Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / All about Upper Triassic / Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes

Homepages of Triassic Workers
Triassic Biotas
Triassic Literature
Triassic Palaeobotany
Triassic Palynology
Triassic Climate
The Carnian Pluvial Event
Triassic Palaeogeography
Triassic Stratigraphy
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Triassic Palaeosols
Triassic Charcoal
Triassic Palaeosols
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Triassic Field Trips

! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
! Riparian Habitats@
! Playa Lakes (Endorheic Basins)@
! Wetland Plant Communities@
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments@
Natural History Museums@

Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes

Worth checking out:
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@

David L. Alles, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA: Biology 101: An Introduction to Science and Biology. (PDF files). Go to: Illustrated Lecture Presentations, The Mesozoic Era.

! J.M. Anderson et al. (1998): Late Triassic ecosystems of the Molteno/Lower Elliot biome of southern Africa. PDF file, Palaeontology 41.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Regional palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Molteno Biome on PDF page 4.

Natural History Museum, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California: Life Through Time.
Go to: Permian Period, and Triassic Period.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.R. Ash and S.T. Hasiotis (2013): New occurrences of the controversial Late Triassic plant fossil Sanmiguelia Brown and associated ichnofossils in the Chinle Formation of Arizona and Utah, USA. In PDF, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 268: 65-82. Reconstructed Triassic landscape with Sanmiguelia on PDF page 7.

BBC, History of life on Earth: Triassic period. Reconstruction by John Sibbick.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.P. Benca (2022): Reconstructing Lycopsids Lost to the Deep Past. PDF file, In: Valérie Bienvenue et al. (eds.): Animals, Plants and Afterimages: The Art and Science of Representing Extinction (!free full text PDF).
See likewise here.
"... Accurate and conservative palaeobotanical reconstructions most often accompany scientific studies that can be difficult for the public to access. However, these works serve as indispensable guides for a growing number of palaeoartists undertaking more holistic ecosystem reconstructions that can, in turn, be presented to the public ..."

Wilhelm Bölsche (in German, via Google books): Tiere der Urwelt. Animal and palaeovegetation reconstructions.
See also here (in German).

Mariana Brea et al. (2009): Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835. PDF file, Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64: 21-31. Fig. 5 shows the reconstruction of the Triassic Darwin Forest landscape in a high sinuosity fluvial system. The canopy is integrated by two arboreal strata and emergent trees with conifers and corystosperms, the understorey is formed by ferns. Fig. 7 shows the reconstruction of a Triassic horsetail landscape in the flood-plain of a fluvial environment (reconstructions painted by Jorge Gonzalez).

Robert Buckley, Trabuco Canyon, California, (Illustrations by Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick and Mark Hallet), The Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida (PACSOF):
The Fossil Cycads.
Reconstruction of the Carboniferous Period,
the leaves of the seed-fern Gigantopteris (Early Permian),
a reconstruction of Lyssoxylon grigsbyi (Triassic)
and a cycadeoid being enjoyed by Heterodontosaurus
, the Pseudoctenis-type Cycadales, Early Jurassic,
a Pentoxylon reconstruction and a Nilsonia-type cycadale lived during the Jurassic,
Williamsonia, and belonging to the Bennettitales (Jurassic through Cretaceous).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B. Cariglino et al. (2018): A Middle Triassic macroflora from southwestern Gondwana (Mendoza, Argentina) with typical Northern Hemisphere elements: Biostratigraphic, palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental implications. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 257: 1-18. See also here (in PDF).
Note fig. 5: A hypothetical reconstruction showing Pleuromeia, Sphenophytes, Ptilozamites, Lepacyclotes.

Karen Carr (website maintained by Ralph Gauer of The Fernleaf): Triassic Landscape. Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This painting is on permanent display at The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, in Norman, Oklahoma.

J. Fischer et al. (2018, starting on PDF page 27): The mid-Triassic Madygen Lagerstätte (Southwest Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). Abstract, 13th Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany. In: Terra Nostra, 2018/1.
Note fig. 1 on PDF page 28: Simplified model illustrating the mid-Triassic Madygen ecosystem with alluvial fan, alluvial plain, river delta and lacustrine environments.

Solange Gay-Crosier & Frank Lugon-Moulin, Finhaut, Switzerland: Les Traces des Dinosaures. A Triassic reconstruction with Plateosaurus. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40.
Rhacophyton and Archaeopteris in a Devonian wetland as well as Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous wetland plant reconstructions.
Note figure 1: Evolution of wetland types in the Silurian and Devonian.
See also here.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K. Gruntmejer et al. (2015): The Triassic world of Krasiejów. In PDF, Field guide, 13th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists, Opole, Poland, 8-12 July 2015.
Please note Fig.5. Reconstruction of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis; Fig. 7. Reconstruction of Cyclotosaurus intermedius.

! U. Hambach et al. (2001): A time frame for the Middle Keuper - cyclostratigraphy, sedimentology and first paleomagnetic results from the RAUENBERG 1 research well (km1-km4, Upper Triassic, SW-Germany). Poster, in PDF, Conference Sediment 2001, Jena. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 13. See also here (Google search).

Douglas Henderson:
! Triassic Period. A selection of 39 images related to the Triassic Period.
See also here (Wikipedia).

W.B.K. Holmes and H.M. Anderson (2013): A synthesis of the rich Gondwana Triassic megafossil flora from Nymboida, Australia. PDF file; In Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin, 61: 296-305.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Including a reconstruction of the floodplain of the Nymboida Subbasin during mid Triassic time (from Retallack 1977).

! The Interactive Geology Project (by Paul Weimer et al., Energy and Minerals Applied Research Center, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, University of Colorado.
The goal of this website is producing short 3D animations about the geologic evolution of key US national parks. Go to: ! Video Library. Excellent!
See especially (scroll down): "Triassic Thickets: Placerville, Colorado, 225 Million Years Ago."
This scene shows the plants developed on a broad coastal plain in western Colorado near Placerville. Plants depicted: Neocalamites, Sanmiguelia. This version is part of a joint project between the Interactive Geology Project at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. See also here.

K. Jewula et al. (2019): The late Triassic development of playa, gilgai floodplain, and fluvial environments from Upper Silesia, southern Poland. In PDF, Sedimentary Geology, 379: 2545. See also here.
Note fig. 9A: Schematic illustration of the gilgai palaeoenvironment at Krasiejów.

! Karen Carr Studio, Silver City, NM:
Worth checking out: "Karen Carr" Triassic (Google search).
See also: Late Triassic plant community,
Triassic Landscape,
or Triassic Landscape, Coelophysis detail.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K.-P. Kelber and R. Schoch (2015): 18. Lebensbilder des Lettenkeupers im Wandel der Zeiten. PDF file, in German.
p. 407-413; in: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! K.-P. Kelber (2009): Lebensbilder der Unterkeuperzeit im Spiegel der paläontologischen Forschung. PDF file (8.5 MB), in German. Veröffentlichungen Naturhistorisches Museum Schleusingen, 24: 27-52. Life pictures from the Lower Keuper in the mirror of palaeontological research. A selection of Lower Keuper swamp reconstructions from the germanotype Triassic (Ladinian, Triassic).

K.-P. Kelber & E. Nitsch (2005): Paläoflora und Ablagerungsräume im unterfränkischen Keuper (Exkursion H am 1. April 2005).- PDF file (20 MB), in German. Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N.F., 87: 217-253; Stuttgart.
Don't miss the sketch diagram of environmental evolution and main facies distribution on PDF page 3.

! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
Please take notice of figure 9 (PDF page 10): A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergii and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch.

Hendrik Klein and Andrew B. Heckert (2023):
Chirotheres - Tracking the Ancestors of Dinosaurs and Crocodiles. Google books, 360 Pages, Indiana University Press. A compendium of what is known about the five-toed footprints of Triassic archosaurs.
See also here. With reconstruction artwork by Matthew Celeskey.

C. Klug et al. (2024): The marine conservation deposits of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland, Italy): the prototype of Triassic black shale Lagerstätten. In PDF, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 143.
See likewise here.
Note figure 4: Reconstructions of some animals from Monte San Giorgio by Beat Scheffold.
Figure 6: Palaeogeographic map.

P. Krzywiec and A. Arndt (2022): Development of paleontological art in Poland. In PDF, The Geological Society of America, Memoir, 218.
See also here.

V.S.P. Loinaze et al. (2019): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here and there.
Note fig. 11: Environmental hypothetical restoration of the Late Triassic Chañares ecosystem.

! S.G. Lucas (2001), go to PDF page 52: Restoration of Late Triassic landscapes at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. In PDF, Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference. See also here.

A.C. Mancuso and C.A. Marsicano (2008): Paleoenvironments and taphonomy of a Triassic lacustrine system (Los Rastros Formation, central-western Argentina). In PDF, Palaios, 23: 535547. See also here.

A. McDermott (2020): Dinosaur art evolves with new discoveries in paleontology. In PDF, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 117: 2728-2731.
See also here.

The Natural History Museum London:
Dino Directory. Dinosaur information (including some palaeoflora reconstructions) alphabetically, by time period (Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous), by country, or by body shape. Go to: Upper Triassic. See: Plateosaurus.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K.M. Northcut (2011): Insights from illustrators: The rhetorical invention of paleontology representations. Abstract, Technical Communication Quarterly.

K.M. Northcut (2007): Introduction: visual communication in life sciences. Technical Writing and Communication, 37.

! K.M. Northcut (2004): The making of knowledge in science: case studies of paleontology illustration. In PDF. Dissertation, Texas Tech University.
See also here.

W.G. Parker (2011): Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs and Our Modern Biota. Book Review, 0pen access, BioScience, 61: 570571. See also here.
Note the Triassic landscape reconstruction on the cover.

Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven: The Age of Reptiles Mural at the Yale Peabody Museum. Reconstructions, (including palaeovegetation) from the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous & the Devonian. See also here. These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004): The complexity of mass extinction. Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.

! G.J. Retallack (1977): Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. In PDF, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 1. See also here.

J. Szulc et al. (2015): How many Upper Triassic bone-bearing levels are there in Upper Silesia (southern Poland)? A critical overview of stratigraphy and facies. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 85: 587626.
Don't miss the sketch diagram of environmental evolution and main facies distribution on PDF page 32 and the environmental model on PDF page 33.

Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.

Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.
Go to: Unterer Keuper (Lower Keuper, Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). In German.
! Don´t miss the photograph of the Equisetites arenaceus reconstructions in life position.
Wikipedia also provided a larger view of the Lettenkeuper diorama on its Batrachotomus website.

The Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, Germany:
Mittlerer und Oberer Keuper.
Mittlerer Keuper vor 233 205 Millionen Jahren.
Unterer Keuper.
Unterer Keuper vor 235 233 Millionen Jahren.
Easy to understand informations, in German.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! See especially the diorama of the Lettenkeuper swamp (Unterer Keuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). The Batrachotomus reconstruction in the background is surrounded by shafts of the horsetail Equisetites arenaceus. Photograph taken in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.

! S.L. Wing et al. (1992): Mesozoic and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF. In: Behrensmeyer, A.K., Damuth, J.D., DiMichele, W.A., Potts, R., Sues, H., Wing, S.L. (eds): Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time : Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp.327416.
! See especially page 329 (on PDF page 3): "Triassic Biotas"

O. Wings et al. (2022): Paleontology-themed comics and graphic novels, their potential for scientific outreach, and the bilingual graphic novel EUROPASAURUS Life on Jurassic Islands. In PDF, Geosci. Commun., 6: 4574.
See also here, and there.
"... an overview of influential comics and graphic novels on paleontological themes from the last twelve decades ..."

Top of page
Links for Palaeobotanists
Search in all "Links for Palaeobotanists" Pages!
index sitemap advanced
site search by freefind

This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated January 14, 2024