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The European Keuper: Stratigraphy and Facies
Early Triassic Floras
Triassic Field Trips
! Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
Geologic Time Scale@
! Albertiana (website
hosted by Utrecht University).
The newsletter of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy.
The primary aim of Albertiana is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and
understanding among the members of the IUGS Subcommission on
Triassic Stratigraphy. E-Albertiana is formated in Adobe Portable document format (PDF),
for download. See also:
! Geobiology.cn: Albertiana (PDF files). Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana. Excellent!
S. Ash (2010), Go to PDF page 59: Summary of the Upper Triassic flora of the Newspaper Rock Bed and its paleoclimatic implications. PDF file, SEPM-NSF Workshop "Paleosols and Soil Surface Analog Systems", September 21-26, 2010, Petrified Forest National Park, AZ.
A. Rahman Ashraf et al. (2010): Triassic and Jurassic palaeoclimate development in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China - a review and additional lithological data. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 187-201. See also here (in PDF).
J.J. Beer (2005): Sequence stratigraphy of fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower part of the Chinle Formation, south central Utah, United States: paleoclimatic and tectonic implications. In PDF, thesis, Duluth, University of Minnesota. 169 p.
D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2005): Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. In PDF, PNAS, 102.
D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2002): Biogeochemical constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary carbon cycle event. In PDF, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16.
Claire M. Belcher et al. (2010): Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change. Abstract, Nature Geoscience, 3: 426-429.
C.M. Belcher et al. (2010):
Questions - how state of the art fire safety techniques can be applied to answer major
questions in the Earth Sciences. In PDF. See also
(the slides). Go to PDF page 22: "East Greenland 200 Million years ago".
See also there (Linklist: Fire Safety Engineering in the UK: The State of the Art. University of Edinburgh).
! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkely (UCMP): The Triassic Period. Worth checking out: Triassic Period: Localities, Stratigraphy, and Triassic Period: Tectonics and Paleoclimate.
Nina R. Bonis (2010), Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology,
Palaeoecology Institute of Environmental Biology,
Department of Biology, Utrecht University:
and vegetation history during the Triassic-Jurassic transition.
PDF file (7.7 MB), LPP Contribution Series No. 29. Seven research reports (chapters)
in this thesis, see especially chapter 7 (with W.M. Kürschner):
! Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (PDF page 140).
S. Bourquin et al. (2007): The Permian-Triassic boundary and Early Triassic sedimentation in Western European basins: an overview. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 33: 221-236. See also here.
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003):
during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2.
Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file,
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375.
Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.
M.L. Crocker (2012): The dirt on paleosols: sedimentology and paleoclimate indicators within the upper triassic Chinle Formation, Paria, Utah. In PDF. Thesis, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah.
N. Rubén Cúneo et al. (2003): In situ fossil forest from the upper Fremouw Formation (Triassic) of Antarctica: paleoenvironmental setting and paleoclimate analysis. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 197: 239-261.
Timothy M. Demko et al. (2005): Mesozoic Lakes of the Colorado Plateau. In PDF, Geological Society of America, Field Guide 6.
J.M. Dickins (1984): Climate of the Triassic as seen from the Permian. PDF file, Albertiana 2.
! R.F. Dubiel et al. (1991): The Pangaean megamonsoon: evidence from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau. PDF file, Palaios, 6: 347-370.
R.F. Dubiel (1989): Depositional and climatic setting of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau In PDF, Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs ...
R.F. Dubiel (1987):
of the Upper Triassic Chinle
Formation Southeastern Utah: Paleoclimatic
Implications. In PDF,
Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science.
See fig. 8: Horsetail pith casts, formed when the hollow trunks of the horsetails were broken off and filled with sediment during a flood event.
! Erin Eastwood (2008): Pangean Paleoclimate. PDF file, GEO 387H.
B.J. Fletcher et al. (2008): Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change. In PDF, Nat. Geosci., 1: 43-48.
Thomas Galfetti et al. (2007): Late Early Triassic climate change: Insights from carbonate carbon isotopes, sedimentary evolution and ammonoid paleobiogeography. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 243: 394-411.
Bilal U. Haq et al. (1987): Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. PDF file, Science, 235.
! E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237.
Carmen Heunisch and Heinz-Gerd Röhling, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover: Permo-Triassic climatic development. Research report (via wayback archive, in German).
B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.
R.B. Huey and P:D. Ward (2005): Climbing a triassic Mount Everest: Into thinner air. In PDF, JAMA-Journal of the American Medial Association, 294: 1761-1762.
M.M. Joachimski et al. (2012): Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology, 40: 195-198.
! Dennis V. Kent and Giovanni Muttoni (2003): Mobility of Pangea: Implications for Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Paleoclimate. PDF file, In: Peter M. LeTourneau and Paul Eric Olsen: The great rift valleys of Pangea in eastern North America (Columbia University Press), New York.
D.V. Kent and P.E. Olsen (2000): Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and paleolatitude of the Triassic-Jurassic Blomidon Formation in the Fundy basin (Canada): implications for early Mesozoic tropical climate gradients. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 179: 311-324.
Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson Sally Stephens,
University of Bristol:
The Late Triassic Website.
This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic,
and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to:
! Ecology of the Triassic.
! Heinz W. Kozur and G.H. Bachmann (2010): The Middle Carnian Wet Intermezzo of the Stuttgart Formation (Schilfsandstein), Germanic Basin. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 290: 107-119.
V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2009): Paleofloristic evidence of climate change near and beyond the Permian-Triassic boundary. PDF file, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 284: 326-336.
W.M. Kuerschner et al.: Abrupt climate changes at the Triassic. Jurassic boundary inferred from palynological evidence. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 2006.
Evelyn Kustatscher et al. (2009): Macrofloras and palynomorphs as possible proxies for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological studies: A case study from the Pelsonian (Middle Triassic) of Kühwiesenkopf/Monte Prà della Vacca (Olang Dolomites, N-Italy). Abstract.
Sofie Lindström et al. (2009): Ladinian palynofloras in the Norwegian-Danish Basin: a regional marker reflecting a climate change. PDF file, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, 17: 21-24.
Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin: Climate change and mass extinction: What can we learn from 200 million year old plants? PDF file.
M. Mutti and H. Weissert(1995): Triassic monsoonal climate and its signature in Ladinian-Carnian carbonate platforms (Southern Alps, Italy). PDF file, Journal of Sedimentary Research-Section B.
E.F. Pires et al. (2005): Late Triassic climate in southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): evidence from dendrochronological data. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 18: 213-221.
J.T. Parrish and F. Peterson (1988): Wind directions predicted from global circulation models and wind directions determined from eolian sandstones of the western United States: a comparison. PDF file, Sedimentary Geology, 56.
! S. Péron et al. (2005): Paleoenvironment reconstructions and climate simulations of the Early Triassic: Impact of the water and sediment supply on the preservation of fluvial systems. In PDF, Geodinamica Acta, 18: 431-446.
! N. Preto et al. (2010): Triassic climates. State of the art and perspectives. Abstract.
Lutz Reinhardt (2000): Dynamic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system: a record of Pangean megamonsoon cyclicity (Triassic, Middle Keuper, Southern Germany). Abstract, in PDF, Dissertation, University of Cologne, Germany.
Gregory J. Retallack (2010): Greenhouse crises of the past 300 million years. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 121: 1441-1455.
M. Roscher: Environmental reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic. Numeric modelling and geological evidences. In PDF. Dissertation, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg.
M. Ruhl (2010): Carbon cycle changes during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. In PDF.
E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2012): Extinguishing a Permian World. In PDF, Geology, 40: 287-288.
Christopher R. Scotese, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas:
Climate History. Go to:
Late Triassic Climate.
Middle Triassic Climate.
Early Triassic Climate.
! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2007): Mesozoic climates. In: Mark Williams et al. (eds.): Deep-time perspectives on climate change: marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. Google books.
Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution: Triassic, Climate and Plate Tectonics.
! Hans-Dieter Sues and Nicholas C. Fraser (2010): Triassic Life on Land: The Great Transition. Google books.
! E.L. Taylor et al. (2000): Permian and Triassic high latitude paleoclimates: evidence from fossil biotas. In: Brian T. Huber, Kenneth G. MacLeod (eds.): Warm climates in earth history. Google books.
M.E. Tucker and M.J. Benton (1982): Triassic environments, climates and reptile evolution. PDF file.
T. Vollmer (2005): Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles: New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin) PDF file (10.3 MB), Thesis, Universität zu Köln. See also here.
! Z. Wang (1993): Evolutionary ecosystem of Permian-Triassic redbeds in North China: a historical record of global desertification. In PDF; The Nonmarine Triassic.
! J.H. Whiteside et al. (2011): Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea. In PDF, PNAS, 108: 8972-8977. See also here and there.
Wikipedia the free encyclopedia: Triassic. See also: Trias (in German).
A.M. Ziegler et al. (2003): Tracing the tropics across land and sea: Permian to present. In PDF; Lethaia.
A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993):
Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.
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