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Triassic Palaeogeography
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The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Triassic Charcoal
Triassic Palaeosols
The Rhaetian
Early Triassic Floras
Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes
Triassic Field Trips

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Geologic Time Scale@

Triassic Climate

! A.M.B. Abu Hamad et al. (2012): The record of Triassic charcoal and other evidence for palaeo-wildfires: Signal for atmospheric oxygen levels, taphonomic biases or lack of fuel? In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 96–97: 60–71.
See also here (abstract).

A. Ahlberg et al. (2002): Onshore climate change during the Late Triassic marine inundation of the Central European Basin. Abstract, Terra Nova, 14.

Rainer Albert,, book review, in German:
Trias. Aufbruch in das Erdmittelalter. By Norbert Hauschke, Matthias Franz & Gerhard H. Bachmann (eds.).

R. Albert (2014): Die Entstehung und sedimentologische Bedeutung von Steinsalzkristallmarken im fossilen Beleg. PDF file, in German.

! Albertiana (The Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy).
The primary mission of Albertiana is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among members of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy and the Triassic community at large. Albertiana are posted in a blog-style format and archived (by volume) as fully-formatted pdf issues at year end.
Albertiana past issues are available from here and likewise from Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana!
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

S. Ash (2010), Go to PDF page 59: Summary of the Upper Triassic flora of the Newspaper Rock Bed and its paleoclimatic implications. PDF file, SEPM-NSF Workshop "Paleosols and Soil Surface Analog Systems", September 21-26, 2010, Petrified Forest National Park, AZ.

A.R. Ashraf et al. (2010): Triassic and Jurassic palaeoclimate development in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China - a review and additional lithological data. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 187-201.
See also here.

! G. Bachmann et al. (2010): Triassic. (Triassic stratigraphy, Facies and hydrocarbons of the southern Permian Basin Area (SPBA)). In: Petroleum Geological Atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area. EAGE Publications, p. 149. ISBN 9789073781610.
See also here (PDF file, with table of contents) and there (PDF file, GIS maps presented in the atlas).

A. Bahr et al. (2020): Mega-monsoon variability during the late Triassic: Re-assessing the role of orbital forcing in the deposition of playa sediments in the Germanic Basin. In PDF, Sedimentology, 67. See also here.
"... The recurring pattern of pluvial events during the late Triassic demonstrates that orbital forcing, in particular eccentricity, stimulated the occurrence and intensity of wet phases. It also highlights the possibility that the Carnian Pluvial Event, although most likely triggered by enhanced volcanic activity, may also have been modified by an orbital stimulus. ..."

S.J. Baker et al. (2022): CO2-induced biochemical changes in leaf volatiles decreased fire-intensity in the run-up to the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Free access, New Phytologist, 235: 1442–1454.

X. Bao et al. (2023): Quantifying climate conditions for the formation of coals and evaporites. Free access, National Science Review.
"... We show that coal records were associated with an average temperature of 25°C and precipitation of 1300 mm yr-1 before 250 Ma. Afterwards, coal records appeared with temperatures between 0°C and 21°C and precipitation of 900 mm yr-1
[...] Evaporite records were associated with average temperature of 27°C and precipitation of 800 mm yr-1 ..."

! V. Baranyi (2018): Vegetation dynamics during the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian): Response to climate and environmental changes inferred from palynology. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

V. Baranyi et al. (2018): A continental record of the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) from the Mercia Mudstone Group (UK): palynology and climatic implications. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 176: 149-166.
See also here, and there.
Note figure 5: Chrono-, bio- and palynostratigraphical schemes for the Germanic Keuper, Alpine and Boreal realms and North America during the Carnian–Norian.
"... The generally arid Late Triassic climate was interrupted by a wet phase during the mid-Carnian termed the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE).
[...] The vegetation of British CPE successions suggests a more complex climate history during the Carnian, indicating that the CPE is not recognized by the same changes everywhere ..."

J.J. Beer (2005): Sequence stratigraphy of fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower part of the Chinle Formation, south central Utah, United States: paleoclimatic and tectonic implications. In PDF, thesis, Duluth, University of Minnesota. 169 p.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2005): Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. In PDF, PNAS, 102.

! D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2002): Biogeochemical constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary carbon cycle event. Free access, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16.

Claire M. Belcher et al. (2010): Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 3: 426-429. See also here (abstract).

C.M. Belcher et al. (2010): Burning Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF.
See also here (the slides). Go to PDF page 22: "East Greenland 200 Million years ago".
See also there (Linklist: Fire Safety Engineering in the UK: The State of the Art. University of Edinburgh).
These expired links are still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkely (UCMP): The Triassic Period. Worth checking out: Triassic Period: Localities, Stratigraphy, and Triassic Period: Tectonics and Paleoclimate.

! D.J. Beerling and C.P. Osborne (2002): Physiological ecology of Mesozoic polar forests in a high CO2 environment. Annals of Botany, 89: 329-339.

! M.J. Benton and F. Wu (2022): Triassic revolution. Free access, Frontiers in Earth Science, 10. See also here.
Note figure 9: Novel physiological and functional characteristics, new tetrapod, insect and plant groups in the Triassic on land.
"... On land, ongoing competition between synapsids and archosauromorphs through the Triassic was marked by a posture shift from sprawling to erect, and a shift in physiology to warm-bloodedness, with insulating skin coverings of hair and feathers. Dinosaurs, for example, originated in the Early or Middle Triassic, but did not diversify until after the CPE [Carnian Pluvial Episode]. ..."

! M.J. Benton (2018): Hyperthermal-driven mass extinctions: killing models during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 376. See also here.
Note Fig. 3: Palaeogeographic map of the Permo-Triassic, showing the single supercontinent Pangaea, modelled climate belts, and the distribution of terrestrial tetrapods.

! M.J. Benton (2016): The Triassic. Open access, Current Biology, 26: R1214–R1218.

! M.J. Benton and A.J. Newell (2014): Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 25: 1308–1337. See also here.
! Note figure 2: Environmental changes and biodiversity variations from the latest Permian to Middle Triassic.

M. Bernardi et al. (2017): Tetrapod distribution and temperature rise during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B 285. See also here.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2018): Polar Regions of the Mesozoic-Paleogene Greenhouse World as Refugia for Relict Plant Groups. Chapter 24, in PDF, in: M. Krings, C.J. Harper, N.R. Cuneo and G.W. Rothwell (eds.): Transformative Paleobotany Papers to Commemorate the Life and Legacy of Thomas N. Taylor.
Note figure 24.2: Distribution of Dicroidium through space and time.

! N.R. Bonis (2010), Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Palaeoecology Institute of Environmental Biology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University: Palaeoenvironmental changes and vegetation history during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. PDF file (7.7 MB), LPP Contribution Series No. 29. Seven research reports (chapters) in this thesis, see especially chapter 7 (with W.M. Kürschner):
! Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (PDF page 140).
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

V. Borruel-Abadía et al. (2015): Climate changes during the Early–Middle Triassic transition in the E. Iberian plate and their palaeogeographic significance in the western Tethys continental domain. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 440: 671–689.
See also here.

R. Bos et al. (2023): Climate-forced Hg-remobilization driving mutagenesis in ferns in the aftermath of the end-Triassic extinction. Free access,
"... We conclude that Hg injected by CAMP across the extinction was repeatedly remobilized from coastal wetlands and hinterland areas during eccentricity-forced phases of severe hydrological upheaval and erosion, focusing Hg-pollution in shallow marine basins ..."

C. Bos et al. (2023): Triassic-Jurassic vegetation response to carbon cycle perturbations and climate change. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 228.

S. Bourquin et al. (2007): The Permian-Triassic boundary and Early Triassic sedimentation in Western European basins: an overview. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 33: 221-236. See also here.

! S.E. Bryan and L. Ferrari (2013): Large igneous provinces and silicic large igneous provinces: Progress in our understanding over the last 25 years. In PDF, GSA Bulletin. See also here.

R. Burgess et al. (2021): Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Triassic floras from the Central North Sea. Journal of the Geological Society. See also here.
Note fig. 1: Triassic stratigraphy and existing climate models scaled against geological timescale.

! S.D. Burley et al. (2023): ‘A hard rain's a-gonna fall’: torrential rain, flash floods and desert lakes in the Late Triassic Arden Sandstone of Central England. Open access, Geology Today, 39.
! Note figure 5: The Carnian world, based on the PALEOMAP project, showing the distribution of continents and ocean basins for the Late Triassic, active subduction and spreading margins, and summer atmospheric circulation.
"... The Carnian age of the Arden Sandstone potentially links it to the Carnian Pluvial Episode, marking the coalescence, spread and freshening of the formerly saline desert lakes, and deposition of sandy, fluvial and lacustrine deposits, during the wetter climate that prevailed for at least a million years ..."

S. Callegaro et al. (2023): Editorial: How Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) during the Triassic shaped modern-day ecosystems. Free access, Front. Earth Sci., 11:1302216. doi: 10.3389/feart.2023.1302216.

C. Cao et al. (2022): Persistent late Permian to Early Triassic warmth linked to enhanced reverse weathering. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 5: 832–838.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Strontium and lithium isotope compositions in seawater reconstructed in this study and compiled from the literature with chronology of tectonic, climatic and biological events occurring during the Permian and Early Triassic.
! See especially figure 2c: Major events during the Permian and the Early Triassic.

N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003): Climate during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2. Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.

J. Enga (2015): Paleosols in the Triassic De Geerdalen and Snadd formations. In PDF, Master thesis, Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. See also here.

J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson (2005): Ecology and Behaviour of Mesozoic Reptiles, The Mesozoic Environment. In PDF. See also here,

M.L. Crocker (2012): The dirt on paleosols: sedimentology and paleoclimate indicators within the upper triassic Chinle Formation, Paria, Utah. In PDF. Thesis, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah.

N.R. Cúneo et al. (2003): In situ fossil forest from the upper Fremouw Formation (Triassic) of Antarctica: paleoenvironmental setting and paleoclimate analysis. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 197: 239-261.

J. Dal Corso (2011): The Middle-Late Triassic d13Cplant trend and the carnian pluvial event C-isotope signature. Ph.D. thesis, University of Padua. See also here (abstract).
Amber from the Triassic of the Italian Alps.

Timothy M. Demko et al. (2005): Mesozoic Lakes of the Colorado Plateau. In PDF, Geological Society of America, Field Guide 6.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.M. Dickins (1984): Climate of the Triassic as seen from the Permian. PDF file, Albertiana 2.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Dixon (2013): Palynofacies and Palynological Analysis of Late Triassic Sediments from the Kentish Knock-1 Well (Northern Carnarvon Basin, NW Australia). Reconstruction of vegetation history, interpretation of climate and sea level changes and placement in regional zonation. In PDF, thesis, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo.

Y. Donnadieu et al. (2009): Exploring the climatic impact of the continental vegetation on the Mezosoic atmospheric CO2 and climate history. In PDF, Clim. Past, 5: 85-96.

! R.F. Dubiel and S.T. Hasiotis (2011): Deposystems, paleosols, and climatic variability in a continental system: the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau, USA. In PDF. From River To Rock Record: The Preservation Of Fluvial Sediments And Their Subsequent Interpretation. SEPM Special Publication No. 97.

! R.F. Dubiel et al. (1991): The Pangaean megamonsoon: evidence from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau. PDF file, Palaios, 6: 347-370.

R.F. Dubiel (1989): Depositional and climatic setting of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau In PDF, Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs ...
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.F. Dubiel (1987): Sedimentology of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation Southeastern Utah: Paleoclimatic Implications. In PDF, Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science.
See fig. 8: Horsetail pith casts, formed when the hollow trunks of the horsetails were broken off and filled with sediment during a flood event.

A.M. Dunhill et al. (2018): Modelling determinants of extinction across two Mesozoic hyperthermal events. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B, 285.

E.M. Dunne et al. (2023): Climatic controls on the ecological ascendancy of dinosaurs. Open access, Current Biology, 33: 206-214.e4. See also:
Klimawandel an der Trias-Jura-Grenze nahm Schlüsselrolle in der Evolution der Dinosaurier ein. In German.
"... Statistical analyses show that Late Triassic sauropodomorph dinosaurs occupied a more restricted climatic niche space than other tetrapods and dinosaurs, being excluded from the hottest, low-latitude climate zones. ..."

! Erin Eastwood (2008): Pangean Paleoclimate. PDF file, GEO 387H.

! J. Enga (2015): Paleosols in the Triassic De Geerdalen and Snadd formations. In PDF, Master thesis, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet. See also here.

! R.E. Ernst and N. Youbi (2017): How Large Igneous Provinces affect global climate, sometimes cause mass extinctions, and represent natural markers in the geological record. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 478: 30-52. See also here (in PDF).

S.J. Fischer and S.T. Hasiotis (2018): Ichnofossil assemblages and palaeosols of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, south-eastern Utah (USA): Implications for depositional controls and palaeoclimate. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 88: 127-162. See also here.

M. Franz et al. (2018): The Schilfsandstein and its flora - arguments for a humid mid-Carnian episode? Journal of the Geological Society. See also here (in PDF).

A. Fijalkowska-Mader (2015): A record of climatic changes in the Triassic palynological spectra from Poland. In PDF, Geological Quarterly, 59.

C.R. Fielding et al. (2019): Age and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction constrained by multiproxy analysis. Open access, Communications, 10.
"... we use palynology coupled with high-precision CA-ID-TIMS dating of euhedral zircons from continental sequences of the Sydney Basin, Australia, to show that the collapse of the austral Permian Glossopteris flora occurred prior to 252.3?Ma (~370 kyrs before the main marine extinction). Weathering proxies indicate that floristic changes occurred during a brief climate perturbation in a regional alluvial landscape ..."

B.J. Fletcher et al. (2008): Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change. In PDF, Nat. Geosci., 1: 43-48.
See also here.

G. Forte et al. (2022): Amber droplets in the southern alps (NE Italy): A link between their occurrences and main humid episodes in the Triassic. In PDF, Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 128. See also here.

M. Franz et al. (2019): The Schilfsandstein and its flora - arguments for a humid mid-Carnian episode? Journal of the Geological Society, 176: 133-148. See also here (in PDF).

M. Franz et al. (2015): Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 135: 1-27. See also here (abstract). Note:
Fig. 13: Ladinian North Pangaean palaeogeography, showing depositional environments and inferred zonal climates.

M. Franz et al. (2014): Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change, 122 :305-329. See also here (in PDF).

T. Galfetti et al. (2007): Late Early Triassic climate change: Insights from carbonate carbon isotopes, sedimentary evolution and ammonoid paleobiogeography. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 243: 394-411.

! J.M. Galloway and S. Lindström (2023): Wildfire in the geological record: Application of Quaternary methods to deep time studies. Open access, Evolving Earth, 1.
! Note figure 1: Summary figure of changes in atmospheric O2 [...] and important events in Earth’s history, climate state, selected extinction events.

M. Geluk et al. (2018): An introduction to the Triassic: current insights into the regional setting and energy resource potential of NW Europe. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 469.

! A.E. Götz and D. Uhl (2022): Triassic micro-charcoal as a promising puzzle piece in palaeoclimate reconstruction: An example from the Germanic Basin. Free access, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 92.
See also here.
"The Triassic has long been regarded as a period without evidence of wildfires; however, recent studies on macro-charcoal have provided data indicating their occurrence throughout almost the entire Triassic. Still, the macro-palaeobotanical record is scarce ..."
[...] Comparison with the global record indicates that charcoal occurrence corresponds to warming phases and thus is vital in Triassic climate reconstruction. ..."
Note figure 1: Stratigraphic framework of charcoal discoveries in the Germanic Basin.
! Figure 4: First-order warming cycles based on Tethyan surface open-marine temperatures inferred from the conodont record of stratigraphic sections of the central and western Tethyan realm.

C.T. Griffin et al. (2022): Africa’s oldest dinosaurs reveal early suppression of dinosaur distribution. Abstract, Nature.
See also: here.
"... By the Late Triassic (Carnian stage, ~235 million years ago), cosmopolitan ‘disaster faunas’ had given way to highly endemic assemblages on the supercontinent.
[...] palaeolatitudinal climate belts, and not continental boundaries, are proposed to have controlled distribution. During this time of high endemism ..."

! K. Gurung et al. (2024): Geographic range of plants drives long-term climate change. Free access, Nature Communications, 15.
Note figure 2: Maps of global biomass, runoff and silicate weathering. "... we couple a fast vegetation model (FLORA) to a spatially-resolved long-term climate-biogeochemical model (SCION), to assess links between plant geographical range, the long-term carbon cycle and climate. Model results show lower rates of carbon fixation and up to double the previously predicted atmospheric CO2 concentration due to a limited plant geographical range over the arid Pangea supercontinent.
[...] We demonstrate that plant geographical range likely exerted a major, under-explored control on long-term climate change ..."

A. Hallam (1985): A review of Mesozoic climates. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 142: 433-445. See likewise here.
Note figure 5: Schematic presentation of continental humid and arid belts for early Triassic.

Bilal U. Haq et al. (1987): Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. PDF file, Science, 235.

N. Hauschke (1989): Steinsalzkristallmarken - Begriff, Deutung und Bedeutung für das Playa-Playasee-Faziesmodell. Pdf file, about halite casts, (in German). Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 140: 355-369. See also here.

R. Harris et al. (2017): Climate change during the Triassic and Jurassic. In PDF, Geology Today, 33: 210–215. See also here .
"... these results provide more nuance to the statement that the Triassic possessed a dry and hot continental climate versus the Jurassic, which became cooler and wetter. The increasing wetness really only occurred in the northern subtropics. Although the tropics cooled from the Triassic to the Jurassic, the average global temperature rose due to increasing carbon dioxide. Thus, referring to the Triassic as warm and the Jurassic as wet is an oversimplification of the geological evidence and palaeoclimate model simulations. ..."

! N. Hauschke (1989): Steinsalzkristallmarken - Begriff, Deutung und Bedeutung für das Playa-Playasee-Faziesmodell. Pdf file, about halite casts, (in German). Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 140: 355-369. See also here.

! E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237. See also here.

Carmen Heunisch and Heinz-Gerd Röhling, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover: Permo-Triassic climatic development. Research report (via wayback archive, in German).

T. He et al. (2023): Paleoenvironmental changes across the Mesozoic–Paleogene hyperthermal events. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 222.
Note figure 1: Records of climate conditions, carbon cycle perturbations and geological events during the Mesozoic–Paleogene.

P.A. Hochuli et al. (2010): Multiple climatic changes around the Permian-Triassic boundary event revealed by an expanded palynological record from mid-Norway. In PDF, GSA Bulletin, 122: 884-896.
See also here.
"... In contrast to the common claim that marine and terrestrial biota both suffered a mass extinction related to the Permian- Triassic boundary event, the studied material from the Norwegian midlatitudinal sites shows no evidence for destruction of plant ecosystems. ..."

T.P. Hollaar et al. (2023): Environmental changes during the onset of the Late Pliensbachian Event (Early Jurassic) in the Cardigan Bay Basin, Wales. In PDF, Climate of the Past, 19: 979-997. See also here.
"... We explore the environmental and depositional changes on orbital timescales for the Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) core during the onset of the LPE [Late Pliensbachian Event]. Clay mineralogy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analysis, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and palynology are combined to resolve systematic changes in erosion, weathering, fire, grain size, and riverine influx. Our results indicate distinctively different environments before and after the onset of the LPE ..."

! M. Holz (2015): Mesozoic paleogeography and paleoclimates - a discussion of the diverse greenhouse and hothouse conditions of an alien world. In PDF, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 61: 91-107.
See also here.

B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B.L.H. Horn et al.(2018): A loess deposit in the Late Triassic of southern Gondwana, and its significance to global paleoclimate. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 81: 189-203. See also here.
Note fig. 10: Paleomap of Late Triassic showing the climatic zones.

M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006): Triassic - seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London, London.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.B. Huey and P:D. Ward (2005): Climbing a triassic Mount Everest: Into thinner air. In PDF, JAMA-Journal of the American Medial Association, 294: 1761-1762.

! A. Iglesias et al. (2011): The evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present. Free access, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103: 409–422.

X. Jin (2019): The Carnian (Late Triassic) Extreme Climate Event: Comparison of the Italian Tethys and South China Geological Records. Ph.D. thesis. See also here (in PDF).

M.M. Joachimski et al. (2022): Five million years of high atmospheric CO2 in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Geology, 6: 650–654.

M.M. Joachimski et al. (2012): Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology, 40: 195-198.

! D.V. Kent and G. Muttoni (2003): Mobility of Pangea: Implications for Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Paleoclimate. PDF file, In: Peter M. LeTourneau and Paul Eric Olsen: The great rift valleys of Pangea in eastern North America (Columbia University Press), New York.
See also here (in PDF).

D.V. Kent and P.E. Olsen (2000): Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and paleolatitude of the Triassic-Jurassic Blomidon Formation in the Fundy basin (Canada): implications for early Mesozoic tropical climate gradients. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 179: 311-324.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson Sally Stephens, University of Bristol: The Late Triassic Website. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to:
! Ecology of the Triassic.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.L. Kidder and T.R. Worsley (2001): Storms in the Late Permian and early Triassic. Abstract, Geological Society of America, 33: 444.
See also here.

T.G. Klausen et al. (2020): Geological control on dinosaurs' rise to dominance: Late Triassic ecosystem stress by relative sea level change. Open access, Terra Nova, 32: 434-441.
See also here.
"... The Late Triassic is enigmatic in terms of how terrestrial life evolved: it was the time when new groups arose, such as dinosaurs, lizards, crocodiles and mammals. Also, it witnessed a prolonged period of extinctions, distinguishing it from other great mass extinction events, while the gradual rise of the dinosaurs during the Carnian to Norian remains unexplained. Here we show that key extinctions during the early Norian might have been triggered by major sea-level changes ..."

V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2009): Paleofloristic evidence of climate change near and beyond the Permian-Triassic boundary. PDF file, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 284: 326-336.

W.M. Kuerschner et al.: Abrupt climate changes at the Triassic. Jurassic boundary inferred from palynological evidence. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 2006.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2010): Macrofloras and palynomorphs as possible proxies for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological studies: A case study from the Pelsonian (Middle Triassic) of Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Prà della Vacca (Olang Dolomites, N-Italy). In PDF, 290: 71–80.
See also here.

M.B. Lara et al. (2023): Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic insects: state of the art on paleoentomological studies in southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 60: 418–449.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Early Mesozoic geological and climatic map showing the fossil insect localities in South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile).
"... updated review of fossil insect faunas in this paper will help settling the bases for future taxonomic, diversity, and ecological studies during a time that comprised the evolutionary history of insects through two key episodes of the geological record: the end–Permian mass extinction (EPME, ~252 Ma) and the Carnian Pluvial Event ..."

! C.H. Lear et al. (2020): Geological Society of London Scientific Statement: what the geological record tells us about our present and future climate. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 178. See also here and there.

C.J. Lepre and P.E. Olsen (2021): Hematite reconstruction of Late Triassic hydroclimate over the Colorado Plateau. Abstract, PNAS, 118. See also here (in PDF).
"... hematite—particularly the “pigmentite” phase that gives red beds their characteristic colors—is a valid recorder of the Late Triassic climate history of Pangaea. Spectrophotometry measurements of the pigmentite concentrations in Chinle red beds indicate rising aridity and increased oscillatory climate change through the Late Triassic of the Colorado Plateau. ..."

W. Lestari et al. (2023): Carbon Cycle Perturbations and Environmental Change of the Middle Permian and Late Triassic paleo-Antarctic Circle. Free access, Researchsquare. See likewise here.
Note figure 1: Permian and Triassic paleogeographical maps of the Southern Hemisphere.
"... The Bicheno-5 core from Eastern Tasmania, Australia, provides the opportunity to examine Mid-Permian and Upper Triassic sediments from the paleo-Antarctic, using high-resolution organic carbon isotope (d 13 C TOC) chemostratigraphy, pXRF, and sedimentology, combined with new palynological data integrated with the existing radiometric age model ..."

L. Li et al. (2017): Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF, Geological Magazine. See also here.

L. Li et al. (2014): Late Triassic palaeoclimate and palaeoecosystem variations inferred by palynological record in the northeastern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF.

X. Li et al. (2023): Vegetation changes and climate shift during the latest Ladinian to the early Carnian: Palynological evidence from the Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China. Open access, Front. Earth Sci., 10: 1008707. doi: 10.3389/feart.2022.1008707.
"... We thus know that the climate during the latest Ladinian and early Carnian was “hot house” with seasonal aridity. In addition, three strong monsoonal pluvial pulses were signaled by the humidity index of lowland plants ..."

Sofie Lindström et al. (2009): Ladinian palynofloras in the Norwegian-Danish Basin: a regional marker reflecting a climate change. PDF file, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, 17: 21-24.

Q. Liu et al. (2024): Distinctive volcanic ash–rich lacustrine shale deposition related to chemical weathering intensity during the Late Triassic: Evidence from lithium contents and isotopes. Open access, Science Advances, 10. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.adi6594.
"... The Late Triassic Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) witnessed enormous climate change closely associated with volcanic activity
[...] this study provides evidence for the differential VA-rich [volcanic ash] shale deposition model related to chemical weathering states synchronous with climate changes during the CPE period ..."

Alan Logan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.: Triassic Period.
Please note the map "Pangea: Early Triassic Period". With indicated cold and warm water currents.

A.C. Mancuso et al. 2022): Paleoenvironmental and Biotic Changes in the Late Triassic of Argentina: Testing Hypotheses of Abiotic Forcing at the Basin Scale. Free access, Front. Earth Sci., 10:883788. doi: 10.3389/feart.2022.883788.
See also here.
Note chapter 1.1: Climate and Evolution in the Triassic of Gondwana.
"... we synthesize a multi-proxy basin-scale dataset of paleoenvironmental data, including new information from clay mineralogy and paleosol major- and trace-element geochemistry, to understand paleoclimate changes ..."

! A.W. Martinius et al. (2014): 2. Climatic and tectonic controls on Triassic dryland terminal fluvial system architecture, central North Sea. Summary. See also here (Google books).

M. Mau et al. (2022): Late Triassic paleowinds from lacustrine wave ripple marks in the Fleming Fjord Group, central East Greenland. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,Palaeoecology, 586. See also here.

C. Mays et al. (2022): End-Permian burnout: The role of Permian–Triassic wildfires in extinction, carbon cycling, and environmental change in eastern Gondwana. In PDF, Palaios, 37: 292–317.
See also here.
! Note figure 14: Artist’s reconstruction of the humid temperate but fire-adapted glossopterid biome during the end-Permian extinction interval (c. 252.1 Ma). Note the vegetative regeneration along the scorched trunks of the canopy-forming Glossopteris.
"... we conclude that elevated wildfire frequency was a short-lived phenomenon; recurrent wildfire events were unlikely to be the direct cause of the subsequent long-term absence of peat-forming wetland vegetation, and the associated ‘coal gap’ of the Early Triassic. ..."

Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin: Climate change and mass extinction: What can we learn from 200 million year old plants? PDF file.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! T. McKie (2014): Climatic and tectonic controls on Triassic dryland terminal fluvial system architecture, central North Sea. In PDF, Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ., 46: 19-58. See also here (provided by Google books).
! Palaeogeographic response to regional climate wettening depicted in Fig. 19.

T. McKie and B. Williams (2009): Triassic and fluvial dispersal across the northwest European Basins. Abstract.

I. Metcalfe et al. (2015): High-precision U-Pb CA-TIMS calibration of Middle Permian to Lower Triassic sequences, mass extinction and extreme climate-change in eastern Australian Gondwana. Abstract, Gondwana Research, 28: 61-81. See also here (in PDF).

! C.S. Miller and V. Baranyi (2019): Triassic Climates. In PDF. See also here.

! B.J.W. Mills et al. (2021): Spatial continuous integration of Phanerozoic global biogeochemistry and climate. Free access, Gondwana Research, 100: 73–86.

M. Mutti and H. Weissert (1995): Triassic monsoonal climate and its signature in Ladinian-Carnian carbonate platforms (Southern Alps, Italy). PDF file, Journal of Sedimentary Research-Section B.

! R.D. Nance (2022): The supercontinent cycle and Earth's long-term climate. Open access, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1515: 33–49.
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of Pangea for the Late Triassic (at 200 Ma).
! Figure 7: Distribution of warm (greenhouse) and cool (icehouse) global climatic conditions for the past 1 Ga compared with times of supercontinent assembly and breakup for Rodinia, Pannotia, and Pangea.
Figure 9: Distribution of large igneous provinces (LIPs) throughout Earth history.
! Figure 10: Age and estimated volume of Phanerozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs) compared to genus extinction magnitude showing correlation between mass extinction events (peaks) and LIP emplacement.

! National Research Council (2011), The National Academies Press, Washington, DC: Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. 177 pages.
In Understanding Earth's Deep Past, the National Research Council reports that rocks and sediments that are millions of years old hold clues to how the Earth's future climate would respond in an environment with high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases.
! See also here (PDF files available to download for free). You may download PDF files from NAP by logging in as a guest, providing only your email address.

A.J. Newell (2017): Rifts, rivers and climate recovery: A new model for the Triassic of England. Abstract, Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association.

E. Nitsch (2015): 1. Der Lettenkeuper – Verbreitung, Alter, Paläogeographie . PDF file, in German. Please take notice:
! Palaeogeography of Germany in the Lower Keuper (Ladinian) depicted in fig. 1.3.
E. Nitsch (2015): 3. Lithostratigraphie des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
E. Nitsch (2015): 13. Fazies und Ablagerungsräume des Lettenkeupers. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! H. Nowak et al. (2020): Palaeophytogeographical Patterns Across the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Open access, Front. Earth Sci.

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2020): The triassic period. In PDF, Geologic Time Scale 2020, Volume 2: 903-953. See also here.
! Note the generalized synthesis of selected Triassic stratigraphic scales in Figs. 25.5-25.7!

! J.G. Ogg et al. (2014): Triassic timescale status: A brief overview. PDF file, go to PDF page 3, Albertina 41.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Oh et al. (2015): Xenoxylon synecology and palaeoclimatic implications for the Mesozoic of Eurasia. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60: 245-256. See also here.

P. Olsen et al. (2022): Arctic ice and the ecological rise of the dinosaurs. Open access, Sci. Adv., 8.
See also: Frost ebnete Dinosauriern den Weg. In German, by Nadja Podbregar, Scinexx, July 04, 2022.

P.E. Olsen et al. (2018): Colorado Plateau Coring Project, Phase I (CPCP-I): a continuously cored, globally exportable chronology of Triassic continental environmental change from western North America. In PDF, Sci. Dril., 24: 15–40.

J.T. Parrish and F. Peterson (1988): Wind directions predicted from global circulation models and wind directions determined from eolian sandstones of the western United States: a comparison. PDF file, Sedimentary Geology, 56.

! J.T. Parrish (1983): Climate of the supercontinent Pangea. Abstract, The Journal of Geology. Sede also here (in PDF).

T.E. Pedernera et al. (2022): Triassic paleoclimate and paleofloristic trends of southwestern Gondwana (Argentina). Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 116.

J. Peng et al. (2021): A review of the Triassic pollen Staurosaccites: systematic and phytogeographical implications. In PDF, Grana, 60: 407–423.
See also here.
Note figure 5. Global distribution of Staurosaccites species during the Middle and Late Triassic.
Figure 6: Global Middle Triassic palynofloras based on the distribution of Staurosaccites, Camerosporites, Enzonalasporites, Infernopollenites and Ovalipollis.

! S. Péron et al. (2005): Paleoenvironment reconstructions and climate simulations of the Early Triassic: Impact of the water and sediment supply on the preservation of fluvial systems. In PDF, Geodinamica Acta, 18: 431-446.

! M. Philippe et al. (2015): News from an old wood - Agathoxylon keuperianum (Unger) nov. comb. in the Keuper of Poland and France. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 221: 83–91. See also here (in PDF).
"Anatomical features suggest that Agathoxylon keuperianum thrived under warm and wet conditions, whereas German Keuper sediments globally suggest hot and dry climate".

E.F. Pires et al. (2005): Late Triassic climate in southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): evidence from dendrochronological data. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 18: 213-221.

! A. Pohl et al. (2022): Dataset of Phanerozoic continental climate and Köppen–Geiger climate classes. Free access, Data in Brief, 43.
See also here.
"... This dataset provides a unique window onto changing continental climate throughout the Phanerozoic that accounts for the simultaneous evolution of paleogeography. ..."
! Note figure 3: Overview of 28 Phanerozoic time slices.

! N. Preto et al. (2010): Triassic climates. State of the art and perspectives. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 290: 1-10.. See also here.
"... The climate of the Triassic period was characterized by a non-zonal pattern, dictated by a strong global monsoon system with effects that are most evident in the Tethys realm.
[...] The Carnian Pluvial Event, marks an episode of increased rainfall documented worldwide, was the most distinctive climate change within the Triassic. ..."

RealClimate (a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists).
! See especially: Paleoclimate.
! Don´t miss to search e.g. for "Triassic".
Visit the link directory Paleo-data and Paleo Reconstructions (including code).

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L. Reinhardt, Fakultät Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität zu Köln: Dynamic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system: a record of Pangean megamonsoon cyclicity (Triassic, Middle Keuper, Southern Germany). Abstract, in German.
"... The study’s main purpose was to examine the cyclic deposits of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system in southern German Keuper basin (Upper Middle Keuper) in order to verify a possible climate related control of the high-frequent mudstone/dolomite cycles. ..."

Lutz Reinhardt (2000): Dynamic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system: a record of Pangean megamonsoon cyclicity (Triassic, Middle Keuper, Southern Germany). Abstract, in PDF, Dissertation, University of Cologne, Germany.

L. Reinhardt and W. Ricken (2000): The stratigraphic and geochemical record of Playa Cycles: monitoring a Pangaean monsoon-like system (Triassic, Middle Keuper, S. Germany). Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 161: 205-227.

L. Reinhardt and W. Ricken (1999): Climate cycles documented in a playa system: comparing geochemical signatures of subbasins (Triassic, Middle Keuper, German Basin). In PDF, Zbl. Geol. Paläontol. Teil I.

G.J. Retallack (2013): Permian and Triassic greenhouse crises. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 24: 90-103.

Gregory J. Retallack (2010): Greenhouse crises of the past 300 million years. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 121: 1441-1455.

G.J. Retallack (1999): Postapocalyptic greenhouse paleoclimate revealed by earliest Triassic paleosols in the Sydney Basin, Australia. Abstract, GSA Bulletin, 111: 52-70. See also here (in PDF.)

! D.A. Ruban (2023): Tsunamis Struck Coasts of Triassic Oceans and Seas: Brief Summary of the Literary Evidence. Open access, Water, 15.
"... it appears that the knowledge of Triassic tsunamis is not only heterogeneous but also fragmented and controversial to a certain degree ..."
Note figure 1: Selected patterns of the Triassic history of the Earth.
! Table 1: The literary evidence for judgments of Triassic tsunamis.
Figure 3: Global distribution and certainty of evidence of palaeotsunamis from the three time slices of the Triassic Period.

M. Roscher: Environmental reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic. Numeric modelling and geological evidences. In PDF. Dissertation, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg.

! A. Ruffell et al. (2016): The Carnian Humid Episode of the late Triassic: a review. Abstract, Geological Magazine, 153: 271-284. See also here (in PDF).

A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Ruhl (2010): Carbon cycle changes during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. In PDF.

M.F. Schaller et al. (2015): A 30 Myr record of Late Triassic atmospheric pCO2 variation reflects a fundamental control of the carbon cycle by changes in continental weathering. In PDF, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 127.

E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2020): Regime shifts in an Early Triassic subtropical ecosystem. Frontiers in Earth Science, 8: 588696. See also here (in PDF).
"... The Permian–Triassic, the Griesbachian–Dienerian, and the middle–late Smithian boundary stand out with abrupt shifts between lycophyte-dominated vegetation and gymnosperm-dominated vegetation. ..."

E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2012): Extinguishing a Permian World. In PDF, Geology, 40: 287-288.

W. Schneider and E. Salameh (2023): Effects on Sedimentary Processes via Upper Triassic Climate Forcing Caused by Multiple Impacting and Large Igneous Provinces (LIP)-Rifting/Degassing: Jordanian Platform/Arabian Plate and Germanic Basin/Central Europe. Free access, Open Journal of Geology, 13.
Note figure 5: Paleogeographic sketches of the Upper Triassic F. (Keuper), Germanic Basin: K2 Grabfeld F., K4 Exter F. (Rhaetian), Lower Jurassic. Figure 6: Strategraphy of the Germanic Basin.

ScienceDirect (provided by the Dutch publisher Elsevier):
Triassic Period.
Created by ScienceDirect using heuristic and machine-learning approaches to extract relevant information.

! C.R. Scotese (2021): An atlas of Phanerozoic paleogeographic maps: the seas come in and the seas go out. In PDF, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 49: 679-728.
See also here.
Note chapter 4.5. Permo–Triassic (starting on PDF page 692).
! Figure 12: A Paleozoic paleotemperature timescale.
! Figure 15: A Mesozoic paleotemperature timescale.
! Figure 19: A Cenozoic paleotemperature timescale.

! C.R. Scotese et al. (2021): Phanerozoic paleotemperatures: The earth's changing climate during the last 540 million years. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 215. See also here.
"... This study provides a comprehensive and quantitative estimate of how global temperatures have changed during the last 540 million years. It combines paleotemperature measurements determined from oxygen isotopes with broader insights obtained from the changing distribution of lithologic indicators of climate, such as coals, evaporites, calcretes, reefs, and bauxite deposits. ..."

! Christopher R. Scotese, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas: Climate History. Go to: Late Triassic Climate.
Middle Triassic Climate.
Early Triassic Climate.

! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2007): Mesozoic climates. In: Mark Williams et al. (eds.): Deep-time perspectives on climate change: marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. Google books.

! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2006): Mesozoic climates: General circulation models and the rock record. In PDF, Sedimentary geology, 190: 269-287.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Sha et al. (2015): Triassic-Jurassic climate in continental high-latitude Asia was dominated by obliquity-paced variations (Junggar Basin, Ürümqi, China). In PDF, PNAS.

W. Shu et al. (2023): Stepwise recovery of vegetation from Permian–Triassic mass extinction in North China and implications for changes of palaeoclimates. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria.
Likewise note the poster PDF.

A.M. Siegloch et al. (2021): Paleoclimatic inferences based on wood growth interruptions in Late Triassic flood deposits from the southernmost Brazilian Gondwana. In PDF, Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 24: 3–20.

! C.J. Smiley (1967): Paleoclimatic Interpretations of Some Mesozoic Floral Sequences. AAPG Bulletin.

Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution: Triassic, Climate and Plate Tectonics.

Yi Song et al. (2020): Distribution of pyrolytic PAHs across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China: Evidence of wildfire outside the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 201. See also here (in PDF).
"... Sharp increases in the abundances of pyrolytic PAHs normalized to total organic carbon were found during the Rhaetian Stage (R1 and R2) and at the Tr-J boundary. The ratios of pyrolytic PAHs (PPAHs) to methylated homologues document the combustion origin of PPAHs from methylated PAHs during these intervals of increased wildfire frequency. ..."

L.A. Spalletti et al. (2003): Geological factors and evolution of southwestern Gondwana Triassic plants. In PDF, Gondwana Research. See also here (abstract).

E.A. Sperling et al. (2022): Breathless through Time: Oxygen and Animals across Earth’s History. Free access, The Biological Bulletin, 243.
Note figure 1: The four broad stages of atmospheric oxygen and life through Earth history, with oxygen in log scale as percent of present atmospheric levels (% PAL).
Figure 5: Reconstructed marine animal biodiversity dynamics and atmospheric oxygen through the Phanerozoic.
Figure 7: The chronology of the worst mass extinction in Earth history.

M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2021): Searching for a nearest living equivalent for Bennettitales: a promising extinct plant group for stomatal proxy reconstructions of Mesozoic pCO2. Open accesss, GFF, DOI: 10.1080/11035897.2021.1895304.

! M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2011): Extremely elevated CO2 concentrations at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 308: 418-432.
See also here.
"... The final results indicate that pre-TJB (Rhaetian), the CO2 concentration was approximately 1000 ppm, that it started to rise steeply pre-boundary and had doubled to around 2000–2500 ppm at the TJB. The CO2 concentration then remained elevated for some time post-boundary, before returning to pre-TJB levels in the Hettangian. ..."

The Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, Germany:
Mittlerer und Oberer Keuper.
Mittlerer Keuper vor 233 – 205 Millionen Jahren.
Unterer Keuper.
Unterer Keuper vor 235 – 233 Millionen Jahren.
Easy to understand informations, in German.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic Life on Land: The Great Transition. Google books.

! Y. Sun (2023): The Early Triassic hothouse: what we know and what we don’t. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2023.

! L.H. Tanner (2018): Climates of the Late Triassic: Perspectives, Proxies and Problems. Abstract, with an extended citation list. Pages 59-90. In: L.H. Tanner (ed.): The Late Triassic World.

! E.L. Taylor et al. (2000): Permian and Triassic high latitude paleoclimates: evidence from fossil biotas. In: Brian T. Huber, Kenneth G. MacLeod (eds.): Warm climates in earth history. Google books.

N. Tian et al. (2016): New record of fossil wood Xenoxylon from the Late Triassic in the Sichuan Basin, southern China and its paleoclimatic implications. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464: 65–75. See also here (in PDF).

! J.A. Trotter et al. (2021): Long-term cycles of Triassic climate change: a new d18O record from conodont apatite. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 415: 165-174.
See likewise here.
! Please note figure 3: Schematic showing best-estimate d18OphosN composite curve for surface waters of the Tethyan subtropics, together with major geo- and bio-events through the Triassic.

! C.R. Scotese et al. (2018): Phanerozoic paleotemperatures: The earth's changing climate during the last 540 million years. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 215. See also here.
"... This study provides a comprehensive and quantitative estimate of how global temperatures have changed during the last 540 million years. It combines paleotemperature measurements determined from oxygen isotopes with broader insights obtained from the changing distribution of lithologic indicators of climate, such as coals, evaporites, calcretes, reefs, and bauxite deposits. ..."

E.A. Sperling et al. (2022): Breathless through Time: Oxygen and Animals across Earth’s History. Free access, The Biological Bulletin, 243.
Note figure 1: The four broad stages of atmospheric oxygen and life through Earth history, with oxygen in log scale as percent of present atmospheric levels (% PAL).
Figure 5: Reconstructed marine animal biodiversity dynamics and atmospheric oxygen through the Phanerozoic.
Figure 7: The chronology of the worst mass extinction in Earth history.

Y. Sun (2023): The Early Triassic hothouse: what we know and what we don’t. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2023.

! M.E. Tucker and M.J. Benton (1982): Triassic environments, climates and reptile evolution. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 40: 361-379. See also here.

! V. Vajda et al. (2023): The ‘seed-fern’ Lepidopteris mass-produced the abnormal pollen Ricciisporites during the end-Triassic biotic crisis. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 627.
Note figure 4: Microsporophyll Antevsia zeilleri and microsporangia (pollen sacs) with contained pollen linked to the Lepidopteris ottonis plant.
! Figure 10C: Reconstruction of branch of male plant with short shoots bearing Lepidopteris ottonis foliage and Antevsia zeilleri microsporophylls.
"... We show that R. tuberculatus is a large, abnormal form of the small smooth-walled monosulcate pollen traditionally associated with L. ottonis, which disappeared at the ETE [end-Triassic mass extinction], when volcanism induced cold-spells followed by global warming. We argue that the production of aberrant R. tuberculatus resulted from ecological pressure in stressed environments that favoured asexual reproduction in peltasperms ..."

V. Vajda et al. (2016): Mesozoic ecosystems – climate and biotas. In PDF, Preface, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464.

B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2020): The Mesozoic Arctic: warm, green, and highly diverse. In PDF, Geological Magazine, 157: 1543–1546.

! T. Vollmer et al. (2008): Orbital control on Upper Triassic Playa cycles of the Steinmergel-Keuper (Norian): a new concept for ancient playa cycles. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 267: 1–16. See also here.
Note figure 1: Simplified paleogeographic map.
! Figure 6: General facies model of the SMK [the Norian Steinmergel-Keuper].
"... The Norian Steinmergel.Keuper (SMK) represents a low-latitude cyclically-bedded playa system of the Mid-German Basin.
[...] Dolomite layers reflect the lake stage (maximum monsoon) while red mudstones indicate the dry phase (minimum monsoon) of the playa cycle.
[...] humid periods reveal thick layers of dolomite beds, indicating that during those intervals the monsoonal activity was strong enough to prevent the playa system from drying out completely.

T. Vollmer (2005): Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles: New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin) PDF file (10.3 MB), Thesis, Universität zu Köln. See also here.

! P.X. Wang et al. (2017): The global monsoon across time scales: Mechanisms and outstanding issues. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.

! Z. Wang (1993): Evolutionary ecosystem of Permian-Triassic redbeds in North China: a historical record of global desertification. In PDF; The Nonmarine Triassic. See also here and there.

! J.K. Warren (2010): Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 98: 217–268. Worth checking out, excellent!

J.H. Whiteside et al. (2015): Extreme ecosystem instability suppressed tropical dinosaur dominance for 30 million years. Open access, PNAS, 112.
"Our data demonstrate that a generally stable vertebrate community with a rarity of dinosaurs (especially large-bodied forms) coexisted with dramatically fluctuating plant communities, the latter reflecting highly variable environmental conditions enabled by high atmospheric pCO2".

! J.H. Whiteside et al. (2011): Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea. Open access, PNAS, 108.
See also here.
"... . Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions. ..."

Wikipedia the free encyclopedia: Triassic. See also: Trias (in German).

! S.L. Wing et al. (1992): Mesozoic and early Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF. In: Behrensmeyer, A.K., Damuth, J.D., DiMichele, W.A., Potts, R., Sues, H., Wing, S.L. (eds): Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time : Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp.327–416.
! See especially page 329 (on PDF page 3): "Triassic Biotas"

H. Wopfner and X.C. Jin (2009): Pangea Megasequences of Tethyan Gondwana-margin reflect global changes of climate and tectonism in Late Palaeozoic and Early Triassic times—a review. In PDF, Palaeoworld, 18: 169–192. See also here.

H. Wu et al. (2012): Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cycles of the early Triassic Daye Formation, South China and their geochronological and paleoclimatic implications. In PDF, Gondwana Research, 22: 748-759.
See also here.

! Q. Wu et al. (2021): High-precision U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change, and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology. See also here.
"... The great loss of highly diverse and abundant Cathaysian floras and the widespread invasion of the Angaran floras under arid climate conditions in the North China block happened during the late Cisuralian to Guadalupian, but its exact timing is uncertain due to the long hiatus. ..."

C. Xiong et al. (2021): Plant resilience and extinctions through the Permian to Middle Triassic on the North China Block: A multilevel diversity analysis of macrofossil records. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 223.
See also here.
"... After this, coal swamps disappeared, most widespread genera became extinct or shrank in distribution area, red beds became common, and surviving plants were walchian conifers, peltasperms and other advanced gymnosperms, indicating an overall drying trend in climate. A further extinction event happened at the transition between the Sunjiagou and Liujiagou formations (and lateral equivalents), with the highest species extinction and origination rates at regional scale. ..."

Z. Xu et al. (2022): Early Triassic super-greenhouse climate driven by vegetation collapse. In PDF, Europe PMC.
See also here.
Note figure 3, the climate graph.
"... Our reconstructions show that terrestrial vegetation collapse during the PTME, especially in tropical regions, resulted in an Earth system with low levels of organic carbon sequestration and chemical weathering, leading to limited drawdown of greenhouse gases. This led to a protracted period of extremely high surface temperatures, during which biotic recovery was delayed for millions of years. ..."

C. Yu et al. (2023): Climate paleogeography knowledge graph and deep time paleoclimate classifications. Free access, Geoscience Frontiers, 14.
"... the application of climate classification in deep time (i.e., climate paleogeography) is prohibited due to the usually qualitatively constrained paleoclimate and the inconsistent descriptions and semantic heterogeneity of the climate types. In this study, a climate paleogeography knowledge graph is established under the framework of the Deep-Time Digital Earth program
[...] We also reconstruct the global climate distributions in the Late Cretaceous according to these classifications ..."

N. Zavialova (2024): Comment on “The ‘seed-fern’ Lepidopteris mass-produced the abnormal pollen Ricciisporites during the end-Triassic biotic crisis” by V. Vajda, S. McLoughlin, S. M. Slater, O. Gustafsson, and A. G. Rasmusson [Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 627 (2023), 111,723]. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 322.
"... Recently, Ricciisporites Lundblad and Cycadopites Wodehouse (= Monosulcites Cookson) pollen types have been found cooccurring in Antevsia zeilleri
[...] the two pollen types are too dissimilar by their exine ultrastructure as well as by the general morphology and exine sculpture.
[...] Another explanation should be found for the presence of Ricciisporites tetrads in these pollen sacs ..."

F. Zhang et al. (2018): Multiple episodes of extensive marine anoxia linked to global warming and continental weathering following the latest Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Science Advances, 4. See also here .

! L. Zhang et al. (2016): A new paleoclimate classification for deep time. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443: 98–106. See also here.

! S.-h. Zhang et al. (2022): Two cosmopolitanism events driven by different extreme paleoclimate regimes. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change.

A.M. Ziegler et al. (2003): Tracing the tropics across land and sea: Permian to present. In PDF; Lethaia.

! A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993): Early Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
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