:
You Can Paint Digitally!
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Karen Carr Studio, Silver City, NM:
Worth checking out: "Karen Carr" Triassic (Google search).
See also: Late Triassic plant community,
Triassic Landscape,
or Triassic Landscape, Coelophysis detail.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B. Cariglino et al. (2018): A Middle Triassic macroflora from southwestern Gondwana (Mendoza, Argentina) with typical Northern Hemisphere elements: Biostratigraphic, palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental implications. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 257: 1–18. See also here (in PDF).
Note Fig. 5: Hypothetical reconstruction of the Quebrada de los Fósiles Formation palaeoenvironment showing Pleuromeia, Sphenophytes, Ptilozamites and Lepacyclotes.

M.A. Carizzo et al. (2019): Cuticle ultrastructure in Brachyphyllum garciarum sp. nov (Lower Cretaceous, Argentina) reveals its araucarian affinity. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 269: 104-128. See also here (in PDF).

Note fig. 7: Brachyphyllum garciarum sp. nov. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the cuticles.

Karen Carr (website maintained by Ralph Gauer of The Fernleaf): Triassic Landscape. Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This painting is on permanent display at The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, in Norman, Oklahoma.

Michelle Carr, Cosmos Online: Wattieza is world´s oldest tree. (with reconstruction of the crown portion).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Carrion et al. (2024): Greening a lost world: Paleoartistic investigations of the early Pleistocene vegetation landscape in the first Europeans’ homeland. Free access, Quaternary Science Advances, 14.
"... we present paleoartistic renderings depicting vegetation landscapes around the Orce Archaeological Zone (OAZ), encompassing sites dating from 1.6 to 1.2 million years ago during the Early Pleistocene
[...] This essay visually represents the coexistence of mesophytic, thermophytic, and xerophytic plant communities within a glacial refugium of woody species ..."

Matt Celeskey: Permocarboniferous Sketchbook. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T.Y.S. Choo et al. (2016): Monotypic colonies of Clathropteris meniscioides (Dipteridaceae) from the Early Jurassic of central Patagonia, Argentina: implications for taxonomy and palaeoecology. In PDF, Palaeontographica, B, 294: 85-109.
See also here.
Note text-figure 3: Artist reconstruction of a Clathropteris meniscioides colony.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (2023): Taxonomy and nomenclature of Sphenopteris and allied fossil-genera of Carboniferous seed-plant fronds. Free access, Taxon, 72: 862–879.
Note figure 10: Taxonomy and nomenclature of Sphenopteris and allied fossil-genera of Carboniferous seed-plant fronds.
"... Eight fossil-genera of lyginopteridalean fronds are now recognised (Sphenopteris, Calymmotheca, Eusphenopteris, Karinopteris, Mariopteris, Palmatopteris, Spathulopteris, Sphenopteridium) ..."

! C.J. Cleal (2022): The Craigleith Tree (“Pitys withamii Tree”): Morphology, taxonomy, preservation and ecological context. In PDF.
Note figures on PDF page 6: Reconstruction of tree bearing the Pitys primaeva trunk (the Tweed Mill Tree) proposed by Retallack & Dilcher (1988).

C.J. Cleal (2022): The Craigleith Tree. In PDF.
"... The Craigleith Tree (Pitys withamii Tree) was a species of early seed plant, belonging to the general group known as the hydrasperman pteridosperms
[...] which indicate an early Asbian / late Visean age
[...] The trees were at least 20 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m wide at the base, and were the tallest known woody trees growing anywhere in the world at this time.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (2021): Naming of parts: the use of fossil-taxa in palaeobotany. In PDF, Fossil Imprint, 77: 166–186.
See also here.
Note fig. 2a: Reconstruction of late Carboniferous arborescent lycopsids.

Christopher J. Cleal et al. (2005): Illustrations and illustrators during the "Golden Age" of palaeobotany: 1800–1840. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 241: 41-61.

! C.J. Cleal and B.A. Thomas (1999): Plant Fossils: The History of Land Vegetation Fossils Illustrated. In PDF, (Boydell & Brewer Ltd).
See also here (Amazon) and there (Google books).

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland OH:
Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries. Including the Mesozoic
Liaoning Forest diorama.
These expired links are still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Collins (2024): Earth’s earliest forest revealed in Somerset fossils. University of Cambridge.
See also here.

! Colossal Fossil Site: Links by period. A gallery (actually a link directory) of period dioramas. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! P. Correia et al. (2020): The History of Herbivory on Sphenophytes: A New Calamitalean with an Insect Gall from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Portugal and a Review of Arthropod Herbivory on an Ancient Lineage. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 181. See also here.
Please take notice of fig. 3: Interpretative-view drawing of Annularia paisii sp. nov. and Paleogallus carpannularites ichnosp. nov.
Fig. 4: Reconstruction of the parasitic relationship between the insect-induced gall Paleogallus carpannularites ichnosp. nov. and its calamitalean host plant.

Mark Crowell (?): The Vintage Dinosaur Book Web Page. Go to: Index of Vintage Dinosaur Books and other vintage books on prehistoric animals. A cornucopia of dinosaur illustrations and palaeo reconstructions.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A. Dance (2016): Prehistoric animals, in living color. In PDF, PNAS, 113.

M. D'Ario et al. (2024): Hidden functional complexity in the flora of an early land ecosystem. Free access, New Phytologist, 241: 937–949. doi: 10.1111/nph.19228.
"... To study the functional biology of Early Devonian flora, we have reconstructed extinct plants from fossilised remains
[] Our approach highlights the impact of sporangia morphology on spore dispersal and adaptation. We discovered previously unidentified innovations among early land plants ..."

M. Davis et al.(2022): Designing scientifically-grounded paleoart for augmented reality at La Brea Tar Pits. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica, 25. See also here.

J. William Dawson (1888): The Chain of Life in Geological Time. A Sketch of the Origin and Succession of Animals and Plants. Many illustrations! A Project Gutenberg EBook.

Allen A. Debus, Fossil News: The Art of Paleocatastrophe. How paleoartists have portrayed catastrophic events in life´s past.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! S. Deng et al. (2023): Lycopsid Lepacyclotes Emmons from the Middle Triassic of the Ordos Basin, North China and reviews of the genus. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 308.
Note figure 5D: Reconstruction of Lepacyclotes radiatus.
Figure 6: Geographical distribution of Lepacyclotes in the world.

Depositphotos:
Paleoart Stockfotos.

H. Dickinson (2022): From fossils to landscapes: the art of reconstructing plants in the past. Botany One.
Don't miss a look into Graham Seymour's virtual gallery at fossilplantart.com.

D.L. Dilcher et al. (2005): Fossil Plants from the Union Chapel Mine, Alabama. PDF file, from: Buta, R.J., Rindsberg, A.K., and Kopaska-Merkel, D.C., eds., 2005, Pennsylvanian Footprints in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. Alabama Paleontological Society Monograph no. 1.
Images of Lepidophloios, Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobus, Lepidostrobophyllum, Lepidophylloides, Calamites, Calamostachys, Asterophyllites charaeformis, phenopteris, Neuralethopteris, Trigonocarpus ampulliforme, Whittleseya elegans.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2023): A paleontological perspective on ecosystem assembly rules in the terrestrial Paleozoic. Free access, Evolving Earth.
Note figure 1: Early Devonian (Emsian) flora from Gaspé, Canada.
Figure 2C: Edaphosaurus feeding on Supaia plants on stream bank, with background vegetation dominated by conifers. Early Permian (Wolfcampian/Asselian), New Mexico.

! W.A. DiMichele (2014): Wetland-Dryland Vegetational Dynamics in the Pennsylvanian Ice Age Tropics. Int. J. Plant Sci., 175: 123-164. See also here (in PDF).
Large Sigillaria stump cast on PDF page 12 (fig. 8).
! Reconstructions of coal swamps and some dryland plant reconstructions with Cordaitalean trees Walchian conifers.

! W.A. DiMichele and H.J. Falcon-Lang (2011): Pennsylvanian "fossil forests" in growth position (T0 assemblages): origin, taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168: 585-605. See also here.
Note fig. 14 (PDF page 17), Animals using hollow Sigillarian stumps as refuges from fire.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Catastrophically buried Middle Pennsylvanian Sigillaria and calamitean sphenopsids from Indiana, USA: What kind of vegetation was this? PDF file, Palaios, 24: 159-166.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Reconstruction of a Sigillaria vegetation during early stages of flooding and burial in fig. 6.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2006): Paleoecology of Late Paleozoic pteridosperms from tropical Euramerica. In PDF, The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 133: 83-118. See also here.

DK Images London: Science > Earth Sciences > Palaeontology > Prehistoric Plants. Some reconstructions.

M.J. Donoghue (2005): Key innovations, convergence, and success: macroevolutionary lessons from plant phylogeny. In PDF, Paleobiology, 31: 77-93.
See also here.
Note fig. 6: Sample of growth forms in extinct lycophytes.
Fig. 7: Diversity of form among extinct treelike plants from the Devonian and Carboniferous.

Alex Dueben, Comic Book Resources: The Many Careers of William Stout. See also here (Wikipedia).

D. Edwards et al. (2017): History and contemporary significance of the Rhynie cherts—our earliest preserved terrestrial ecosystem. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 373: 20160489. See also here (in PDF).
Note figure 1 and 2: Kidston and Lang’s original reconstructions of Rhynie gwynnevaughanii, Aglaophyton majus (Rhynia major), Asteroxylon mackiei and Horneophyton lignieri (Hornea lignieri).

! A. Elgorriaga et al. (2015): Reconstruction and Phylogenetic Significance of a New Equisetum Linnaeus Species from the Lower Jurassic of Cerro Bayo (Chubut Province, Argentina). In PDF, Ameghiniana, 52. Nodal reconstruction of Equisetum dimorphum on page 146!

Scott Elrick (Coal Section of the Illinois State Geological Survey), Bill DiMichele, & Howard Falcon-Lang: A 300 Million Year Old Pennsylvanian Age Mire Forest. The Carboniferous Riola Mine in east central Illinois.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Ignacio H. Escapa et al. (2010): Evolution and relationships of the conifer seed cone Telemachus: Evidence from the Triassic of Antarctica. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 171: 560-573.
See fig. 6: Hypothetical reconstructions of Telemachus elongatus and Telemachus antarcticus ovulate cones.

Mark A. Evans, "Pittsburgh Area Geologic Sites": Fossils in Southwestern Pennsylvania. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Scroll down to: "Plant Fossils". Plant reconstructions.

Mike Everhart and Doug Henderson: Doug Henderson's Marine Paleo-Life Art.

Evolving Earth Foundation Issaquah, WA:
The Evolving Earth Foundation is a small Private Operating Foundation with focus on the Tertiary paleobotany of western North America, with interests in systematics, paleoecology and biogeography. Go to:
The Fossil Plant Image Collection. With line drawings of leaves from the Tertiary.

H.J. Falcon-Lang and W.A. DiMichele (2010): What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases? PDF file, Palaios, 25: 611-617. See also here.
Including a reconstruction of the Late Pennsylvanian ecosystem (fig 4).

! H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2006): The Pennsylvanian tropical biome reconstructed from the Joggins Formation of nova Scotia, Canada. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 163: 561–576. See also here.
Note fig. 5: Ecosystem reconstruction of retrograding coastal plain and open water facies associations.

H.J. Falcon-Lang and A.R. Bashforth (2005): Morphology, anatomy, and upland ecology of large cordaitalean trees from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Newfoundland. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 135: 223-243.
See Fig. 11: Whole plant reconstruction of a large cordaitalean tree.

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes.
Now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Z. Feng et al. (2020): From rainforest to herbland: New insights into land plant responses to the end-Permian mass extinction. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews.
Note fig. 8: Tomiostrobus sinensis Feng, whole plant reconstruction.
Note fig. 9: Reconstructions of the late Permian and Early Triassic vegetation in Southwest China.

Z. Feng (2017): Late palaeozoic plants. Open access, Current Biology, 27: R905-R909.
Note figure 4: An early Permian peat-forming forest in Inner Mongolia, China.

! Z. Feng et al. (2012): When horsetails became giants. Free access, Chinese Science Bulletin, 57: pages 2285–2288.
Reconstruction of the horsetail tree Arthropitys bistriata.

The Field Museum, Chicago: Evolving Planet. Depicting a basic overview, image gallery and evolutionary essentials of geological periods.

Ben Fletcher, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield: Stomata control how the atmosphere affects plants. A project about the earliest plants that grew on land and their evolution. Reconstructions of Cooksonia, Zosterophyllum, Sigillaria.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Fotosearch: Paleobotany illustrations and clipart.

J.E. Francis et al. (2007): 100 million years of Antarctic climate evolution: evidence from fossil plants. In PDF. Related Publications from ANDRILL Affiliates. Paper 3.
Pay attention to fig. 3, reconstruction of the forest environment on Alexander Island during the Cretaceous.

! Q. Fu et al. (2023): Micro-CT results exhibit ovules enclosed in the ovaries of Nanjinganthus. Open access, Scientific Reports, 13.
Note figure 4: Micro-CT results exhibit ovules enclosed in the ovaries of Nanjinganthus.

J.-C. Gall, Strasbourg; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS): Evolution. Go to: Le Trias et l'ébauche des grands groupes modernes. In French. A drawing of Voltzia heterophylla.

O.F. Gallego et al. (2011): The most ancient Platyperlidae (Insecta, Perlida= Plecoptera) from early Late Triassic deposits in southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 48: 447-461. See also here (abstract).
Please take notice: Fig. 8, the reconstruction by Carsten Brauckmann and Elke Gröening. A plecopteran nymph over a Dicroidium leaf under the water surface.

X. Gao et al. (2022): Re-study of Guangdedendron micrum from the Late Devonian Xinhang forest. Free access, BMC Ecology and Evolution, 22.
Note the reconstruction in fig. 6.

R. Garrouste et al. (2016): Insect mimicry of plants dates back to the Permian. Nat. Commun., 7: 13735.
Figure 3 shows a reconstruction of Permotettigonia gallica gen. et sp. nov. on Taeniopteris sp.

! R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1996): Out of the Icehouse into the Greenhouse: A Late Paleozoic Analog for Modern Global Vegetational Change. In PDF, GSA Today 10: 1–7.
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of middle late Carboniferous tropical coal swamp.

Solange Gay-Crosier & Frank Lugon-Moulin, Finhaut, Switzerland: Les Traces des Dinosaures. A Triassic reconstruction with Plateosaurus. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.T. Gee et al. (2020): Postcards from the Mesozoic: Forest landscapes with giant flowering trees, enigmatic seed ferns, and other naked-seed plants. PDF file, In: Nature through Time: Virtual field trips through the Nature of the past. Springer, Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment. (eds Martinetto E., Tschopp E., Gastaldo R.A.), pp. 159–185. Springer International Publishing, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35058-1_6.
See likewise here.
Note figure 6.12: A picture perfect day in the Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona, USA, with a view of massive Late Triassic logs.
! Figure 6.17: Plants characteristic of the forest and woodland habitats in the mid-Triassic Molteno Formation, South Africa.

! P.G. Gensel et al. (2020): Back to the Beginnings: The Silurian-Devonian as a Time of Major Innovation in Plants and Their Communities PDF file, pp 367–398. In: Nature through Time: Virtual field trips through the Nature of the past. Springer, Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment. (eds Martinetto E., Tschopp E., Gastaldo R.A.), pp. 159–185. Springer International Publishing, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35058-1_6.
See likewise here.
! Note figure 15.20: Phylogenetic relationships between the major Paleozoic plant groups.

Geologyshop: Dinosaur Pictures (and other contemporaneous taxa). A huge link list to some of the best images of the most famous dinosaurs. Some of them showing paleovegetation reconstructions.

! P. Gerrienne et al. (2022): Earliest Evidence of Land Plants in Brazil. In PDF, In: Iannuzzi, R., Rößler, R., Kunzmann, L. (eds.): Brazilian Paleofloras. Springer.
See also here.
Note. fig. 3: Suggested life cycle of an early vascular plant from the early Devonian Rhynie Chert.
Fig. 4b: Suggested reconstruction of Cooksonia paranensis.
Fig. 5: Suggested life cycle of Cooksonia paranensis.

P. Giesen and C.M. Berry (2013): Reconstruction and growth of the early tree Calamophyton (Pseudosporochnales, Cladoxylopsida) based on exceptionally complete specimens from Lindlar, Germany (mid-Devonian): organic connection of Calamophyton branches and Duisbergia trunks. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci., 174: 665-686.

W.V. Gobo et al. (2023): A new remarkable Early Cretaceous nelumbonaceous fossil bridges the gap between herbaceous aquatic and woody protealeans. Open access, Scientific Reports, 13.
Note figure 9: Reconstruction of Notocyamus hydrophobus gen. nov. et sp. nov. in its likely environment.

B. Gomez et al. (2015): Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm. In PDF, PNAS, 112: 10985–10988. See alao here.
Note Fig. 3: Reconstructions of Montsechia vidalii.

A.K. Gonzales (2010): The Visual Rhetoric of Craftsmanship. In PDF, Department of English at Digital Archive. English Theses, Paper 93, Department of English at Digital Archive.

Google Search:
! Search results picture search: +paleoart +plants.
! Search results picture search, line drawings: +paleoart +plants.

! W. Gothan (1921): Potonié´s Lehrbuch der Paläobotanik. In German, 2. edition. 538 pages. (Gebrüder Borntraeger), Berlin.
With many black and white line drawings, based on the knowledge of 1921.

S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40.
Rhacophyton and Archaeopteris in a Devonian wetland as well as Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous wetland plant reconstructions.
Note figure 1: Evolution of wetland types in the Silurian and Devonian.
See also here.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Grey and Z.V. Finkel (2011): The Joggins Fossil Cliffs UNESCO World Heritage site: a review of recent research. In PDF. Carboniferous forest reconstruction on page 192.

! Greenworks Organic-Software, Berlin, Germany (a version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine): XfrogPlants V 2.0 Plant Library. XfrogPlants are 22 different 3D Plant Libraries, each containing 20 Species x 3 ages, and created using Xfrog procedural organic software. Samples of each plant in each library available, go to: Fossil Plants. Excellent!

M. Grünemeier (2017): Not just hyphae — the amber mite Glaesacarus rhombeus as a forager on hardened resin surfaces and a potential scavenger on trapped insects. In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 10.
Note fig. 5: Illustration depicting the possible behaviour of Glaesacarus rhombeus on the bark of Pinus succinifera with a trapped spider.

K. Gruntmejer et al. (2015): The Triassic world of Krasiejów. In PDF, Field guide, 13th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists, Opole, Poland, 8-12 July 2015.
Please note Fig.5. Reconstruction of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis; Fig. 7. Reconstruction of Cyclotosaurus intermedius.

D.S. Guzmán and M.P. Velasco (2021): Weltrichia magna sp. nov., a new record for the Middle Jurassic of Oaxaca, Mexico. In PDF, Acta Palaeobotanica, 61: 95–106.
Note fig. 2: Reconstructions proposed for Weltrichia magna.

Øyvind Hammer, Computational Paleontology, Computer graphics reconstructions. Go to: Big Calamites, and Big Sigillaria.

! G. Han et al. (2016): A Whole Plant Herbaceous Angiosperm from the Middle Jurassic of China. In PDF, Acta Geologica Sinica. See also here (abstract) and there (in German, with photograph and reconstruction).

! T.M. Harris (1961): The fossil cycads. PDF file, Palaeontology, 4: 313-323.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Note text. fig. 2: Reconstructions of Nilssonia tenuinervis, Androstrobus wonnacotti and Beania mamayi.

S. Hartenfels et al. (2022): The Rhenish Massif: More than 150 years of research in a Variscan mountain chain. Open access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 102: 493–502.
Note figure 7: Reconstruction of the Mid-Devonian Lindlar forest.

! Jody L. Haynes (c/o Palm and Cycad Societies of Florida): Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia. Information about cycad taxonomy, biology, evolution, horticulture, conservation, etc.
Still available from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to: "Jurassic Age" by Charles R. Knight.

Oswald Heer (1865): Die Urwelt der Schweiz (in German). Provided by Google books. Including some palaeovegetation reconstructions. PDF download available.

T.A. Hegna and R.E. Johnson (2016): Preparation of Fossil and Osteological 3D-Printable Models from Freely Available CT-Scan Movies. In PDF, Journal of Paleontological Techniques, 16: 1-10.

Henry County Schools, McDonough, GA:
Life and Geologic Time. Reconstructions of Paleo-Landscapes.
Powerpoint presentation.

Harvey Henson (and the Students of BIG), Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale: Basics In Geology (an informal earth science educational program for students in local junior and senior high schools), Pennsylvanian Fossil Study.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Susanne Henssen, PalaeoWerkstatt, Goch, Germany: Rconstruction of Sphenobaiera spectabilis.

E.J. Hermsen et al. (2009): Morphology and ecology of the Antarcticycas plant. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 153: 108-123. Antarcticycas plant reconstruction on page 112.

L. Hernandez-Sandoval et al. (2023): Nichima gen. nov. (Alismataceae) based on reproductive structures from the Oligocene]Miocene of Mexico. Open access, American Journal of Botany, 110.
Note figure 7: Fossil flower reconstructions and proposed inflorescence organization.
"... Two fossil flowers preserved in amber from the Miocene ..."

F. Herrera et al. (2020): Reconstructing Krassilovia mongolica supports recognition of a new and unusual group of Mesozoic conifers. Open access, PLoS ONE, 15: e0226779.
Note figs 6, 7: Reconstructions of Krassilovia mongolica. Drawings: Pollyanna von Knorring.

F. Herrera et al. (2017): The presumed ginkgophyte Umaltolepis has seed-bearing structures resembling those of Peltaspermales and Umkomasiales. PNAS, 114. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. See also here (in PDF).
Reconstruction of Umaltolepis mongoliensis on PDF page 4.

! A.J. J. Hetherington et al. (2016): Networks of highly branched stigmarian rootlets developed on the first giant trees. In PDF, PNAS, 113. See fig 4, reconstruction of stigmarian root systems with highly branched systems of rootlets.

J.K. Hinz et al. (2010): A high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction of a fossil forest (Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation, Junggar Basin, Northwest China). In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 203-214.
Note fig. 2: Stumps and log-bearing horizons.

Elaine R.S. Hodges (ed.), Guild of Natural Science Illustrators (U.S.): The Guild Handbook of Scientific Illustration, 2nd Edition, (2003). 656 pages, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). This is an indispensable reference guide for anyone who produces, assigns, or simply appreciates scientific illustration. See also here.
! Some chapters are available via Google books.

W.B.K. Holmes and H.M. Anderson (2013): A synthesis of the rich Gondwana Triassic megafossil flora from Nymboida, Australia. PDF file; In Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin, 61: 296-305.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Including a reconstruction of the floodplain of the Nymboida Subbasin during mid Triassic time (from Retallack 1977).

D.M. Hoskins (1999): (illustrations drafted by A.E. Van Olden and J.G. Kuchinski): Common Fossils of Pennsylvania. In PDF, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th ser., Educational Series 2.
Please take notice: dinosaur in a mesozoic vegetation, depicted in fig. 1 (on PDF page 1).

M. Hrabovský (2021): Leaf evolution and classification. 3. Gymnospermopsida. In PDF, Acta Botanica Universitatis Comenianae, 57.
! Many black and white contour drawings.

M. Hrabovský (2020): Leaf evolution and classification. 2. Polypodiopsida. In PDF, Acta Botanica Universitatis Comenianae, 56.
! Many black and white contour drawings.

M. Hrabovský (2020): Leaf evolution and classification. 1. Lycopodiopsida. In PDF, Acta Botanica Universitatis Comenianae, 55.
See also here.
! Many black and white contour drawings.

Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign: Plant fossils. A reconstruction of Medullosa.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! The Interactive Geology Project (by Paul Weimer et al., Energy and Minerals Applied Research Center, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, University of Colorado.
The goal of this website is producing short 3D animations about the geologic evolution of key US national parks. Go to: ! Video Library. Excellent!
See especially (scroll down): "Triassic Thickets: Placerville, Colorado, 225 Million Years Ago."
This scene shows the plants developed on a broad coastal plain in western Colorado near Placerville. Plants depicted: Neocalamites, Sanmiguelia. This version is part of a joint project between the Interactive Geology Project at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. See also here.

The International Commission on Geoheritage (ICG) (a permanent commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS)):
! The First 100 IUGS Geological Heritage Sites. In PDF, 153 pages. This collaborative achievement is authored by more than 350 experts from more than 40 countries. Breathtaking photographs! Superbly done! Don't miss:
Site 031: The Fossil Cliffs of Joggins (on page 94; PDF page 49).
Site 040: The Early Miocene Petrified Forest of Lesvos (on page 112; PDF page 58).

V.S. Isaev et al. (2018): The fossil Permian plants from the Vorkuta series, Pechora Coal basin. Recent acquisitions in the collection of the Earth Science Museum at Lomonosov Moscow University. Moscow University Bulletin. Series 4. Geology. See also here (in PDF).
Note fig. 3: A giant Permian dragonfly produces the ovipositions on the shoot of a large equisetophyte.
Note Photo series 2, fig: 3: Paracalamites aff. frigidus Neuburg; two shoots preserved vertically within the layer, in situ.

T.H. Jefferson (1987): The preservation of conifer wood: examples from the Lower Cretaceous of Antarctica. In PDF, Palaeontology, 30. See also here.
! With instructive line drawings.

K.R. Johnson (2007): Paleobotany: Forests frozen in time. In PDF, Nature, 447.
Fig. 1 shows the reconstruction of a lycopsid forest.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Karen Carr Studio, Silver City, NM:
Worth checking out: "Karen Carr" Triassic (Google search).
See also: Late Triassic plant community,
Triassic Landscape,
or Triassic Landscape, Coelophysis detail.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

E.V. Karasev (2009): A New Genus Navipelta (Peltaspermales, Pteridospermae) from the Permian/Triassic Boundary Deposits of the Moscow Syneclise. PDF file, Paleontological Journal, 43: 1262-1271.

K.-P. Kelber and R. Schoch (2015): 18. Lebensbilder des Lettenkeupers im Wandel der Zeiten. PDF file, in German.
p. 407-413; in: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! K.-P. Kelber (2009): Lebensbilder der Unterkeuperzeit im Spiegel der paläontologischen Forschung. PDF file (8.5 MB), in German. Veröffentlichungen Naturhistorisches Museum Schleusingen, 24: 27-52.
Life pictures from the Lower Keuper in the mirror of palaeontological research. A selection of Lower Keuper swamp reconstructions from the germanotype Triassic (Ladinian, Triassic).

! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
Please take notice of figure 9 (PDF page 10): A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergii and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch.

! P. Kenrick (2017): Changing expressions: a hypothesis for the origin of the vascular plant life cycle. Free access, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373: 20170149.
Note reconstructions of early land plants in fig. 4 and 5: Aglaophyton majus, Horneophyton lignieri, Remyophyton delicatum, Lyonophyton rhyniense, Lycopodium annotinum.

! P. Kenrick & P.R. Crane (1997): The origin and early evolution of plants on land. PDF file, Nature.
See also here.

Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY:
Fossils of the Month. Go to:
! Fossil of the month: Calamites.
Note the illustration: How fossils are formed from pith casts, external, and internal casts and impressions.

Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY:
Fossils of the Month. Go to:
! Fossil of the Month: Callixylon.
Note the illustration: Floating logs on today’s seas provide a habitat for a multitude of organisms.

A.V. Khramov et al. (2023): The earliest pollen-loaded insects from the Lower Permian of Russia. In PDF, Biol. Lett., 19: 20220523.
See also here.
Note figure 2k: Artistic reconstruction of female Tillyardembia feeding on Pechorostrobus pollen organ (Rufloriaceae).

J.P. Klages et al. (2020): Temperate rainforests near the South Pole during peak Cretaceous warmth. In PDF, Nature, 580: 81-86. See also here.
Note fig. 3: Reconstruction of the West Antarctic Turonian–Santonian temperate rainforest.

S.D. Klavins et al. (2002): Anatomy of Umkomasia (Corystospermales) from the Triassic of Antarctica. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 89: 664-676.

Hendrik Klein and Andrew B. Heckert (2023):
Chirotheres - Tracking the Ancestors of Dinosaurs and Crocodiles. Google books, 360 Pages, Indiana University Press. A compendium of what is known about the five-toed footprints of Triassic archosaurs.
See also here. With reconstruction artwork by Matthew Celeskey.

A.A. Klymiuk et al. (2022): A novel cupulate seed plant, Xadzigacalix quatsinoensis gen. et sp. nov., provides new insight into the Mesozoic radiation of gymnosperms. In PDF, American Journal of Botany. See also here.
Note figure 30: Cupulate Mesozoic gymnosperms.

E. Kon´no (1960): Schizoneura manchuriensis Kon´no and its Fructification (Manchurostachys n. gen.) from the Gigantopteris-nicotianaefolia-bearing Formation in Penchihu Coal-field, Northeastern China. In PDF.

Heinz Kowalski, Moers, Germany: Steinkohlen aus der Eifel. In German. A palaeovegetation reconstruction of the Carboniferous (by H. POTONIE 1899) and of Taeniocrada decheniana (by Kräusel & Weyland 1930).
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A. Krüger et al. (2021): 3D imaging of shark egg cases (Palaeoxyris) from Sweden with new insights into Early Jurassic shark ecology. Open access, GFF, 143: 229-247.
Note figure 11: Reconstruction of Palaeoxyris egg cases attached to Neocalamites (Equisitum) (sic!) stems.

P. Krzywiec and A. Arndt (2022): Development of paleontological art in Poland. In PDF, The Geological Society of America, Memoir, 218.
See also here.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2022): A whole-plant specimen of the marine macroalga Pterigophycos from the Eocene of Bolca (Veneto, N-Italy). Open access, Fossil Imprint, 78: 145–156.
Note text-figure 5: Reconstruction drawing of Pterigophycos sp. thallus growing on a rock surface.

! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also here (in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.

! C.C. Labandeira (1998): Plant-Insect Associatons from the Fossil Record. PDF file, Geotimes. With instructive illustrations.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! George Langford, "georgesbasement": Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Pennsylvanian Period, Will County, Illinois. Many fossil plant photographs, line drawings and reconstructions.
Links in the scientific names point to plates in Leo Lesquereux´s classic 1879 work, Atlas to the Coal Flora of Pennsylvania and of the Carboniferous Formation throughout the United States. See the Index to Fossil Flora, pp 1-85..
Collecting Fossil Plants and Animals in the Pennsylvanian Deposits of the Will County, Illinois Coal Measures The Field Notes of George Langford, Sr. in the Years 1937-1960. Prepared and organized by George Langford, Jr., 1973.
See also here.
These expired links is still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! The Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize Link List. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here ("John Lanzendorf" in Wikipedia).

S. Leach (2016): Scientific Imagining: Studio Based Research into Genre Images of Science and How Art Might Interpret Modern Science. In PDF, thesis, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University, Melbourne.
See also here.

! M. Libertín et al. (2022): The early land plant Cooksonia bohemica from the Pridoli, late Silurian, Barrandian area, the Czech Republic, Central Europe. In PDF, Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2022.2144286.
See also here.
! Note figure 7: Reconstruction of Cooksonia bohemica.
! Figure 8: Reconstruction of Aberlemnia caledonica.

Z.-J. Liu et al. (2021): A whole-plant monocot from the Lower Cretaceous. Free access, Palaeoworld, 30: 169-175.
Note fig. 5: Reconstruction of Sinoherba ningchengensis, a herbaceous plant composed of a root with fibrous rootlets borne on the nodes, a stem with leaves and axillary branches on the nodes and inflorescences.

Z.J. Liu et al. (2021): A whole-plant monocot from the Lower Cretaceous. Open access, Palaeoworld, 30: 169-175.

L. Liu et al. (2020): A whole calamitacean plant Palaeostachya guanglongii from the Asselian (Permian) Taiyuan Formation in the Wuda Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. See also here (in PDF).
Please note the whole plant reconstruction in figure 18.

X. Liu et al. (2018): Liverwort Mimesis in a Cretaceous Lacewing Larva. Open access, Current Biology, 28: 1475-1481.
Note figure 3: Reconstruction of two larvae resting on liverworts.

Z.-J. Liu et al. (2018): The Core Eudicot Boom Registered in Myanmar Amber. Open access, Scientific Reportsvolume 8.
Note figure 5: Reconstruction of Lijinganthus revoluta.

! Z.-J. Liu et al. (2018): A Whole-Plant Monocot from the Early Cretaceous. In PDF. See also here and there.

V.S.P. Loinaze et al. (2019): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here and there.
Note fig. 11: Environmental hypothetical restoration of the Late Triassic Chañares ecosystem.

Natural History Museum, London: Mesozoic forests of Britain. This project aims to investigate the productivity of important Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous forests of southern England.

! C.V. Looy and I.A.P. Duijnstee (2019): Voltzian Conifers of the South Ash Pasture Flora (Guadalupian, Texas): Johniphyllum multinerve gen. et sp. nov., Pseudovoltzia sapflorensis sp. nov., and Wantus acaulis gen. et sp. nov. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 181. See also here (in PDF).
Note fig. 8: Reconstruction of a bract–dwarf shoot complex of Pseudovoltzia sapflorensis.

Cindy V. Looy, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ecological success of Early Triassic isoetaleans. A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergi from the Early Triassic.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.G. Lucas et al. (2023): An introduction to ice ages, climate dynamics and biotic events: the Late Pennsylvanian world. Open access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 535.
Note figure 2: Late Pennsylvanian palaeogeographical map.
Figure 5: Reconstructions of Desmoinesian and Missourian age peat-forming swamp vegetation.

J. Madhusoodanan (2016): Science illustration: Picture perfect. In PDF, Nature, 534: 285–287.
Note the Gilboa Fossil Forest reconstruction.

K.K.S. Matsunaga and A.M.F. Tomescu (2017): An organismal concept for Sengelia radicans gen. et sp. nov. – morphology and natural history of an Early Devonian lycophyte. Free access, Annals of Botany, 19: 1097–1113.
Note figure 10: Whole-plant reconstruction of Sengelia radicans.
See also:
Whole-plant reconstruction of an early Devonian lycophyte (Botany One, 2017).

C. Mays et al. (2022): End-Permian burnout: The role of Permian–Triassic wildfires in extinction, carbon cycling, and environmental change in eastern Gondwana. In PDF, Palaios, 37: 292–317.
See also here.
! Note figure 14: Artist’s reconstruction of the humid temperate but fire-adapted glossopterid biome during the end-Permian extinction interval (c. 252.1 Ma). Note the vegetative regeneration along the scorched trunks of the canopy-forming Glossopteris.
"... we conclude that elevated wildfire frequency was a short-lived phenomenon; recurrent wildfire events were unlikely to be the direct cause of the subsequent long-term absence of peat-forming wetland vegetation, and the associated ‘coal gap’ of the Early Triassic. ..."

L. Liu et al. (2022): A Late Devonian tree lycopsid with large strobili and isotomous roots. Open access, Communications Biology, 5.
Note figure 7: Reconstruction of a strobilus of Omprelostrobus gigas.

! A. Lukeneder (2012): Computed 3D visualisation of an extinct cephalopod using computer tomographs. In PDF, Computers & Geosciences, 45: 68-74.

N. MacLeod, PaleoNet. PaleoNet is a system of listservers, www pages, and ftp sites designed to enhance electronic communication among paleontologists. Scroll down to:
! "The PaleoNet Gallery". The PaleoNet Gallery is a part of the PaleoNet web site that features the work of artists and illustrators on palaeontological topics.

Karl Mägdefrau (1956):
Paläobiologie der Pflanzen. PDF file (365 MB), in German. 443 p.; Fischer, Jena. DOI: 10.23689/fidgeo-3708.
See likewise here.

S.R. Manchester et al. (2014): Assembling extinct plants from their isolated parts. In PDF.

Adriana C. Mancuso et al. (2007): The Triassic insect fauna from the Los Rastros Formation (Bermejo Basin), La Rioja Province (Argentina): its context, taphonomy and paleobiology. Paleobiological reconstruction in fig. 6.

! J. Manfroi et al. (2023): “Antarctic on fire”: Paleo-wildfire events associated with volcanic deposits in the Antarctic Peninsula during the Late Cretaceous. Free access, Front. Earth Sci., 11: 1048754. doi: 10.3389/feart.2023.1048754.
"... This indicates that fire and active volcanism were significant modifiers of the ecological niches of austral floras, because even in distal areas, the source of ignition for forest fires often came from contact with a hot volcanic ash cloud, where the vegetation was either totally or partially consumed by fire ..."
Note figure 4: Detailed field photographs of part of the Price Point deposition showing the two carbonaceous levels (lenses of charcoal in tuffite).
Figure 6: Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of austral areas under the influence of paleo-wildfires promoted by the Campanian active volcanism.

Janet Marinelli, Brooklyn Botanic Garden; Plants & Gardens News Volume 18, Number 2; 2003: Power Plants — The Origin of Fossil Fuels. A palaeovegetation reconstruction by Maud H. Purdy.
See also here. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

E. Martinetto and L. Macaluso (2018): Quantitative application of the Whole-Plant Concept to the Messinian – Piacenzian flora of Italy. In PDF, Fossil Imprint, 74: 77–100.
Note Fig. 5h: The reconstruction of Glyptostrobus europaeus by Angelo Barili.

Department of Geology, University of Maryland:
A Brief History of Life on Earth.
Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation. From: Barbara W. Murck and Brian J. Skinner, chapter 15: "Geology Today: Understanding Our Planet: Physical Geology Today".

K.K.S. Matsunaga and A.M.F. Tomescu (2017): An organismal concept for Sengelia radicans gen. et sp. nov. – morphology and natural history of an Early Devonian lycophyte. Free access, Annals of Botany, 19: 1097–1113.
Note figure 10: Whole-plant reconstruction of Sengelia radicans.
See also:
Whole-plant reconstruction of an early Devonian lycophyte (Botany One, 2017).

P. Matysová (2016): Study of fossil wood by modern analytical methods: case studies. Doctoral Thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute of Geology and Palaeontology. Please take notice:
Fig. 6 (PDF page 39): Artistic reconstruction of wood deposition and silicification in river sediments.
Fig. 7 (PDF page 39): Artistic reconstruction of plant burial by volcanic fall-out.

C. Mays et al. (2017): Pushing the limits of neutron tomography in palaeontology: Three-dimensional modelling of in situ resin within fossil plants. Open access, Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.3.57A: 1-12.
See also here.
"... This study demonstrates the feasibility of NT [neutron tomography] as a means to differentiate chemically distinct organic compounds within fossils ..."
Please note figure 3: Artist´s reconstruction of ovuliferous cone and fertile shoot of Austrosequoia novae-zeelandiae.

A. McDermott (2020): Dinosaur art evolves with new discoveries in paleontology. In PDF, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 117: 2728-2731.
See also here.

S. McLoughlin (2022): 11th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference Abstracts, Program and Proceedings.. In PDF.
Coverphoto: Reconstruction of the Bajocian (170 Ma: Middle Jurassic) flora of Eriksdal, southern Sweden (by Michael Rothman, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet).

! S. McLoughlin and R. Prevec (2021): The reproductive biology of glossopterid gymnosperms—A review. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 295. See also here (in PDF).
! Note fig. 2: Diagramatic reconstructions of glossopterid pollen-bearing organs.

! S. McLoughlin and R. Prevec (2021): The reproductive biology of glossopterid gymnosperms—A review. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 295. See also here (in PDF).
! Note fig. 2: Diagramatic reconstructions of glossopterid pollen-bearing organs.

! S. McLoughlin (2021): Gymnosperms: History of Life: Plants: Gymnosperms. In PDF, p. 476-500; In: Elias, S. & Alderton, D. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Geology, Amsterdam, Elsevier. See also here.
Note fig. 10: Reconstruction of the early seed-plant Elkinsia polymorpha (Late Devonian).
Fig. 24A: Reconstruction of Cycadeoidea dacotensis, a cycadeoid bennettite.
Fig. 24C: Reconstruction of Wielandiella angustifolia, a williamsonioid bennettite.
Fig. 28: Reconstruction of the pollen-bearing organ Erdtmanitheca portucalensis (Early Cretaceous).

S. McLoughlin et al. (2015): Paurodendron stellatum: A new Permian permineralized herbaceous lycopsid from the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 220: 1-15. Reconstruction on PDF page 11.
See also here.

B.A.R. Mohr and H. Eklund&xnbsp;(2003): Araripia florifera, a magnoliid angiosperm from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil). In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 126: 279-292. See also here.
Note figure 3: Araripia florifera nov. gen. nov. spec., tentative reconstruction.

Josef Moravec: Timeline Dinosaur Gallery. A collection of paintings, sorted by geological time period (including palaeovegetation).

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, COAL SWAMP FORESTS. Link list page with picture rankings. Several dioramas of coal swamp forests. The links give the most direct connections to illustrations available on the web.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Dennis C. Murphy, ("Devonian Times", a paleontology web site featuring Red Hill): Who's Who at Red Hill. Go to: "Tracheophytes" (Vascular Plants).

National Geographic Society: Triassic Period.

The Natural History Museum London:
Dino Directory. Dinosaur information (including some palaeoflora reconstructions) alphabetically, by time period (Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous), by country, or by body shape. Go to: Upper Triassic. See: Plateosaurus.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2016): Flora Permica. Plant World of Permian Period. Cis-Urals. PDF file, in Russian. Transactions of the Geological Institute, 612. Geological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
The monograph deals with the Permian flora of Western Angaraland (Middle and South Cis-Urals). With many line drawings and plant reconstructions.
You may navigate through the paper starting from the table of contents, PDF page 334.

S.V. Naugolnykh (2013): Permian ferns of western Angaraland. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, 47: 1379–1462.
See likewise here.

S.V. Naugolnykh (2012): A new Carboniferous pteridosperm of Angaraland: Angaranthus victorii Naugolnykh, gen. et spec. nov.(Angaranthaceae, fam. nov., Callistophytales). In PDF, Wulfenia. See also here.
Note figure 9: Reconstructions of Gondwanotheca sibirica reproductive organs.

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2012): Vetlugospermum and Vetlugospermaceae: A new genus and family of peltasperms from the Lower Triassic of Moscow syneclise (Russia). In PDF, Geobios, 45: 451-462. See also here.
Embedment of plant remains in block-diagram reconstructions!

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2012): Sporophyll morphology and reconstruction of the heterosporous lycopod Tomiostrobus radiatus Neuburg emend. from the Lower Triassic of Siberia (Russia). In PDF, The Palaeobotanist, 61: 387-405.

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2009): A new fertile Neocalamites from the Upper Permian of Russia and equisetophyte evolution. In PDF. Geobios, 42: 513-523. See also here.
Note fig. 5: Neocalamites tubulatus nov. sp.; reconstruction of the stems with the lateral strobilus in attachment (left) and lateral shoot scar in the node (right).

R. Neregato et al. (2017): New petrified calamitaleans from the Permian of the Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil, part II, and phytogeographic implications for late Paleozoic floras. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 237: 37–61. See also here.
Note fig. 2 (on PDF page 16): The proposed reconstruction of Arthropitys tocantinensis sp. nov., drawn by F. Spindler, Freiberg).

R Neregato et al. (2015): New petrified calamitaleans from the Permian of the Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil. Part I. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 215: 23-45. See also here.
Note fig. 3 (on PDF page 15): The proposed reconstruction of Arthropitys isoramis sp. nov., drawn by F. Spindler, Freiberg).

Karl J. Niklas (2016): Plant Evolution: An Introduction to the History of Life. Book announcement.
Worth checking out: ! Introduction.
Note figure 0.1: A suggested reconstruction of the Carboniferous (359–300 Mya) flora.
! Figure 0.3: Estimates of the percent of present-day levels of atmospheric oxygen.
See also here (Google books).

K.M. Northcut (2011): Insights from illustrators: The rhetorical invention of paleontology representations. Abstract, Technical Communication Quarterly.

K.M. Northcut (2007): Introduction: visual communication in life sciences. Technical Writing and Communication, 37.

! K.M. Northcut (2004): The making of knowledge in science: case studies of paleontology illustration. In PDF. Dissertation, Texas Tech University.
See also here.

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University: Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew: Plant Evolution. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Images of models to represent extinct plant forms with modern versions of 'primitive' plants, the entire display conveyed in dramatic fashion the dramatic change in plant form over the ages.

S. Oplustil et al. (2014): T0 peat-forming plant assemblage preserved in growth position by volcanic ash-fall: A case study from the Middle Pennsylvanian of the Czech Republic. In PDF, Bulletin of Geosciences, 89: 773–818.

! J.M. Ottino (2003): Is a picture worth 1,000 words? Abstract, Nature.
! See also here (in PDF).

! Paleoartistry (Eon Epoch Productions). A 180 year retrospective of extinct animal illustration. From the very first scientific descriptions of prehistoric reptiles in the 1830s to the first descriptions of the most famous dinosaurs in the 1890s. From the Dinosaur Renaissance of the 1970s-80s, and its post-Jurassic Park pop culture resurgence in the 1990s. From the 2000s Chinese fossil rush confirming feathered dinosaurs as ancestral relatives to present day birds. This website documents the evolving portrait of dinosaurs (and their landscape) over nearly 200 years by the greatest paleoartists. Excellent!

Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, Inc. (PACSOF): The fossil Cycads. With paintings and reconstructions of Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick, and Mark Hallett.
Go to: Jurassic Cycadales. Pentoxylon, Nilsonnia.
See also the pair of diplodoci make their way across a floodplain dotted with cycadeoid- type plants.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

£. Pawlik et al. 2020): Impact of trees and forests on the Devonian landscape and weathering processes with implications to the global Earth's system properties – A critical review. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 205: doi 10.1016/j.earscirev.2020.103200.
See also here.
Note fig. 2. Spatial configuration of continents in the Devonian.
Note fig. 3: Landscape reconstruction with stands of Pseudosporochnus, up to 4 m high, with Protopteridium in shruby layer and herbaceous Drepanophycus and Protolepidodendron in understorey.
Note fig. 6: A close look at trees diversification and selected accompanying events in the Devonian.

! Mary Parrish, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Reconstructing a Carboniferous Peat Swamp.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G.A. Pattemore et al. (2015): Triassic-Jurassic pteridosperms of Australasia: speciation, diversity and decline. In PDF, Boletín Geológico y Minero, 126: 689-722.

G.A. Pattemore et al. (2015): Palissya: A global review and reassessment of Eastern Gondwanan material. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 210: 50-61.

Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven: The Age of Reptiles Mural at the Yale Peabody Museum. Reconstructions, (including palaeovegetation) from the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous & the Devonian. See also here. These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

V.S. Perez Loinaze et al. (2018): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 502. See also here.
Note Fig. 11. Environmental hypothetical restoration of the Chañares Formation ecosystem. The flora includes ferns, lycopsids and bryophytes growing near water bodies, and conifers (podocarpacean and voltziacean), and umkomasialeans as arboreal elements at the background.

! H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004): The complexity of mass extinction. Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.

! Plantillustrations.org (by Max Antheunisse and Jan Koeman).
Plantillustrations.org is a completely non-commercial website. On top you see 2 search boxes at the right. The white one is for entering scientific names, the grey one for vernacular ones.
You may likewise navigate from:
the List of currently included artists.
Don't miss the useful link list

C. Pott et al. (2017): Lunzia austriaca – a bennettitalean microsporangiate structure with Cycadopites-like in situ pollen from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Lunz, Austria. Abstract, Grana, 56. See also here (in PDF).
Depicted in fig. 8: Restoration of the cup-shaped Lunzia microsporangiate organ as interpreted from the fossils.

C. Pott and S. McLoughlin (2014): Divaricate growth habit in Williamsoniaceae (Bennettitales): unravelling the ecology of a key Mesozoic plant group. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94: 307–325. See also here (in PDF).

! C. Pott et al. (2012): Baikalophyllum lobatum and Rehezamites anisolobus: Two Seed Plants with "Cycadophyte" Foliage from the Early Cretaceous of Eastern Asia. In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 173: 192-208. See likewise here.
Note fig. 5: Reconstruction of the terminal branches of Baikalophyllum lobatum.
Fig. 9: Reconstruction of compound leaves of Rehezamites anisolobus.
Paper awarded with the Remy and Remy Award 2012, Botanical Society of America.

R. Prevec et al. (2022): South African Lagerstätte reveals middle Permian Gondwanan lakeshore ecosystem in exquisite detail. Open access, Communications Biology, 5.
Note figure 1: Climatic zones for the Wordian of Pangea including locations of middle Permian fossil insect discoveries.
Figure 6: Reconstruction of a middle Permian lakeshore palaeoenvironment.

R. Prevec (2011): A structural re-interpretation and revision of the type material of the glossopterid ovuliferous fructification Scutum from South Africa. In PDF, Palaeont. afr., 46: 1–19.
See also here and there (abstract).
Please take notice of the sketch in fig 3 on PDF page 6, showing depressed seed scars of the apical portion of a Scutum leslii fructification.

J. Psenicka and S. Oplustil (2013): The epiphytic plants in the fossil record and its example from in situ tuff from Pennsylvanian of Radnice Basin (Czech Republic). In PDF, Bulletin of Geosciences, 88.
Note Fig. 8: A reconstruction of Selaginella growing on terminal shoots of Lepidodendron lycopodioides. See also Fig. 11.

! I.A. Rahman et al. (2012): Virtual Fossils: a New Resource for Science Communication in Paleontology. In PDF, Evolution: Education and Outreach, 5: 635–641.

A. Rees, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT, Two drawings of eighteen community level illustrations, designed to bring to life the Permian floras from various parts of the world. Illustrations prepared by Sergei Naugolnykh.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G.J. Retallack (2021): Great moments in plant evolution. See also here (in PDF).
Please notice figure 1.

G.J. Retallack (2015): Silurian vegetation stature and density inferred from fossil soils and plants in Pennsylvania, USA. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society.
Reconstructed Siluro-Devonian plants on PDF page 14.
See also here (abstract).

! G.J. Retallack and D.L. Dilcher (1988): Reconstructions of Selected Seed Ferns. In PDF, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 75: 1010–1057. See also here.
! Note fig. 1: Reconstructions of Stamnostoma huttense.
! Note fig. 3: Reconstructions of Lyrasperma scotia.
! Note fig. 4: Reconstructions of Calathospermum fimbriatum.
! Note fig. 5: Reconstructions of Lagenostoma lomaxii.
! Note fig. 6: Reconstructions of Pachytesta illionensis.
! Note fig. 7: Reconstructions of Callospermanion pusillum.
! Note fig. 8: Reconstructions of Dictyopteridium sporiferum.
! Note fig. 9: Reconstructions of Peltaspermum thomasii, Triassic.
! Note fig. 10: Reconstructions of Umkomasia cranulata, Triassic.
! Note fig. 11: Reconstructions of Caytonia nathorstii.
Excellent!

! G.J. Retallack (1977): Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. In PDF, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 1. See also here.

G. Retallack (1975): The life and times of a Triassic lycopod. PDF file, Alcheringa.

Greg Retallack, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene:
! Soilscapes of the Past. This set of published reconstructions of ancient landscapes and their soils provide an overview of the evolution of soils and landscapes through geological time. See also:
! Scientific Diagrams. Classification of paleosols into the U.S. soil taxonomy using field and petrographic characteristics.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Luis V. Rey, London (website by Janet Smith):
Luis V. Rey´s Art Gallery Dinosaurs and Paleontology, and Gallery. Worth checking out:
The Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize Link List.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Rößler et al. (2014): The root systems of Permian arborescent sphenopsids: evidence from the Northern and Southern hemispheres. In PDF, see also here (abstract).

! R. Rößler et al. (2012): The largest calamite and its growth architecture - Arthropitys bistriata from the Early Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 185: 64-78.
Reconstruction of Arthropitys bistriata on PDF page 4.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Ronny Rößler & Robert Noll (website hosted by fossilien-journal.de): Calamitea COTTA 1832. Fossile Pflanze zwischen Historie und aktueller Forschung. PDF file, in German.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G.W. Rothwell et al. (2009): Is the anthophyte hypothesis alive and well? New evidence from the reproductive structures of Bennettitales. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 96: 296-322. Note fig. 1: Cycadeoidea spp. Characteristic features of Cycadeoidea plants.
! Table 2. Contrasting characters of Bennettitales and Cycadales.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Angiophytes: Using Whole Plant Concepts to Interpret Angiosperm Origins.
Selected Literature.
Selected Examples. Images and reconstructions of Archaeanthus, Caloda reynoldsii, Joffrea speirsii, Polyptera manningii, Limnobiophyllum scutatum, Macginitea, Eorhiza/Princetonia.
Links archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, Melbourne, Australia:
Teacher Resources. This page contains downloadable resources for teachers to use in the classroom. Go to:
! Gondwana Greening. Easy to understand tutorial (PDF file), with some fossil plant reconstructions.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S. Saksena (1954): Reconstruction of the vegetative branches of Phyllotheca etheridgei and P. sahnii Saksena. In PDF, Palaeobotanist, 3: 51-53. See also here.
Note fig. 1 and 2: Reconstructions of Phyllotheca etheridgei and P. sahnii.

J.W. Schneider et al. (2010): Euramerican Late Pennsylvanian/Early Permian arthropleurid/tetrapod associations - implications for the habitat and paleobiology of the largest terrestrial arthropod. PDF file, in: Lucas, S.G., Schneider, J.W. and Spielmann, J.A., (eds.): Carboniferous-Permian transition in Canon del Cobre, northern New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 49: 49-70.
See fig. 11: Reconstruction of the Arthropleura habitat in well-drained areas of alluvial environments with calamitaleans stands.

J. Schneider et al. (2008): Excursion No. A5 The Late Carboniferous and Early Permian Rotliegend in Saxony and Thuringia. In PDF, 12th International Palynological Congress IPC-XII 2008 8th International Organisation of Palaeobotany Conference IOPC-VIII 2008 August 30 - September 5, 2008, Bonn, Germany.

! A.C. Scott (1984): The early history of life on land. In PDF, Journal of Biological Education, 18. See also here.
Note figs. 5 and 6: Rconstructions of Silurian and Devonian plants.

Senckenberg Natural History Museum and Centre for Biodiversity Research, Frankfurt am Main: Entwicklung der Pflanzenwelt. Easy to understand introduction (in German). Image and reconstruction of Cycadeoidea. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.E. Shcherbakov et al. (2021): Disaster microconchids from the uppermost Permian and Lower Triassic lacustrine strata of the Cis-Urals and the Tunguska and Kuznetsk basins (Russia). Abstract, Geological Magazine.
Note fig. 9: Reconstruction of an Early Triassic (Olenekian) lacustrine community of microconchid settlements on submerged sphenopsids (artwork: Andrey Atuchin).

G. Shi et al. (2019): Diversity and homologies of corystosperm seed-bearing structures from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia. Abstract, See also here (in PDF).
Note figure 12: Reconstruction of a shoot of Umkomasia mongolica.
Note figure 13: Reconstructions of the seed-bearing units of Umkomasia mongolica, Umkomasia corniculata and Umkomasia trilobata.

B.J. Slater et al. (2014): A high-latitude Gondwanan lagerstätte: The Permian permineralised peat biota of the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. In PDF, Gondwana Research. On PDF page 16: Reconstruction of the Lambert Graben Middle Permian Alluvial valley palaeoecosystem, With bracket fungus on a fallen log in the foreground.

B. Slater (2011): Fossil focus: Coal swamps. Reconstruction of a Carboniferous coal swamp. In PDF, Palaeontology Online. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. See also here.

Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.

! Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Paleo Art. This website provides information about taking proper care of illustrations and discusses techniques for creating palaeontological and other scientific illustrations. Go to:
! What is paleontological illustration, and Illustration Care. To provide archival care (conservation treatment) for historical illustrations. Don´t miss the
Historical Art Gallery and the Bibliography of Historical Art. Some highlights from the Department of Paleobiology. Last but not least:
! Reconstructing an ancient environment. Reconstructing of invertebrates, vertebrates and fossil plants.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Underground Carboniferous Forest (Riola mine, Illinois). A Carboniferous coal-swamp reconstruction. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Society of Vertebrate Paleontology: Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize. The John J. Lanzendorf PaleoArt Prize was created to recognize outstanding achievement in paleontological scientific illustration.

D. Soltis et al. (2017): Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms. Book announcement. See also here (Google books). Worth checking out:
! Relationships of Angiosperms to Other Seed Plants. In PDF.
Note figure 1.12: Reconstructions of Caytoniales.
Note figure 1.13: Reconstruction of Bennettitales.
Note figure 1.14: Reconstructions of Pentoxylon plants.
Note figure 1.15: Reconstructions of glossopterids.

Doug Soltis, Amber Tilley and Hongshan Wang, Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), University of Florida: Deep Time. A comprehensive phylogenetic tree of living and fossil angiosperms. Go to: Virtual Fossil Collection. Reconstruction of Archaefructus sinensis, Androdecidua endressii.

Hans Steur, The Netherlands: Reconstruction of a swamp with horsetail trees in the Upper-Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian). From the Northern Zoo in Emmen (The Netherlands).

Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.
Go to: Unterer Keuper (Lower Keuper, Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). In German.
! Don´t miss the photograph of the Equisetites arenaceus reconstructions in life position.
Wikipedia also provided a larger view of the Lettenkeuper diorama on its Batrachotomus website.

C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2023): Insights into palaeobotany. Abstract, Botany Letters, DOI: 10.1080/23818107.2023.2200293
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of the Eocene flora from Anjou.

Brian Switek (2009): Book review: Jane P. Davidson, "A History of Paleontology Illustration" Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 12, No. 1.

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
Ginkgophytes;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B.A. Thomas and C.J. Cleal (2022): A reassessment of the leafy shoots of Pennsylvanian-age arborescent lycopods. Open acces, Botany Letters, DOI: 10.1080/23818107.2022.2101517.
See also here.
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of arborescent lycopsids of the Pennsylvanian-age palaeotropical coal swamps of Euramerica.

! E.L. Taylor and T.N. Taylor (2009): Seed ferns from the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic: Any angiosperm ancestors lurking there? Open access, American Journal of Botany, 96: 237-251.
! "... In our opinion, it will be more productive to attempt to solve Darwin’s mystery if there were greater attention directed at mining the rock record in the hope of discovering more informative and new specimens, than to continue to construct new phylogenies using the same, often ambiguous characters. ..."
Worth checking out: Glossopterid vegetative and reproductive organs:
Note fig. 2: Suggested reconstruction of Ottokaria zeilleri.
Fig. 10: Suggested reconstruction of a Glossopteris megasporophyll with seeds attached to adaxial surface.
12: Diagrammatic reconstruction of Denkania indica.
Reproductive organs of Caytoniales and Corystospermales:
15. Suggested reconstruction of Caytonia cupule showing attachment of seeds and “stigmatic lip”.
16. Reconstruction of Caytonanthus arberi.
19. Suggested reconstruction of Umkomasia asiatica.
21. Diagrammatic reconstruction of Umkomasia uniramia.
Reproductive organs of Corystosperms and Petriellales:
25. Suggested reconstruction of Pilophorosperma geminatum.
28. Suggested reconstruction of Pteruchus fremouwensis.
30. Suggested reconstruction of Petriellaea triangulata.
32. Diagrammatic cutaway of Petriellaea triangulata cupule.
Reproductive organs of peltasperms:
34. Suggested reconstruction of Autunia conferta ovuliferous organ.
36. Suggested reconstruction of two Autunia conferta megasporophylls.
37. Suggested reconstruction of Peltaspermum rotula megasporophyll showing several ovules.
39. Suggested reconstruction of Peltaspermum thomasii axis bearing numerous megasporophylls.
40. Suggested reconstruction of Peltaspermopsis polyspermis.
41. Suggested reconstruction of Lepidopteris frond with pollen organs of the Antevsia-type at the tip.
42. Suggested reconstruction of Antevsia zeilleri pollen organ showing pinnate axis bearing clusters of pollen sacs.

taz (a German newspaper; November 19, 2022): Versteinerte Welten:
„Wie ein Foto aus der Urzeit“ (in German).
Paläobotaniker interessieren sich für die urzeitliche Pflanzenwelt. Die Fossilien von Blättern und Stämmen liefern Einblicke in untergegangene Welten.

UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.

Jim Vadeboncoeur Jr., Palo Alt JVJ Publishing. Go to: Illustrators, e.g. Zdenek Burian.

! V. Vajda et al. (2023): The ‘seed-fern’ Lepidopteris mass-produced the abnormal pollen Ricciisporites during the end-Triassic biotic crisis. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 627.
Note figure 4: Microsporophyll Antevsia zeilleri and microsporangia (pollen sacs) with contained pollen linked to the Lepidopteris ottonis plant.
! Figure 10C: Reconstruction of branch of male plant with short shoots bearing Lepidopteris ottonis foliage and Antevsia zeilleri microsporophylls.
"... We show that R. tuberculatus is a large, abnormal form of the small smooth-walled monosulcate pollen traditionally associated with L. ottonis, which disappeared at the ETE [end-Triassic mass extinction], when volcanism induced cold-spells followed by global warming. We argue that the production of aberrant R. tuberculatus resulted from ecological pressure in stressed environments that favoured asexual reproduction in peltasperms ..."

V. Vajda et al. (2021): Geochemical fingerprints of ginkgoales across the triassic-jurassic boundary of greenland. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 182: 649–662. See also here.
! Note fig. 2, 3: Reconstructions of selected fossil ginkgoalean taxa.

V. Vajda and C.B. Skovsted (2021): Advances in Swedish palaeontology; the importance of fossils in natural history collections - The Department of Palaeobiology at the Swedish Museum of Natural History. In PDF, GFF, 143: 93-10; DOI: 10.1080/11035897.2021.1968198. See also here.
Note figure 3: Reconstruction of the mid-Jurassic ecosystem of Eriksdal, Skåne (Illustration by Michael Rothman).

V. Vajda et al. (2016): Disrupted vegetation as a response to Jurassic volcanism in southern Sweden. In PDF, from: Kear, B. P., Lindgren, J., Hurum, J. H., Milàn, J. & Vajda, V. (eds): Mesozoic Biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic Territories. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 434.
PDF page 17 shows a reconstruction of a volcanic landscape in central Skåne during the late Early Jurassic, with deposition of pyroclastic and lahar sediments and fossilization of autochthonous and allochthonous plant material.

V. Vajda and S. Turner (2009): The Jurassic: In the forefront of science outreach. PDF file, GFF, 131: 1-3.
See fig. 1: Mid Jurassic terrestrial landscape with Australian flora.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Natural History Museum Vienna: Palaeo reconstructions (in German).

J. Wang et al. (2021): Ancient noeggerathialean reveals the seed plant sister group diversified alongside the primary seed plant radiation: Open access, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118, e2013442118.
Note fig. 2: Reconstruction of the aerial parts of Paratingia wuhaia from the early Permian of China.

D. Wang et al. (2019): The Most Extensive Devonian Fossil Forest with Small Lycopsid Trees Bearing the Earliest Stigmarian Roots. Free access, Current Biology, 29: 2604-2615.e2.
See also here (in PDF), and there ("Bizarre fossils reveal Asia’s oldest known forest"). Please take notice:
Figure 6: Reconstructions of a juvenile and a mature Guangdedendron plant.
Figure 7: Reconstruction of a monospecific lycopsid forest in coastal habitat.

J. Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDf, PNAS, 109: 4927-4932. Reconstructions of peat-forming forests of earliest Permian age in fig. 4 and 5.

Jun Wang et al. (2012): Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia. In PDF, PNAS. See also: Ash-covered forest is "Permian Pompeii" (S. Perkins, Nature).
Penn researcher helps discover and characterize a 300-million-year-forest.
The Lost Forest.

J. Wang and H.W. Pfefferkorn (2010): Nystroemiaceae, a new family of Permian gymnosperms from China with an unusual combination of features. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc., B, 277: 301-309. See also here. Reconstruction of Nystroemia reniformis: an advanced branching system with entire leaves carrying primitive ovules.

J. Wang et al. (2009): Paratingia wudensis sp. nov., a whole noeggerathialean plant preserved in an earliest Permian air fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, China. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 96: 1676–1689.
Note fig. 42: Reconstruction of the small noeggerathialean tuft tree that carries the leaves and strobilus of Paratingia wudensis.

Wayne's Word.
An Online Textbook Of Natural History (Wayne P. Armstrong, alias Mr. Wolffia, Palomar College). Go to:
Plants of Jurassic Park.
Living Fossils At Palomar College.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Webshots, Twofold Photos, Inc.: Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics: Brachiosaurus brancai, Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics 2: Australian Jurassic Scene, and Jurassic Scene 2.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Paleoart.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Batrachotomus.
! See especially the diorama of the Lettenkeuper swamp (Unterer Keuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). The Batrachotomus reconstruction in the background is surrounded by shafts of the horsetail Equisetites arenaceus. Photograph taken in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.
The last link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Kathy Willis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, & Jenny McElwain, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Oxford University Press): The Evolution of Plants. Book announcement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
! PowerPoint illustrations. Illustrations from the book in PowerPoint format. See also:
! Biome maps. Downloadable full-color images from the book.

! O.J. Wilson (2023): The 3D Pollen Project: An open repository of three-dimensional data for outreach, education and research. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 312.
"... This paper introduces the 3D Pollen Project, an open-access repository of 3D pollen scans and surface files. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to produce accurate series of tightly-focused cross-section images through pollen grains, which were reconstructed to produce 3D-printable surface files ..."
Go to:
! The 3D Pollen Project.

O. Wings et al. (2023): Paleontology-themed comics and graphic novels, their potential for scientific outreach, and the bilingual graphic novel EUROPASAURUS – Life on Jurassic Islands. Free access, Geosci. Commun., 6: 45–74.
"... both clichés and the latest findings from paleontological research are presented in comics in an entertaining way for a broad audience ..."

A. Yañez et al. (2023): Fertile Goeppertella from the Jurassic of Patagonia: mosaic evolution in the Dipteridaceae-Matoniaceae lineage. Open access, AoB Plants, 15: 1–19.
Note figure 3: Hypothetical reconstruction of Goeppertella unicyclica.

Q. Yang et al. (2023): The Jurassic epiphytic macrolichen Daohugouthallus reveals the oldest lichen-plant interaction in a Mesozoic forest ecosystem. Open access, iScience, 26.
Note figure 6: Habitus reconstruction of the fossil lichen Daohugouthallus ciliiferus growing on gymnosperm branches.

! J.-W. Zhang et al. 2010): A new species of Leptocycas (Zamiaceae) from the Upper Triassic sediments of Liaoning Province, China. Abstract, Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 48: 286–301. See also here (in PDF).
See fig. 9: Reconstruction of Leptocycas yangcaogouensis, resembling like that of Dioon edule.

L. Zhang et al. (2021): First fossil foliage record in the red beds from the Upper Jurassic in the Sichuan Basin, southern China. In PDF, Geological Journal. See also here.
Note fig. 6: Comparisons with potential Mesozoic conifer fossils.

G. Zhifeng and B.A. Thomas (1989): A review of fossil cycad megasporophylls, with new evidence of Crossozamia Pomel and its associated leaves from the Lower Permian of Taiyuan, China. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology,60: 205-223.
See also here.
! Note fig. l: Proposed evolutionary pathways of cycad megasporophylls.

Z. Zhou et al. (2023): Cenozoic plants from Tibet: An extraordinary decade of discovery, understanding and implications. In PDF, Science China Earth Sciences, 66: 205–226.
See also here.
Note figure 5: A reconstruction of the Eocene in the central Tibetan Plateau.












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