All about Upper Triassic /
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
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The Carnian Pluvial Event
The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Early Triassic Floras
Triassic Field Trips
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
! Riparian Habitats@
! Playa Lakes (Endorheic Basins)@
! Wetland Plant Communities@
Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments@
Natural History Museums@
David L. Alles, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA: Biology 101: An Introduction to Science and Biology. (PDF files). Go to: Illustrated Lecture Presentations, The Mesozoic Era.
J.M. Anderson et al. (1998):
Triassic ecosystems of the Molteno/Lower Elliot biome of southern Africa. PDF file,
Regional palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Molteno Biome on PDF page 4.
Natural History Museum, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California: Life Through Time. Go to: Permian Period, and Triassic Period.
S.R. Ash and S.T. Hasiotis (2013): New occurrences of the controversial Late Triassic plant fossil Sanmiguelia Brown and associated ichnofossils in the Chinle Formation of Arizona and Utah, USA. In PDF, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 268: 65-82. Reconstructed Triassic landscape with Sanmiguelia on PDF page 7.
BBC, History of life on Earth:
Reconstruction by John Sibbick.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Mariana Brea et al. (2009): Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835. PDF file, Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64: 21-31. Fig. 5 shows the reconstruction of the Triassic Darwin Forest landscape in a high sinuosity fluvial system. The canopy is integrated by two arboreal strata and emergent trees with conifers and corystosperms, the understorey is formed by ferns. Fig. 7 shows the reconstruction of a Triassic horsetail landscape in the flood-plain of a fluvial environment (reconstructions painted by Jorge Gonzalez).
Robert Buckley, Trabuco Canyon, California, (Illustrations by Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick and Mark Hallet), The Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida (PACSOF): The Fossil Cycads. Reconstruction of the Carboniferous Period, the leaves of the seed-fern Gigantopteris (Early Permian), a reconstruction of Lyssoxylon grigsbyi (Triassic) and a cycadeoid being enjoyed by Heterodontosaurus, the Pseudoctenis-type Cycadales, Early Jurassic, a Pentoxylon reconstruction and a Nilsonia-type cycadale lived during the Jurassic, Williamsonia, and belonging to the Bennettitales (Jurassic through Cretaceous).
B. Cariglino et al. (2018):
Middle Triassic macroflora from southwestern Gondwana (Mendoza, Argentina) with typical Northern Hemisphere elements: Biostratigraphic, palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 257: 1-18. See also
Note fig. 5: A hypothetical reconstruction showing Pleuromeia, Sphenophytes, Ptilozamites, Lepacyclotes.
Karen Carr (website maintained by Ralph Gauer of The Fernleaf): Triassic Landscape. Now available by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This painting is on permanent display at The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, in Norman, Oklahoma.J. Fischer et al. (2018, starting on PDF page 27): The mid-Triassic Madygen Lagerstätte (Southwest Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). Abstract, 13th Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany. In: Terra Nostra, 2018/1.
Solange Gay-Crosier & Frank Lugon-Moulin, Finhaut, Switzerland: Les Traces des Dinosaures. A Triassic reconstruction with Plateosaurus. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40. Rhacophyton and Archaeopteris in a Devonian wetland as well as Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous wetland plant reconstructions. See also here.
K. Gruntmejer et al. (2015):
Triassic world of Krasiejów. In PDF,
13th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists,
Opole, Poland, 8-12 July 2015.
Please note Fig.5. Reconstruction of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis; Fig. 7. Reconstruction of Cyclotosaurus intermedius.
! U. Hambach et al. (2001): A time frame for the Middle Keuper - cyclostratigraphy, sedimentology and first paleomagnetic results from the RAUENBERG 1 research well (km1-km4, Upper Triassic, SW-Germany). Poster, in PDF, Conference Sediment 2001, Jena. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 13. See also here (Google search).
! Triassic Period. A selection of 39 images related to the Triassic Period.
See also here (Wikipedia).
W.B.K. Holmes and H.M. Anderson (2013):
synthesis of the rich Gondwana Triassic megafossil flora from Nymboida,
Australia. PDF file;
In Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.):
The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin,
Including a reconstruction of the floodplain of the Nymboida Subbasin during mid Triassic time (from Retallack 1977).
The Interactive Geology Project
(by Paul Weimer et al., Energy and Minerals Applied Research Center,
Denver Museum of Nature & Science, University of Colorado.
The goal of this website is producing short 3D animations about the geologic evolution of key US national parks. Go to: ! Video Library. Excellent!
See especially (scroll down): "Triassic Thickets: Placerville, Colorado, 225 Million Years Ago."
This scene shows the plants developed on a broad coastal plain in western Colorado near Placerville. Plants depicted: Neocalamites, Sanmiguelia. This version is part of a joint project between the Interactive Geology Project at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. See also here.
K. Jewula et al. (2019):
late Triassic development of playa, gilgai floodplain, and fluvial
environments from Upper Silesia, southern Poland. In PDF,
Sedimentary Geology, 379: 25–45. See also
Note fig. 9A: Schematic illustration of the gilgai palaeoenvironment at Krasiejów.
! Karen Carr Studio,
Silver City, NM:
Late Triassic plant community,
or Triassic Landscape, Coelophysis detail.
K.-P. Kelber and R. Schoch (2015):
des Lettenkeupers im Wandel der Zeiten. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.
! K.-P. Kelber (2009): Lebensbilder der Unterkeuperzeit im Spiegel der paläontologischen Forschung. PDF file (8.5 MB), in German. Veröffentlichungen Naturhistorisches Museum Schleusingen, 24: 27-52. Life pictures from the Lower Keuper in the mirror of palaeontological research. A selection of Lower Keuper swamp reconstructions from the germanotype Triassic (Ladinian, Triassic).
K.-P. Kelber & E. Nitsch (2005):
Paläoflora und Ablagerungsräume
im unterfränkischen Keuper
(Exkursion H am 1. April 2005).- PDF file (20 MB), in German.
Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N.F., 87: 217-253; Stuttgart.
Don't miss the sketch diagram of environmental evolution and main facies distribution on PDF page 3.
Kelber, K.-P. (2003):
Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren.
PDF file (17 MB!), in German.
Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events.
pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.):
Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
Please take notice of figure 9 (PDF page 10): A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergii and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch.
V.S.P. Loinaze et al. (2019):
and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares
Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the
diet of dicynodonts. In PDF,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also
Note fig. 11: Environmental hypothetical restoration of the Late Triassic Chañares ecosystem.
! S.G. Lucas (2001), go to PDF page 52: Restoration of Late Triassic landscapes at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. In PDF, Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference. See also here.
A.C. Mancuso and C.A. Marsicano (2008): Paleoenvironments and taphonomy of a Triassic lacustrine system (Los Rastros Formation, central-western Argentina). In PDF, Palaios, 23: 535–547. See also here.
The Natural History Museum London: Dino Directory. Dinosaur information (including some palaeoflora reconstructions) alphabetically, by time period (Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous), by country, or by body shape. Go to: Upper Triassic. See: Plateosaurus.
W.G. Parker (2011):
the Age of Dinosaurs and Our Modern Biota. Book Review, 0pen access,
BioScience, 61: 570–571. See also
Note the Triassic landscape reconstruction on the cover.
Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven: The Age of Reptiles Mural at the Yale Peabody Museum. Reconstructions, (including palaeovegetation) from the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous & the Devonian. See also here.
H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004):
The complexity of
Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.
! G.J. Retallack (1977): Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. In PDF, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 1. See also here.
J. Szulc et al. (2015):
many Upper Triassic bone-bearing levels are there in Upper Silesia (southern Poland)? A critical
overview of stratigraphy and facies. In PDF,
Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 85: 587–626.
Don't miss the sketch diagram of environmental evolution and main facies distribution on PDF page 32 and the environmental model on PDF page 33.
Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.
für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.
Go to: Unterer Keuper (Lower Keuper, Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). In German.
! Don´t miss the photograph of the Equisetites arenaceus reconstructions in life position.
Wikipedia also provided a larger view of the Lettenkeuper diorama on its Batrachotomus website.
UntraveledRoad, Paris, ID: Petrified Forest National Park Information Center. The Photographic Virtual Tour Website. Go to: Triassic Landscape.
! Webshots, Twofold Photos, Inc.: Triassic Forest. A swampy forest in Chinle area of Arizona during the Triassic period. See also: Community: Hobbies & Interests: Dinosaur Pics: A hungry Herrerasaurus stalks a Rhynchosaur in the Late Triassic of Argentina.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! See especially the diorama of the Lettenkeuper swamp (Unterer Keuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). The Batrachotomus reconstruction in the background is surrounded by shafts of the horsetail Equisetites arenaceus. Photograph taken in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.
S.L. Wing et al. (1992):
and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See especially page 329 (on PDF page 3): "Triassic Biotas"
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