Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Palaeoclimate


Focused on Palaeoclimate
Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
Stomatal Density
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle

Home / Palaeoclimate / Focused on Palaeoclimate

Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
Stomatal Density
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle
! Triassic Climate@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@
! The Carnian Pluvial Event@
! Lightning Strikes@
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@

Focused on Palaeoclimate

! J.A. Allen (1926): Ice crystal markings. In PDF, American Journal of Science, s5-11 (66): 494-500. See also here (abstract).

American Meteorological Society (website supported by the National Science Foundation): Water in the Earth System Learning Files. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.R. Ashraf et al. (2010): Triassic and Jurassic palaeoclimate development in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China - a review and additional lithological data. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 90: 187-201.
See also here.

X. Bao et al. (2023): Quantifying climate conditions for the formation of coals and evaporites. Free access, National Science Review.
"... We show that coal records were associated with an average temperature of 25°C and precipitation of 1300 mm yr-1 before 250 Ma. Afterwards, coal records appeared with temperatures between 0°C and 21°C and precipitation of 900 mm yr-1
[...] Evaporite records were associated with average temperature of 27°C and precipitation of 800 mm yr-1 ..."

! A.R. Bashforth et al. (2021): The environmental implications of upper Paleozoic plant-fossil assemblages with mixtures of wetland and drought-tolerant taxa in tropical Pangea. Geobios, 68: 1–45. See also here.
Note fig. 2: Distribution of wetland and dryland biomes in late Paleozoic landscapes of equatorial Pangea.

S. Baum, Texas Center for Climate Studies and Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University: Climatology and Paleoclimatology Resources. Web links to climatology and paleoclimatology. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G. Beaugrand (2023): Towards an Understanding of Large-Scale Biodiversity Patterns on Land and in the Sea. Free access, Biology, 12.

D. Beerling et al. (2009): Methane and the CH4 related greenhouse effect over the past 400 million years. In PDF.

! D.J. Beerling and D.L. Royer (2002): Fossil plants as indicators of the Phanerozoic global carbon cycle. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 30: 527-556.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
see also here.

! M.J. Benton (2018): Hyperthermal-driven mass extinctions: killing models during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 376. See also here.
Note Fig. 3: Palaeogeographic map of the Permo-Triassic, showing the single supercontinent Pangaea, modelled climate belts, and the distribution of terrestrial tetrapods.

A. Berger (2021): Milankovitch, the father of paleoclimate modeling. Open access, Clim. Past, 17: 1727–1733.

! R.A. Berner (2013): From black mud to earth system science: A scientific autobiography. In PDF, American Journal of Science, 313: 1-60.
See also here.

Robert A. Berner, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT: Atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time. PNAS, Vol. 96, Issue 20, 10955-10957, September 28, 1999.

John Birks University of Bergen and University College, London:
Pollen-climate transfer functions - problems and pitfalls.
Powerpoint presentation.

H. John B. Birks (2011): Stay or Go? A Q-Time Perspective. Powerpoint presentation.

! J.L. Blois et al. (2013): Climate Change and the Past, Present, and Future of Biotic Interactions. In PDF, Science 341.
See also here.

! B. Blonder et al. (2012): The leaf-area shrinkage effect can bias paleoclimate and ecology research. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 99: 1756-1763.

Botany.Com, the Encyclopedia of Plants: Zone Temperatures. Zones in Fahrenheit and Celsius. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.K. Boyce and M.A. Zwieniecki (2018): The prospects for constraining productivity through time with the whole-plant physiology of fossils. Open access, New Phytologist.

C.K. Boyce and J.-E. Lee (2017): Plant Evolution and Climate over Geological Timescales. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 45.

J.D. Boyko et al. (2023): The evolutionary responses of life-history strategies to climatic variability in flowering plants. Free access, New Phytologist, doi: 10.1111/nph.18971.
See also here (in PDF).
Note figure 1: Global distribution of vascular plant diversity and proportion of annual plants.

K.R. Briffa et al. (2007): Paleoclimate. PDF file, Table of contents. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Your Planet Earth (prepared by Jess Trofimovs and Howard Falcon-Lang).
A library of talks on earth sciences and evolutionary topics that may be of interest to earth sciences and education professionals as a basis for engagement and outreach shows in schools. Go to:
Climate Change. Powerpoint Presentation, for 14–15 year-olds.

! British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK:
What is the difference between weather and climate? Easy to understand information. Note also:
What causes the Earth's climate to change?
Climate change through time. Explaining changing climate and the different rocks that formed as environmental conditions varied through geological time.

Monica Bruckner, Montana State University ( website hosted by Microbial Life, Educational Resources): Paleoclimatology: How Can We Infer Past Climates?

! S.E. Bryan and L. Ferrari (2013): Large igneous provinces and silicic large igneous provinces: Progress in our understanding over the last 25 years. In PDF, GSA Bulletin. See also here.

Joe Buchdahl, aric, Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester: aric provides world class research and education in atmospheric and sustainability issues to encourage responsible development. Global Climate Change Student Information Guide. The Global Climate Change Student Information Guide includes chapters on: the climate system; causes of climate change; empirical observation and climatic reconstruction; climate modelling; and palaeo- and contemporary climate change. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See also here. In PDF.

Christine Bui, Trumbull College, Yale Scientific Magazine (YSM): Paleobotany: Fossilized plant remains give insights to global climate balances.

L. Burgener et al. (2023): Cretaceous climates: Mapping paleo-Köppen climatic zones using a Bayesian statistical analysis of lithologic, paleontologic, and geochemical proxies. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 613.
See likewise here.
Note figure 1: Global map of Campanian (83.6-72.1 Ma) mean annual temperature data points and the 1444 resulting interpolated mean annual temperature map.
Figure 6: Modern climate zones as defined by the paleo-Köppen climate classification system.

R.J. Burnham and K.R. Johnson (2004): South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 1595-1610.

! R. Caballero and P. Lynch (2011): Climate modelling and deep-time climate change. PDF file, In: Climate Change, Ecology and Systematics, ed. Trevor R. Hodkinson, Michael B. Jones, Stephen Waldren and John A. N. Parnell. Published by Cambridge University Press.

C. Cao et al. (2022): Persistent late Permian to Early Triassic warmth linked to enhanced reverse weathering. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 5: 832–838.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Strontium and lithium isotope compositions in seawater reconstructed in this study and compiled from the literature with chronology of tectonic, climatic and biological events occurring during the Permian and Early Triassic.
! See especially figure 2c: Major events during the Permian and the Early Triassic.

Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, Northfield, MN: On the Cutting Edge, Workshops for Geoscience Faculty, Paleoclimate: Climate Change Through Time. This website provides access to a spectrum of visualizations and supporting material that can be used effectively to teach students about palaeoclimate through geologic time. Visualizations include simple animations, GIS-based animated maps, paleogeographic maps, as well as numerous illustrations and photos.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Timothy Casey, Victoria, Australia: Climate Change Catastrophes in Critical Thinking.

! C.B. Cecil et al, (1985): Paleoclimate controls on late Paleozoic sedimentation and peat formation in the central Appalachian Basin (USA). In PDF, International Journal of Coal Geology, 5: 195-230.
See also here.
Note fig. 9: Interpreted depositional settings of the Upper Freeport coal bed and associated rocks.

M. Chevalier et al. (2022): crestr: an R package to perform probabilistic climate reconstructions from palaeoecological datasets. Free access, Climate of the Past, 18: 821–844.

M. Chevalier et al. (2014): CREST (Climate REconstruction SofTware): A probability density function (PDF)-based quantitative climate reconstruction method. Free acces. Clim. Past, 10: 2081-2098.

J.C.H. Chiang (2009): The Tropics in Paleoclimate Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 37: 263–297. See also here.

! Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, DC:
Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Panel on Effects of Past Global Change on Life, National Research Council; 272 pages, 1995. This "Open Book" presentation is a free, browsable, nonproprietary, fully and deeply searchable version of the publication.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003): Climate during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2. Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.

! C.J. Cleal et al. (2011): Pennsylvanian vegetation and climate in tropical Variscan Euramerica. In PDF, Episodes, 34.

Climate of the Past. An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union.

C. Coiffard et al. (2012): Deciphering Early Angiosperm Landscape Ecology Using a Clustering Method on Cretaceous Plant Assemblages. In PDF.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University: Tutorial: Using the Viewer. Data Catalog: Datasets by Category, go to Paleoclimate Data.

Committee on the Geologic Record of Biosphere Dynamics, National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (The National Academies Press): The Geological Record of Ecological Dynamics: Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future Environmental Change. 216 pages, 2005. Produced by a committee consisting of both ecologists and paleontologists, the report provides ecologists with background on techniques for obtaining and evaluating geohistorical information, and provides paleontologists with background on the nature of ecological phenomena amenable to analysis in the geological record. The report can be read online for free!

Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS); European Commission; Luxembourg: Environment and Climate. This site offers all recent enviromental and climate projects of the European Union. Govermental and commercial institutions are included in the environment and climate programme.

! F.L. Condamine et al. (2020): The rise of angiosperms pushed conifers to decline during global cooling. Free access, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117: 28867–28875.
Note figure 1: An overview of hypothetical determinants of conifer diversification over time.
Figure 2: Global diversification of conifers inferred from a molecular phylogeny and the fossil record.
Figure 3: Drivers of conifer diversification dynamics.

K.A. Crichton et al. (2023): What the geological past can tell us about the future of the ocean’s twilight zone. Free access, Nature Communications, 14.
Note figure 1: Foraminiferal data and climate indicators for the early Eocene, mid- Miocene, and preindustrial present.

! T.M. Cronin (1999): Principles of Paleoclimatology. In PDF.
"Principles of Paleoclimatology describes the history of the Earth´s climate — the ice age cycles, sea level changes, volcanic activity, changes in atmosphere and solar radiation — and the resulting, sometimes catastrophic, biotic responses".
See also here.

C.W. Crowley (2012):
An Atlas Of Cenozoic Climate Zones, and Plates to accompany an Atlas Of Cenozoic Climate Zones. In PDF, Master thesis, Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Texas, Arlington.
See also here.

! T.J. Crowley and G.R. North (1988): Abrupt climate change and extinction events in earth history. In PDF, Science.

! T.J. Crowley (1983): The geologic record of climatic change. In PDF, Reviews of Geophysics.

S. Cruddas, BBC (2013): Climate change: A prehistoric window on Earth´s future?

R. H. Cummins, School of Interdisciplinary Studies, Miami University, OH: Internet links to paleoclimate resources.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! T.W. Dahl and S.K.M. Arens (2020): The impacts of land plant evolution on Earth's climate and oxygenation state – An interdisciplinary review. Open access, Chemical Geology, 547.

Timothy M. Demko et al. (1998): Plant taphonomy in incised valleys: Implications for interpreting paleoclimate from fossil plants. Abstract, Geology, 26: 1119-1122. See also here (in PDF).

! A.F. Diefendorf et al. (2010): Global patterns in leaf 13C discrimination and implications for studies of past and future climate. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 5738-5743. See also here.

D.L. Dilcher et al. (2009): A climatic and taxonomic comparison between leaf litter and standing vegetation from a Florida swamp woodland. Open access, American Journal of Botany, 96: 1108-1115.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2020): Uplands, lowlands, and climate: Taphonomic megabiases and the apparent rise of a xeromorphic, drought-tolerant flora during the Pennsylvanian-Permian transition. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 559.

William A. DiMichele et al. (2010): Cyclic changes in Pennsylvanian paleoclimate and effects on floristic dynamics in tropical Pangaea. PDF file, International Journal of Coal Geology, 83: 329-344. See also here.

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. PDF file, Geobiology (2009), 7: 200-226. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2006): From wetlands to wet spots: Environmental tracking and the fate of Carboniferous elements in Early Permian tropical floras. PDF file. In Greb, S.F., and DiMichele, W.A., Wetlands through time: Geological Society of America Special Paper 399, p. 223–248. See also here and there (Google books).

! W.A. DiMichelle, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and T.L. Phillips, University of Illinois: The Response of Hierarchially Structured Ecosystems to Long-Term Climatic Change: A Case Study using Tropical Peat Swamps of Pennsylvanian Age. From:
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2001): Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian plant communities to climate change. PDF file, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29: 461-487.
See also here.

Y. Donnadieu et al. (2009): Exploring the climatic impact of the continental vegetation on the Mezosoic atmospheric CO2 and climate history. In PDF, Clim. Past, 5: 85-96.

François Doumenge, Institut océanographique, Musée océanographique, Monaco, and Arie S. Issar, Water Resource Center, Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel: United Nations University Lecture Series, The Mediterranean Crises, and: Climate Change: Is It a Positive or Negative Process? The United Nations University is an international academic organization that provides and manages a framework for bringing together the world's leading scholars to tackle pressing global problems of major concern to the United Nations.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

A.M. Dunhill et al. (2018): Modelling determinants of extinction across two Mesozoic hyperthermal events. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B, 285.

! Erin Eastwood (2008): Pangean Paleoclimate. PDF file, GEO 387H.

K. Edvardsson Björnberg (2017): Climate and environmental science denial: A review of the scientific literature. In PDF, Journal of Cleaner Production, 167: 229-241. See also here.

! Dianne Edwards (1998): Climate signals in Palaeozoic land plants. PDF file, Phil.Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:
Weather and Climate.

! R.E. Ernst and N. Youbi (2017): How Large Igneous Provinces affect global climate, sometimes cause mass extinctions, and represent natural markers in the geological record. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 478: 30-52. See also here (in PDF).

! D.H. Erwin (2009): Climate as a driver of evolutionary change. PDF file, Current Biology, 19: R575-R583.

! J. Eystein et al. (2007): Palaeoclimate. In PDF, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.
See also here.

H.J. Falcon-Lang (2021): Climate–vegetation models bring fossil forests back to life. Free access, PNAS, 118.

H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2018): New insights on the stepwise collapse of the Carboniferous Coal Forests: Evidence from cyclothems and coniferopsid tree-stumps near the Desmoinesian–Missourian boundary in Peoria County, Illinois, USA. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 490: 375–392. See also here and there.

H.J. Falcon-Lang and W.A. DiMichele (2010): What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases? PDF file, Palaios, 25: 611-617. See also here.
Including a reconstruction of the Late Pennsylvanian ecosystem (fig 4).
"... plant assemblages in this paleoclimatic context suggests that coal forests dominated during humid interglacial phases, but were replaced by seasonally dry vegetation during glacial phases. After each glacial event, coal forests reassembled with largely the same species composition. ..."

Paul D. Farrar, Ocean Projects Department, Naval Oceanographic Office, Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, MS (The World Wide Web Virtual Library): Paleoclimatology and Paleoceanography. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Juan Pedro Ferrio Díaz, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany: How can we study past climates?

M. Fichman (2013): Raindrop Imprints and Their Use in the Retrodeformation of Carboniferous Trace Fossils. In PDF, Master's Theses.

B.J. Fletcher et al. (2008): Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change. In PDF, Nat. Geosci., 1: 43-48.
See also here.

F. Fluteau et al. (2001): The Late Permian climate. What can be inferred from climate modelling concerning Pangea scenarios and Hercynian range altitude? PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 167: 39-71.
See also here.

! D.A. Fordham et al. (2020): Using paleo-archives to safeguard biodiversity under climate change. In PDF, Science, 369.
See likewise here.
"... Fordham et al. review when and where rapid climate transitions can be found in the paleoclimate record
[...] They also highlight how recent developments at the intersection of paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and macroecology can provide opportunities to anticipate and manage the responses of species and ecosystems to changing climates in the Anthropocene ..."

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2013): Latest Permian paleosols from Wapadsberg Pass, South Africa: Implications for Changhsingian climate. In PDF, GSA Bulletin.

! R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1996): Out of the Icehouse into the Greenhouse: A Late Paleozoic Analog for Modern Global Vegetational Change. In PDF, GSA Today 10: 1–7.
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of middle late Carboniferous tropical coal swamp.
Figure 2: Relation between global glaciation and vegetative change during the late Paleozoic in different tropical environments and the north and south temperate belts.
"... Patterns in the late Paleozoic provide us with one certainty: global warming presents plants with conditions that are markedly different from those found during periods of icehouse climate. The waxing and waning of glaciers are, in and of themselves, a climate-mode to which vegetations become attuned ..."

Robert A. Gastaldo, Colby College: Plants as keys to past climatic conditions.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.G. Gavin et al. (2014): Climate refugia: joint inference from fossil records, species distribution models and phylogeography. New Phytologist, 204: 37-54.

! S.D. Gedzelman, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, City College of New York: Climate and Climate Change. Lecture notes. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to: Climates of the Past and Climate Change (DOC file). (Michael Wegner, Köln):
! Historische Geologie, Paläoklima. Palaeogeographic maps (based on Scotese 2000) with palaeoclimate symbols. In German. (published by Hobart King). News and information about geology and earth science. Go to:
Climate Change Articles, Information, News and Facts.

GeoSystems. GeoSystems is a developing community-based initiative that focuses on the importance of the deep-time perspective for understanding the complexities of Earth´s atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and surficial lithosphere using climate as the focus. Go to: Links to Other Websites of Interest. A growing list of web sites that relate to GeoSystems and deep-time paleoclimate.

GEsource (the geography and environment hub of the Resource Discovery Network (RDN), the UK´s free national gateway to Internet resources for the learning, teaching and research community). Browse and navigate from here. Go to: Climatology.

The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, (GISS), New York: Paleoclimate.

Y. Goddéris et al. (2023): What models tell us about the evolution of carbon sources and sinks over the Phanerozoic. Open access, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 51: 471-492.
Note figure 1: Overview of the feedback loop and causal links between the various component of the surficial Earth system.
"... In the present contribution, we review some crucial events in coupled Earth-climate-biosphere evolution over the past 540 million years
[...] Numerical models now allow us to address increasingly complex processes
[...] models of the carbon cycle in deep time coupled with increasingly complex ecological models are emerging ..."

! X.-D. Gou et al. (2021): Leaf phenology, paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental insights derived from an Agathoxylon stem from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, Northwest China. Open access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 289.

Rhys E. Green, Mike Harley, Lera Miles, Jörn Scharlemann, Andrew Watkinson and Olly Watts (eds.): Global climate change and biodiversity (PDF file). A summary of papers and discussion from a conference, held at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK in April 2003, organised jointly by the RSPB, WWF-UK, English Nature, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.

N. Griffis et al. (2023): A Carboniferous apex for the late Paleozoic icehouse. In PDF, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 535.
See as well here.
"... The Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) was the most extreme and longest lasting glaciation of the Phanerozoic
[...] A definitive driver for greenhouse gases in the LPIA, such as abundant and sustained volcanic activity or an increased biological pump driven by ocean fertilization, is unresolved for this period ..."

N. Griffis et al. (2023): The Far-Field imprint of the late Paleozoic Ice Age, its demise, and the onset of a dust-house climate across the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin, Texas. Open acees, Gondwana Research, 115: 17-36.
"... Widespread loess deposits across equatorial Pangea during the Permian have been used to argue for the possibility of equatorial glaciers situated in highland settings during the early Permian. Conversely, our data suggest initiation of a substantial component of aeolian deposition across the field areas, which is coincident with widespread ice loss across high latitude Gondwana ..."

G.W. Grimm and A.J. Potts (2015): Fallacies and fantasies: the theoretical underpinnings of the Coexistence Approach for palaeoclimate reconstruction. In PDF, Clim. Past Discuss., 11: 5727-5754.

G.W. Grimm et al. (2015): Fables and foibles: a critical analysis of the Palaeoflora database and the Coexistence approach for palaeoclimate reconstruction. In PDF.

E.L. Grossman and M.M. Joachimski (2022): Ocean temperatures through the Phanerozoic reassessed. Free access, Scientific Reports, 12.

E. Gulbranson et al. (2022): Paleoclimate-induced stress on polar forested ecosystems prior to the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Scientific Reports.
See also here.

E.L. Gulbranson et al. (2014): Leaf habit of Late Permian Glossopteris trees from high-palaeolatitude forests. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 171: 493–507.
Note fig. 1: Comparison of modern climate and biomes with those reconstructed for the latest Permian climate and biomes.

! K. Gurung et al. (2024): Geographic range of plants drives long-term climate change. Free access, Nature Communications, 15.
Note figure 2: Maps of global biomass, runoff and silicate weathering. "... we couple a fast vegetation model (FLORA) to a spatially-resolved long-term climate-biogeochemical model (SCION), to assess links between plant geographical range, the long-term carbon cycle and climate. Model results show lower rates of carbon fixation and up to double the previously predicted atmospheric CO2 concentration due to a limited plant geographical range over the arid Pangea supercontinent.
[...] We demonstrate that plant geographical range likely exerted a major, under-explored control on long-term climate change ..."

K. Gurung et al. (2022): Climate windows of opportunity for plant expansion during the Phanerozoic. Open access, Nature Communications, 13.
Note figure 1: Approximate estimations of plant evolution and Phanerozoic time periods.
Figure 7: Potential biomass of plant functional types across the Phanerozoic.
"... we identify two key ‘windows of opportunity’ during the Ordovician and Jurassic-Paleogene capable of supporting dramatic expansions of potential plant biomass. These conditions are driven by continental dispersion, paleolatitude of continental area and a lack of glaciation, ..."

! William Gutowski, Dept. of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA:
Global Change. Go to:
Paleoclimate. Powerpoint presentation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

A. Hallam (1985): A review of Mesozoic climates. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 142: 433-445. See likewise here.
Note figure 5: Schematic presentation of continental humid and arid belts for early Triassic.

R.S. Harbert and K.C. Nixon (2015): Climate reconstruction analysis using coexistence likelihood estimation (CRACLE): A method for the estimation of climate using vegetation. In PDF, American journal of botany, 102.

S.P. Harrison et al. (2016): What have we learnt from palaeoclimate simulations? Journal of Quaternary Science. See also here (in PDF).

! Daniel Hauptvogel, Virginia Sisson et al. (2023), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Houston:
The Story of Earth: An Observational Guide 2e . Second edition (Pressbooks), Open access. You can download a printable PDF version.
Navigate from the content menue page. Note especially:
! Chapter 11: Paleoclimate.

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA: The Cretaceous greenhouse climate. Powerpoint presentation.

! W.W. Hay (2017): Toward understanding Cretaceous climate - An updated review. Science China Earth Sciences, 60: 5–19. See also here (abstract).

W.W. Hay (2017): Toward understanding Cretaceous climate — An updated review. SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 60: 5-19.

! Alan M. Haywood, School of Earth & Environment, University of Leeds:
Modelling Ancient Earth Climate: Methods & Models.
Modelling Ancient Earth Climate.
Powerpoint presentations.

David F. Hendry (2010): Climate Change: Lessons for our Future from the Distant Past. PDF file, Economics Series Working Papers.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Rüdiger Henrich, Polar Research 2011: Book review of: Thomas M. Cronin (2010): Paleoclimates. Understanding climate change past and present. 441 pp., New York, Columbia University Press.

! E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237. See also here.

T. He et al. (2023): Paleoenvironmental changes across the Mesozoic–Paleogene hyperthermal events. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 222.
Note figure 1: Records of climate conditions, carbon cycle perturbations and geological events during the Mesozoic–Paleogene.

D. Hibbett et al. (2016): Climate, decay, and the death of the coal forests. In PDF, Current Biology, 26. See also here.

! D. Hibbett et al. (2016): Climate, decay, and the death of the coal forests. Current Biology, 26: R563-R567: See also here (in PDF).

R.S. Hill and R. Khan (2023): Past climates and plant migration – the significance of the fossil record. Free access, New Phytologist.
This article is a Commentary on Denk et al. (2023):
Cenozoic migration of a desert plant lineage across the North Atlantic.

P.F. Hoffman et al. (2017): Snowball Earth climate dynamics and Cryogenian geology-geobiology. In PDF, Science Advances, 3. See also here.

T.P. Hollaar et al. (2023): Environmental changes during the onset of the Late Pliensbachian Event (Early Jurassic) in the Cardigan Bay Basin, Wales. In PDF, Climate of the Past, 19: 979-997. See also here.
"... We explore the environmental and depositional changes on orbital timescales for the Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) core during the onset of the LPE [Late Pliensbachian Event]. Clay mineralogy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analysis, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and palynology are combined to resolve systematic changes in erosion, weathering, fire, grain size, and riverine influx. Our results indicate distinctively different environments before and after the onset of the LPE ..."

! M. Holz (2015): Mesozoic paleogeography and paleoclimates - a discussion of the diverse greenhouse and hothouse conditions of an alien world. In PDF, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 61: 91-107.
See also here.

Thomas R. Holtz: An Introduction to Paleoclimatology. See also here.

B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.E. Horton et al. (2010): Influence of high-latitude vegetation feedbacks on late Palaeozoic glacial cycles. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 3, pages 572–577. See also here.
"... Glaciation during the late Palaeozoic era (340–250 Myr ago) is thought to have been episodic, with multiple, often regional, ice-age intervals, each lasting less than 10 million years.
... [We] suggest that vegetation feedbacks driven by orbital insolation variations are a crucial element of glacial–interglacial cyclicity.

Patricia Houle and Ping Zhu, Department of Earth Sciences, Florida International University: Global Climate Change: Science, Society, and Solution. This lecture notes address the core topics which are central to understanding global climate change in a way that is understandable and accessible. See especially:
Climate Change Basics. Powerpoint presentations.
! Navigate from here.

Y. Huang et al. (2015): Distribution of Cenozoic plant relicts in China explained by drought in dry season. Open access, Scientific Reports, 5.

Brian T. Huber, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Tropical Paradise at the Cretaceous Poles? Scroll down to: HyperNotes. Related resources on the World Wide Web.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Brian T. Huber et al. (2000): Warm climates in earth history. Table of contents, provided by Google books.

M. Huber and R. Caballero (2011): The early Eocene equable climate problem revisited. Open access, Clim. Past, 7: 603–633.
"... The early Eocene "equable climate problem", i.e. warm extratropical annual mean and above-freezing winter temperatures evidenced by proxy records, has remained as one of the great unsolved problems in paleoclimate. ..."

R.B. Huey et al. (2002): Plants versus animals: do they deal with stress in different ways? PDF file, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42: 415-423.

! A. Iglesias et al. (2011): The evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present. Free access, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103: 409–422.

J.L. Isbell et al. (2012): Glacial paradoxes during the late Paleozoic ice age: Evaluating the equilibrium line altitude as a control on glaciation. Abstract, Gondwana Research, 22: 1-19. See also here.

Stephen T. Jackson, Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY: Climate change and biodiversity: Getting beyond predictions. Lecture notes, in PDF.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin:
! Paleoclimate through Proxy Data Lake Core, Pollen and Tree Rings. Powerpoint presentation, by Peter Wiegand et al. (2011), San Joaquin Valley Rocks project.

! E. Jansen et al. (2007): Palaeoclimate. PDF file, in: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., Miller, H.L. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assesement Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

P. Jardine (2011): The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In PDF, Palaeontology Online. See also here.

M.M. Joachimski et al. (2012): Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology, 40: 195-198.

Miriam Jones (presentation hosted by Katherine Leonard, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University): Paleoclimate Review. Powerpoint presentation.

! J. Kasting (1993): Earth's early atmosphere. In PDF, Science, 259: 920-926.
See also here.

! D.V. Kent and G. Muttoni (2003): Mobility of Pangea: Implications for Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Paleoclimate. PDF file, In: Peter M. LeTourneau and Paul Eric Olsen: The great rift valleys of Pangea in eastern North America (Columbia University Press), New York.
See also here (in PDF).

D.L. Kidder and T.R. Worsley (2001): Storms in the Late Permian and early Triassic. Abstract, Geological Society of America, 33: 444.
See also here.

J.T. Kiehl and C.A. Shields (2005): Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. In PDF, Geology, 33: 757-760.

W. Kiessling et al. (2023): Improving the relevance of paleontology to climate change policy. Open access, PNAS, 120.

W. Kiessling et al. (2022): Improving the relevance of paleontology to climate change policy. Open access, PNAS, 120: e2201926119.
! Note figure 1: Temperature anomalies derived from climate modeling (300 to 66 million years ago).
"... there is no shortage of paleontological publications emphasizing the relationship between global warming and extinction, with several discussing potential analogs to 21st-century warming [...] it is very difficult to extract from this literature even the most basic numbers that could be used by the IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] such as extinction tolls, ecological changes, and their links to global warming ..."

! C. King (2022):
Exploring Geoscience across the globe. In PDF (42 MB), Excellent!
Provided by The International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO). Chapters that may be of interest:
Chapter 3.2 (starting on pdf-page 30): e.g. Relative dating, Absolute dating.
Chapter (starting on pdf-page 56): e.g. Sedimentary processes.
Chapter 4.3 (starting on pdf-page 115): e.g. Atmospheric change.
Chapter 4.4.1 (starting on pdf-page 122): e.g. Evolution.

J.P. Klages et al. (2020): Temperate rainforests near the South Pole during peak Cretaceous warmth. In PDF, Nature, 580: 81-86. See also here.
Note fig. 3: Reconstruction of the West Antarctic Turonian–Santonian temperate rainforest.

George Kling, Globalchange 1 (The University of Michigan):
Past Climates on Earth. Climate patterns, past and present.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! A.H. Knoll and H.D. Holland, Harvard University: Oxygen and Proterozoic Evolution: An Update. From:
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

V.A. Korasidis et al. (2022): Global Changes in Terrestrial Vegetation and Continental Climate During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Free access, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 37: e2021PA004325.
Note figure 1: Global paleogeographic reconstruction for 56 Ma illustrating the positions and general depositional settings of PETM palynofloral sites.

J. Kovar-Eder and V. Teodoridis (2018): The Middle Miocene Central European plant record revisited; widespread subhumid sclerophyllous forests indicated. In PDF, Fossil Imprint, 74: 115–134.

J. Kovar-Eder et al. (2008): The Integrated Plant Record: An Essential Tool For Reconstructing Neogene Zonal Vegetation In Europe. In PDF, Palaios, 23: 97–111.
See also here.

M.J. Kraus, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder: Using multiple paleosol proxies to interpret paleoclimate change: An earliest Eocene example from Wyoming. In PDF.
See also here (Powerpoint presentation).

! C.H. Lear et al. (2020): Geological Society of London Scientific Statement: what the geological record tells us about our present and future climate. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 178. See also here and there.

G. Le Hir et al. (2011): The climate change caused by the land plant invasion in the Devonian. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 310: 203-212.

J. Li et al. (2019): Mesozoic and Cenozoic palaeogeography, palaeoclimate and palaeoecology in the eastern Tethys. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 515, 1–5.

B.H. Lomax and W.T. Fraser (2015): Palaeoproxies: botanical monitors and recorders of atmospheric change. In PDF, Palaeontology. See also here (abstract).

University of London External System, London, UK (This is is a division of the University of London that grants external degrees: Study in Economics, Management, Finance and Social Sciences (EMFSS), Biogeography. Go to: Chapter 4: Patterns in time. This PDF file briefly reviews the evolution of the flora and fauna of the earth and the role that plate tectonics, climate and sea level played in their evolution.

C.V. Looy et al. (2016): Biological and physical evidence for extreme seasonality in central Permian Pangea. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 451: 210–226. See also here (in PDF).

! C.V. Looy et al. (2014): The late Paleozoic ecological-evolutionary laboratory, a land-plant fossil record perspective. In PDF, The Sedimentary Record, 12: 4-18. See also here.

! M. Lu et al. (2021): A synthesis of the Devonian wildfire record: Implications for paleogeography, fossil flora, and paleoclimate. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 571. See also here (in PDF).

! S.G. Lucas et al. (2023): An introduction to ice ages, climate dynamics and biotic events: the Late Pennsylvanian world. Open access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 535.
Note figure 2: Late Pennsylvanian palaeogeographical map.
Figure 5: Reconstructions of Desmoinesian and Missourian age peat-forming swamp vegetation.

L. Luthardt et al. (2018): Severe growth disturbances in an early Permian calamitalean – traces of a lightning strike? In PDF, Palaeontographica Abteilung B, 298: 1-22.
See also here.
! "... The special injury of the calamitalean described herein [...] exhibits an elongated to triangular shape, a central furrow, a scar-associated event ring of collapsed to distorted tracheids, and was ultimately overgrown by callus parenchyma. We suggest that this scar most likely was caused by a lightning strike ..."

L. Luthardt et al. (2016): Palaeoclimatic and site-specific conditions in the early Permian fossil forest of Chemnitz—Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobotanical evidence. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441: 627–652.
See also here.

D.-W. et al. (2024): A synthesis of the Cretaceous wildfire record related to atmospheric oxygen levels? Open access, Journal of Palaeogeography, 13: 149-164.
"... In this study, we comprehensively synthesize a total of 271 published Cretaceous wildfire occurrences based on the by-products of burning, including fossil charcoal, pyrogenic inertinite (fossil charcoal in coal), and pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Spatially, the dataset shows a distinctive distribution of reported wildfire evidence characterized by high concentration in the middle latitudinal areas of the Northern Hemisphere ..."

P. Maffre et al. (2022): The complex response of continental silicate rock weathering to the colonization of the continents by vascular plants in the Devonian. In PDF,
See also here.
"... The fossil record shows that, by the end of the Devonian, vascular plants and forests were common and widespread [...]
we build a mathematical description of the coupled response of the physical erosion and chemical weathering on the continents, to the colonization by vascular plants over the course of the Devonian.

A.C. Mancuso et al. 2022): Paleoenvironmental and Biotic Changes in the Late Triassic of Argentina: Testing Hypotheses of Abiotic Forcing at the Basin Scale. Free access, Front. Earth Sci., 10:883788. doi: 10.3389/feart.2022.883788.
See also here.
Note chapter 1.1: Climate and Evolution in the Triassic of Gondwana.
"... we synthesize a multi-proxy basin-scale dataset of paleoenvironmental data, including new information from clay mineralogy and paleosol major- and trace-element geochemistry, to understand paleoclimate changes ..."

! P.D. Mannion et al. (2014): The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time. Free access, Trends in Ecology &&xnbsp;Evolution, 29: 42-50.
"... Deep-time studies indicate that a tropical peak and poleward decline in species diversity has not been a persistent pattern throughout the Phanerozoic, but is restricted to intervals of the Palaeozoic and the past 30 million years. A tropical peak might characterise cold icehouse climatic regimes, whereas warmer greenhouse regimes display temperate diversity peaks or flattened gradients. ..."
Note figure 3: The Late Cretaceous dinosaur latitudinal biodiversity gradient.
! Figure 4: The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG) through the Phanerozoic.

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai´i at Manoa:
The Cretaceous greenhouse climate. Powerpoint presentation.

! E. Martinetto et al. (2018): Worldwide temperate forests of the Neogene: Never more diverse? Abstract, in PDF. 10th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference, University College Dublin, Ireland.
See also here.

! V. Masson-Delmotte et al., (2013): Information from Paleoclimate Archives. PDF file, In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.

! W.J. Matthaeus et al. (2023): A systems approach to understanding how plants transformed Earth's environment in deep time. Free access, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 51: 551-580.
"... For hundreds of millions of years, plants have been a keystone in maintaining the status of Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and climate
[...] Extinct plants have functioned differently across time, limiting our understanding of how processes on Earth interact to produce climate ..."
Note figure 1: Schematic of the trait-based whole-plant functional-strategy approach applied to late Paleozoic extinct plants.
Figure 3: Chart illustrating the Paleo-BGC modeling process (White et al., 2020) from inputs of fossil-inferred plant functional traits and environmental parameters to output.
Figure 5: Temporal distribution of late Paleozoic tropical biomes and atmospheric composition.
Figure 8: Schematic diagram presenting the information used to reconstruct and interpret time-appropriate vegetation-climate interactions.

M. Mau et al. (2022): Planetary chaos and inverted climate phasing in the Late Triassic of Greenland. In PDF, PNAS, 119.
See also here.

P.J. Mayhew et al. (2008): A long-term association between global temperature and biodiversity, origination and extinction in the fossil record. In PDF, Proc Biol Sci., 275: 47-53.

C. Mays et al. (2017): Polar wildfires and conifer serotiny during the Cretaceous global hothouse. In PDF, Geology, 45: 1119-1122. See also here.

Mark McCaffrey, NOAA: Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. A comprehensive online set of attractive slides, providing background on a variety of paleoclimatology subjects, including Ice Ages, Tree Rings, Ice Cores, Coral Reefs and much more.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! N.G. McDowell (2011): The interdependence of mechanisms underlying climate-driven vegetation mortality. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here

Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin: Climate change and mass extinction: What can we learn from 200 million year old plants? PDF file.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. McLoughlin (2017): Antarctica’s Glossopteris forests. In PDF, In: 52 More Things You Should Know About Palaeontology, eds. A. Cullum, A.W. Martinius. Nova Scotia: Agile Libre, p. 22-23. See also here.

A. Menendez (2014): Developing Criteria for Identifying Fossil Raindrop Prints. In PDF.

University of Michigan, Global Change Courses:
Past Climate Change and the Ice Ages. Powepoint presentation. See also:
! Global Change 1 Fall 2015 Schedule. Lecture notes.

! B.J.W. Mills et al. (2021): Spatial continuous integration of Phanerozoic global biogeochemistry and climate. Free access, Gondwana Research, 100: 73–86.

! B.J.W. Mills et al. (2017): Nutrient acquisition by symbiotic fungi governs Palaeozoic climate transition. Open access, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373.

B.J.W. Mills et al. (2017): Elevated CO2 degassing rates prevented the return of Snowball Earth during the Phanerozoic. Nature Communications, 8.

! I.P. Montañez (2021): Current synthesis of the penultimate icehouse and its imprint on the Upper Devonian through Permian stratigraphic record. In PDF, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 512: 213-245. See also here (free access).
Note fig. 2: Palaeogeographical distribution of glaciated basins in Gondwana.
fig. 3: Late Devonian through Permian trends in occurrence of glaciogenic records, palaeo-CO2, and geochemical proxy records of environmental change plotted on the Geologic Time Scale 2020.

! I.P. Montañez (2016): A Late Paleozoic climate window of opportunity. In PDF, PNAS, 113: 2334-2336. See also here.

! I.P. Montañez et al. (2016): Climate, pCO2 and terrestrial carbon cycle linkages during late Palaeozoic glacial–interglacial cycles. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 9: 824–828.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Consensus pCO2 curves defined by LOESS analysis of combined pedogenic carbonate- and fossil plant-based CO2 estimates.

I.P. Montañez and C.J. Poulsen (2013): The Late Paleozoic Ice Age: An Evolving Paradigm. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 41: 629–656.

! J.L. Morris et al. (2015): Investigating Devonian trees as geo-engineers of past climates: linking palaeosols to palaeobotany and experimental geobiology. In PDF, Palaeontology, 58: 787-801. See also here.

! V. Mosbrugger et al. (2005): Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe. PDF file, PNAS, 102: 14964-14969. See also here.

! V. Mosbrugger and T. Utescher (1997): The coexistence approach -- a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 134: 61-86.
See also here.

Richard A. Muller, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley: A Brief Introduction to History of Climate.

! R.D. Nance (2022): The supercontinent cycle and Earth's long-term climate. Open access, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1515: 33–49.
Note figure 1: Reconstruction of Pangea for the Late Triassic (at 200 Ma).
! Figure 7: Distribution of warm (greenhouse) and cool (icehouse) global climatic conditions for the past 1 Ga compared with times of supercontinent assembly and breakup for Rodinia, Pannotia, and Pangea.
Figure 9: Distribution of large igneous provinces (LIPs) throughout Earth history.
! Figure 10: Age and estimated volume of Phanerozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs) compared to genus extinction magnitude showing correlation between mass extinction events (peaks) and LIP emplacement.

NASA: Global Change Master Directory. A comprehensive directory about Earth science and global change data. Go to Paleoclimate (Search results).

! National Center for Science Education (NCSE), Oakland, CA.
NCSE defends the integrity of science education against ideological interference. NCSE provides information dedicated to keeping evolution in the science classroom and creationism out. Go to:
! Climate Change. The National Center for Science Education is the only national organization devoted to defending the teaching of climate change in public schools.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC):
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, CO, Global Pollen Database. With data from Africa, the Americas, and northern Asia. This database continues to grow as new data are organized and made available by various regional data cooperatives such as the Indo-Pacific Pollen Database, the Latin American Pollen Database, and the North American Pollen Database.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Asheville NC: NCDC Publications. A link list (some access restrictions). NCDC is the world´s largest active archive of weather data.

! NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Jump to this book's table of contents to begin reading online for free.

! National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC. NOAA Paleoclimatology. NOAA Paleoclimatology operate the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology which distributes data contributed by scientists around the world. Paleo data come from natural sources such as tree rings, ice cores, corals, and ocean and lake sediments, and extend the archive of climate back hundreds to millions of years. Go to:
! What is Paleoclimatology?

! National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC: NOAA´s mission is to understand and predict changes in Earth´s environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources. Go to: NOAA Paleoclimatology. NOAA Paleoclimatology operates the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology and the Applied Research Center for Paleoclimatology, with the goal to provide data and information scientists need to understand natural climate variability as well as future climate change.
See also: NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, CO: Other Places of Interest. A link directory.

! National Research Council (2011), The National Academies Press, Washington, DC: Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. 177 pages.
In Understanding Earth's Deep Past, the National Research Council reports that rocks and sediments that are millions of years old hold clues to how the Earth's future climate would respond in an environment with high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases.
! See also here (PDF files available to download for free). You may download PDF files from NAP by logging in as a guest, providing only your email address.

J.F.W. Negendank (2002): Klima im Wandel: Die Geschichte des Klimas aus geobiowissenschaftlichen Archiven. PDF file, in German, GFZ Potsdam.
See also here.

! M.P. Nelsen et al. (2016): Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 2442-2447. See also here.

The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program at the National Geophysical Data Center: A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming. This site offers a good, non-political starting point for those who want to learn more about global warming. See also: New releases in Paleoclimatology.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). Formerly the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).
NCEI is responsible for preserving, monitoring, assessing, and providing public access to the Nation's treasure of geophysical data and information. Go to:
! Paleoclimatology. NCEI manages the world's largest archive of climate and paleoclimatology data. Worth checking out:
Climate Timeline Tool. Descriptions with graphics of the general climatic conditions during different periods of time.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

NOAA Paleoclimatology Program (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Boulder: Drought: A Paleo Perspective. The devastating effects of drought are outlined here, limiting the focus to North America. You may navigate from here. See also: Paleoclimatology and Drought. An introduction about the natural environmental (or proxy) records to infer past climate conditions.

T. Nyman et al. (2012): Climate-driven diversity dynamics in plants and plant-feeding insects. Free access, Ecology Letters, 14: 1-10.

C. Oh et al. (2015): Xenoxylon synecology and palaeoclimatic implications for the Mesozoic of Eurasia. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60: 245-256. See also here.

P. Olsen et al. (2022): Arctic ice and the ecological rise of the dinosaurs. Open access, Sci. Adv., 8.
See also: Frost ebnete Dinosauriern den Weg. In German, by Nadja Podbregar, Scinexx, July 04, 2022.

Paul E. Olsen and Jessica H. Whiteside: PRE-QUATERNARY MILANKOVITCH CYCLES AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY. PDF file, Encyclopedia of paleoclimatology and ancient environments, p. 826-835.

The Open University , UK (the world´s first successful distance teaching university): The Open University provides high-quality university education to all. Go to: Global warming. An introduction.

Wolfgang Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: The Evolution of the Atmosphere of our Planet Earth. In PDF. About the the origin of earth and the early atmosphere, the role of biosphere and the carbon-cycle and the atmospheric evolution through time.

! Oxford Bibliographies.
Oxford Bibliographies offers exclusive, authoritative research guides. Combining the best features of an annotated bibliography and a high-level encyclopedia, this cutting-edge resource directs researchers to the best available scholarship across a wide variety of subjects. Go to:
The Earth’s Climate (by Justin Schoof).

PAGES (a core project of IGBP, funded by the U.S. and Swiss National Science Foundations and NOAA). The primary objective of PAGES is to improve the understanding of past changes in the earth system in order to improve projections of future climate and environment.

Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago: Permian Introduction, and Jurassic Geography and Climates. Detailed paleotopographic and paleobathymetric maps. See also: Jurassic Floras and Climate.

Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago: Jurassic Floras and Climate.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.T. Parrish (1983): Climate of the supercontinent Pangea. Abstract, The Journal of Geology. Sede also here (in PDF).

A.A. Pavlov et al. (2000): Greenhouse warming by CH4 in the atmosphere of early Earth. In PDF, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105.
See here as well.

! D.J. Peppe et al. (2011): Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications. Free access, New Phytologist, 190: 724-739.

! D.J. Peppe et al. (2011): Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications. In PDF, New Phytologist, 190: 724-739. See also here (abstract).

O. Peterffy et al. (2016): Early Jurassic microbial mats - A potential response to reduced biotic activity in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here.

R.J. Petit et al. (2008): Forests of the past: a window to future changes. PDF file, Science, 320.

H.W. Pfefferkorn et al. (2017): Impact of an icehouse climate interval on tropical vegetation and plant evolution. In PDF, Stratigraphy, 14: 365-376. See also here.

! M. Philippe (2023): Palaeoclimate and fossil woods—is the use of mean sensitivity sensible? Free access, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 68: 561–569.
"... The growth rings of fossil wood provide valuable data on tree ecology. As many of the parameters controlling width are climatic, it is tempting to use these rings as an indicator of climate.
[...] Within fossil wood assemblages, average sensitivity varies widely, but rarely consistently ..."

Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to: Introduction to the Atmosphere, and Introduction to the Hydrosphere.

G. Pienkowski et al. (2016): Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming. In PDF, Sci. Rep., 6.

! N. Pinter and S.E. Ishman (2008): Impacts, mega-tsunami, and other extraordinary claims. In PDF, GSA today.

A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 216.

! A. Pohl et al. (2022): Dataset of Phanerozoic continental climate and Köppen–Geiger climate classes. Free access, Data in Brief, 43.
See also here.
"... This dataset provides a unique window onto changing continental climate throughout the Phanerozoic that accounts for the simultaneous evolution of paleogeography. ..."
! Note figure 3: Overview of 28 Phanerozoic time slices.

I.C. Prentice and S.P. Harrison (2009): Ecosystem effects of CO2 concentration: evidence from past climates. PDF file, Clim. Past, 5: 297-307.

! N. Preto et al. (2010): Triassic climates. State of the art and perspectives. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 290: 1-10.. See also here.
"... The climate of the Triassic period was characterized by a non-zonal pattern, dictated by a strong global monsoon system with effects that are most evident in the Tethys realm.
[...] The Carnian Pluvial Event, marks an episode of increased rainfall documented worldwide, was the most distinctive climate change within the Triassic. ..."

R. Prevec et al. (2022): South African Lagerstätte reveals middle Permian Gondwanan lakeshore ecosystem in exquisite detail. Open access, Communications Biology, 5.
Note figure 1: Climatic zones for the Wordian of Pangea including locations of middle Permian fossil insect discoveries.
Figure 6: Reconstruction of a middle Permian lakeshore palaeoenvironment.

J. Pšenicka et al. (2021): Dynamics of Silurian plants as response to climate changes. Open access, Life, 11.
Note figure 1: Silurian time scale showing conodont and graptolite biozones, stage slices and generalized 13Ccarb curve.
Figure 2: Silurian palaeocontinental reconstructions.

W. Qie et al. (2023): Enhanced Continental Weathering as a Trigger for the End-Devonian Hangenberg Crisis. Open access, Geophysical Research Letters, 50: e2022GL102640.
Note figure 1A: Latest Devonian global paleogeographic reconstruction.
"... The colonization of land plants during the Devonian is believed to have played a key role in regulating Earth's climate. The initially rapid expansion of seed plants into unvegetated or sparsely vegetated uplands is considered to have caused enhanced rock dissolution relative to clay formation on end-Devonian continents ..."

J. Quirk et al. (2015): Constraining the role of early land plants in Palaeozoic weathering and global cooling. Proc. R. Soc., B 282.

W. Qie et al. (2023): Enhanced Continental Weathering as a Trigger for the End-Devonian Hangenberg Crisis. Open access, Geophysical Research Letters, 50: e2022GL102640.
Note figure 1A: Latest Devonian global paleogeographic reconstruction.
"... The colonization of land plants during the Devonian is believed to have played a key role in regulating Earth's climate. The initially rapid expansion of seed plants into unvegetated or sparsely vegetated uplands is considered to have caused enhanced rock dissolution relative to clay formation on end-Devonian continents ..."

RealClimate (a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists).
! See especially: Paleoclimate.
! Don´t miss to search e.g. for "Triassic".
Visit the link directory Paleo-data and Paleo Reconstructions (including code).

P.M.A. Rees et al. (1999): Permian climates: Evaluating model predictions using global paleobotanical data. In PDF, Geology, 27: 891-894. See also here.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleobiography Project. Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
There are three databases, including a map-based search function, plotting on paleomaps, references search, genus name search for the dinosaurs and plants, and tutorial pages:
PGAP, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project Lithofacies Database. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lithofacies.
CSS, the Climate Sensitive Sediments Database. Permian and Jurassic Climate Sensitive Sediments.
DINO, the Dinosauria Distributions Database. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Dinosaur Distributions.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Permian Phytogeography and Climate Inference. Downloadable PowerPoint Presentation, Nonmarine Permian Symposium.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

T. Reichgelt et al. (2022): Plant Proxy Evidence for High Rainfall and Productivity in the Eocene of Australia. Abstract, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 37. See also:
Palms at the Poles: Fossil Plants Reveal Lush Southern Hemisphere Forests in Ancient Hothouse Climate (by E. Hancock, UConn Communications, May 31, 2022).
Ancient Plants Provide Clues About Life on Earth in a Warmer Climate (by A. Smith, AZO Cleanteach, June 01, 2022):

! T. Reichgelt et al. (2018): The relation between global palm distribution and climate. Free access, Scientific Reports, 8:4721, doi:10.1038/s.

Gregory J. Retallack (2010): Greenhouse crises of the past 300 million years. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 121: 1441-1455.

G.J. Retallack (2002):&xnbsp; Carbon dioxide and climate over the past 300 Myr. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A, 360: 659–673.
See also here.

Laura Roberts, Mark Kirschbaum, and Pete McCabe, the U.S. Geological Survey's Energy Resources Program: Global Warming. Lessons from the Past? This study of paleogeography of the western United States, from about 98 million years ago to about 66 million years ago, is part of the Cretaceous Coals of North America project. Results of this work will provide a better understanding of the origins and distribution of high-quality coals in the United States.

M. Romano (2015): Reviewing the term uniformitarianism in modern Earth sciences. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 148: 65–76.
See likewise here.

M. Roscher: Environmental reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic. Numeric modelling and geological evidences. In PDF. Dissertation, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg.

Florian Rötzer, Telepolis: Spuren aus der biogeologischen Geschichte der Erde (in German).
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Daniel H. Rothman, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA: Global biodiversity and the ancient carbon cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 98, Issue 8, 4305-4310, April 10, 2001.

Daniel H. Rothman, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA: Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the last 500 million years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 7, 4167-4171, April 2, 2002.

D.L. Royer et al. (2007): Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. PDF file, Nature, 446.
See also here.

! D.L. Royer et al. (2004): CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate. In PDF, GSA Today, 14: 1052-5173.
"... Here we review the geologic records of CO2 and glaciations and find that CO2 was low (<500 ppm) during periods of long-lived and widespread continental glaciations and high (>1000 ppm) during other, warmer periods.
Note figure 1: Details of CO2 proxy data set.
! Figure 2: CO2 and climate.

K. Ruckwied et al. (2015): Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South Africa): Utilizing climatic icehouse-greenhouse signals for cross basin correlations. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 413: 167-172.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers School of Arts and Sciences : Cenozoic Tectonic and Climate. Powerpoint Presentation, 9 MB.

I. Sanmartín and F. Ronquist (2004): Southern Hemisphere Biogeography Inferred by Event-Based Models: Plant versus Animal Patterns. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 216-243.

S.M. Savin (1977): The history of the Earth´s surface temperature during the past 100 million years. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 5: 319-355.

S. Schachat et al. (2023): Vegetational change during the Middle–Late Pennsylvanian transition in western Pangaea. Abstract, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 535: 337-359.
"... Results indicate no substantive taxonomic turnover across the boundary. This stands in marked contrast to patterns in mid-Pangaean coal basins where there is a large wetland vegetational turnover.
[...] immediately following the boundary in New Mexico, and for approximately half of the Missourian Stage, floras previously dominated by hygromorphs become overwhelmingly dominated by mesomorphic/xeromorphic taxa ..."

E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2012): Extinguishing a Permian World. In PDF, Geology, 40: 287-288.

G. Schweigert (2016), smnstuttgart-blog, Understanding Nature: Klimawandel im Jura. In German.

! C.R. Scotese (2021): An atlas of Phanerozoic paleogeographic maps: the seas come in and the seas go out. In PDF, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 49: 679-728.
See also here.
Note chapter 4.5. Permo–Triassic (starting on PDF page 692).
! Figure 12: A Paleozoic paleotemperature timescale.
! Figure 15: A Mesozoic paleotemperature timescale.
! Figure 19: A Cenozoic paleotemperature timescale.

! C.R. Scotese et al. (2021): Phanerozoic paleotemperatures: The earth's changing climate during the last 540 million years. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 215. See also here.
"... This study provides a comprehensive and quantitative estimate of how global temperatures have changed during the last 540 million years. It combines paleotemperature measurements determined from oxygen isotopes with broader insights obtained from the changing distribution of lithologic indicators of climate, such as coals, evaporites, calcretes, reefs, and bauxite deposits. ..."

! Christopher R. Scotese, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas: Climate History. Check out what the Earth's climate was like millions of years ago. See also:
Climatic Change. The animation shows the changing location of the Earth's climatic belts through time.

! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2007): Mesozoic climates. In: Mark Williams et al. (eds.): Deep-time perspectives on climate change: marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. Google books.

! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2006): Mesozoic climates: General circulation models and the rock record. In PDF, Sedimentary geology, 190: 269-287.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Sha et al. (2015): Triassic-Jurassic climate in continental high-latitude Asia was dominated by obliquity-paced variations (Junggar Basin, Ürümqi, China). In PDF, PNAS.

NJ. Shaviv and J. Veizer (2003): Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? In PDF, GSA Today, 13.
See also here.

! N.D. Sheldon and N.J. Tabor (2009): Quantitative paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction using paleosols. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews, 95: 1-52.
See also here.

! G.R. Shi and J.B. Waterhouse (2010): Late Palaeozoic global changes affecting high-latitude environments and biotas: an introduction. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298: 1-16. See also here (in PDF).

Lisa Sloan, Department of Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz: Paleoclimate and Climate Change.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.J. Smiley (1967): Paleoclimatic Interpretations of Some Mesozoic Floral Sequences. AAPG Bulletin.

Stephen A. Smith and Jeremy M. Beaulieu (2009): Life history influences rates of climatic niche evolution in flowering plants. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 276: 4345-4352. See also here.

H. Song et al. (2021): Thresholds of temperature change for mass extinctions. Open access, Nature Communications, 12.
Note fig. 1: Temperature change and extinction rate over the past 450 million years.

G.S. Soreghan et al. (2023): Dust and loess as archives and agents of climate and climate change in the late Paleozoic Earth system. Free access.
From: Lucas, S. G., DiMichele, W. A., Opluštil, S. and Wang, X. (eds.), 2023: Ice Ages, Climate Dynamics and Biotic Events: the Late Pennsylvanian World. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 535: 195–223.
Note Figure 1: Pangaea configurations for the early Permian (c. 290 Ma).
Figure 4: Provenance and palaeogeography of western equatorial Pangaea.
"... Palaeo-loess and silty aeolian-marine strata are well recognized across the Carboniferous–Permian of equatorial Pangaea. Aeolian-transported dust and loess appear in the Late Devonian in the west, are common by the Late Carboniferous, and predominate across equatorial Pangaea by the Permian
[...] The late Paleozoic was Earth’s largest and most long-lived dust bowl ..."

L.A. Spalletti et al. (2003): Geological factors and evolution of southwestern Gondwana Triassic plants. In PDF, Gondwana Research. See also here (abstract).

E.A. Sperling et al. (2022): Breathless through Time: Oxygen and Animals across Earth’s History. Free access, The Biological Bulletin, 243.
Note figure 1: The four broad stages of atmospheric oxygen and life through Earth history, with oxygen in log scale as percent of present atmospheric levels (% PAL).
Figure 5: Reconstructed marine animal biodiversity dynamics and atmospheric oxygen through the Phanerozoic.
Figure 7: The chronology of the worst mass extinction in Earth history.

R.A. Spicer et al. (2009): New developments in CLAMP: Calibration using global gridded meteorological data. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 283: 91-98.

! R.A. Spicer (1992): Fossils as Environmental Indicators, Climate from Plants. PDF file.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Robert A. Spicer, The Warm Earth Environmental Systems Research Group: Plant Fossils as Climatic Indicators. Go to: Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Programe (CLAMP). An introduction to the use of leaf architecture for determining past climatic conditions.

M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2021): The Miocene: The Future of the Past. Open access, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 36: e2020PA004037.

! W.T. Summers et al. (2011): Synthesis of Knowledge: Fire History and Climate Change. Abstract.
See also here. In PDF, slow download. Table of contents on PDF page 5.
Worth checking out:
Chapter 5 (PDF page 57): Change, Variability, Pattern and Scale.
Pattern and Scale in Fire History (PDF page 57).

Eugene S. Takle and Richard C. Seagrave, The Global Learning Resource Network, Iowa State University: GLOBAL CHANGE. About the long-term characteristics of the atmosphere: why the atmosphere is what it is, how it got that way, and what is necessary to make significant changes in its structure and composition. Go to: Evolution of the Earth´s Atmosphere.

M. Tanrattana et al. (2020). Climatic evolution in Western Europe during the Cenozoic: insights from historical collections using leaf physiognomy. In PDF, Geodiversitas, 42: 151-174.
See also here and there.

P.E. Tarasov et al. (2013): The biome reconstruction approach as a tool for interpretation of past vegetation and climate changes: application to modern and fossil pollen data from Lake El´gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic. In PDF, Clim. Past Discuss., 9: 3449-3487.

! H Tian et al. (2016): The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In PDF, Nature. See also here (abstract).

! Triassic Climate (Links for Palaeobotanists). An annotated link directory.

A. Uchman et al. (2004): Oligocene trace fossils from temporary fluvial plain ponds: an example from the Freshwater Molasse of Switzerland. Open access, Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 97: 133–148.

! D. Uhl (2006): Fossil plants as palaeoenvironmental proxies - some remarks on selected approaches. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica, 46: 87-100.

United States Environmental Protection Agency: Climate Change. EPA's Climate Change Site offers comprehensive information on the issue of climate change. Go to: Past Climate Change. Worth checking out: Glossary of Climate Change Terms.

! T. Utescher et al. (2014): The Coexistence Approach - Theoretical background and practical considerations of using plant fossils for climate quantification. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 410: 58-73.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

V. Vajda et al. (2016): Mesozoic ecosystems – climate and biotas. In PDF, Preface, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464.

! V.A. Vakhrameev et al. (1991): Jurassic and Cretaceous floras and climates of the Earth. In PDF.
See also here (provided by Google books).

P.J. Valdes (2000): Warm climate forcing mechanism. PDF file, in: Brian T. Huber et al. (2000): Warm climates in earth history (Cambridge University Press).

F. Valladares (2017): A Mechanistic View of the Capacity of Forests to Cope with Climate Change. PDF file, In: Bravo, F., LeMay, V., Jandl, R. (eds.): Managing Forest Ecosystems: The Challenge of Climate Change. Managing Forest Ecosystems, 34. Springer.
See also here.

B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2020): The Mesozoic Arctic: warm, green, and highly diverse. In PDF, Geological Magazine, 157: 1543–1546.

I.M. Van Waveren et al. (2021): Climate-driven palaeofloral fluctuations on a volcanic slope from the low latitudes of the Palaeotethys (early Permian, West Sumatra). In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 579. See also here.

! A.P.M. Vaughan (2007): Climate and geology - a Phanerozoic perspective. In PDF.

P.E. Verslues et al. (2023): Burning questions for a warming and changing world: 15 unknowns in plant abiotic stress. Open access, The Plant Cell, 35: 67–108.
"... We present unresolved questions in plant abiotic stress biology as posed by 15 research groups with expertise spanning eco-physiology to cell and molecular biology ..."

I. Vilovic et al. (2023): Variations in climate habitability parameters and their effect on Earth's biosphere during the Phanerozoic Eon. Open access, Scientific Reports, 13.
Note figure 5: Phanerozoic biodiversity curves.
"... We compiled environmental and biological properties of the Phanerozoic Eon from various published data sets and conducted a correlation analysis to assess variations in parameters relevant to the habitability of Earth’s biosphere
We showed that there were several periods with a highly thriving biosphere, with one even surpassing present day biodiversity and biomass. Those periods were characterized by increased oxygen levels and global runoff rates ..."

S. Voigt et al. (2021): Potential Ice Crystal Marks from PENNSYLVANIAN–PERMIAN Equatorial Red-Beds of Northwest Colorado, USA. Abstract, Palaios, 36: 377–392.

M. Voiles and A. Stenstrup: What Information Do Paleobotanists Use to Study Ancient Climates? PDF file, Global Change Education Resource Guide, L.L. Mortensen (ed.), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (Teacher Education for Sustainability. I. Global Change Education).

P. Voosen (2019): A 500-million-year survey of Earth's climate reveals dire warning for humanity. Science, 364. Worth checking out (scroll down to):
! A deep-time temperature curve, the "Fever line" graph, showing the global temperature of marine life in Earth´s history.

K.Y. Wang et al. (2022): Anatomically preserved cordaitalean trees from the Pennsylvanian of Yangquan City, Shanxi Province, and their implication for a perhumid climate in North China Block. In PDF, Palaeoworld, 31: 294-310.
See also here.

! P.X. Wang et al. (2017): The global monsoon across time scales: Mechanisms and outstanding issues. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.

P.X. Wang et al. (2014): The global monsoon across timescales: coherent variability of regional monsoons. In PDF, Clim. Past, 10: 2007–2052.

P.X. Wang (2009): Global monsoon in a geological perspective. Abstract, Chinese Science Bulletin, 54: 1113-1136.

! Z. Wang (1993): Evolutionary ecosystem of Permian-Triassic redbeds in North China: a historical record of global desertification. In PDF; The Nonmarine Triassic. See also here.

! J.K. Warren (2010) Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 98: 217–268. Worth checking out, excellent!

Robert S. Webb, NOAA ESRL Climate Analysis Branch (formerly the Climate Diagnostics Center) Boulder, Colorado: An Introduction to Global Climate Change. Powerpoint presentation.

Michael Wegner, Köln, Palaeoclimate (in German).

M.C. Wiemann et al. (1998): Estimation of temperature and precipitation from morphological characters of dicotyledonous leaves. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 85: 1796–1802. See also here.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Raindrop impressions.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Paleoclimatology.
Snowball Earth.

P. Wilf (2008): Insect-damaged fossil leaves record food web response to ancient climate change and extinction. In PDF, New Phytologist.

P. Wilf et al. (1998): Using fossil leaves as paleoprecipitation indicators: an Eocene example. In PDF, Geology,26: 203-206. See also here.

! J.W. Williams and S.T. Jackson (2007): Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. In PDF, Front. Ecol. Environ., 5: 475-482.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K.J. Willis and K.J. Niklas (2004): The role of Quaternary environmental change in plant macroevolution: the exception or the rule? In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 159-172.

J.P. Wilson et al. (2023): Physiological selectivity and plant–environment feedbacks during Middle and Late Pennsylvanian plant community transitions. Open access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 535: 361-382.
"... We find that three Pennsylvanian plant lineages – the medullosans, arborescent lycopsids and Sphenophyllum – contain high hydraulic conductivity but are vulnerable to drought-induced damage, whereas others are resistant, including stem group tree ferns and coniferophytes ..."

H. Wopfner and X.C. Jin (2009): Pangea Megasequences of Tethyan Gondwana-margin reflect global changes of climate and tectonism in Late Palaeozoic and Early Triassic times—a review. In PDF, Palaeoworld, 18: 169–192. See also here.

Q. Wu et al. (2021): High-precision U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change, and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology. See also here.

! J.P. Wilson et al. (2020): Carboniferous plant physiology breaks the mold. Free access, New Phytologist.

! J.P. Wilson et al. (2017): Dynamic carboniferous tropical forests: new views of plant function and potential for physiological forcing of climate. Free access, New Phytologist, 215: 1333–1353.

Y. Yan (2023): Extracting paleoclimate information from stratigraphically disturbed “oldest ice”. Free access, Past Global Changes Magazine, 31: 98-99.
"... Ice older than 1 Myr has been found in blue ice areas in East Antarctica ..."

D. Yang and G.J. Bowen (2022): Integrating plant wax abundance and isotopes for paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate reconstructions: a multi-source mixing model using a Bayesian framework. Open access, Clim. Past, 18: 2181–2210.

C. Yu et al. (2023): Climate paleogeography knowledge graph and deep time paleoclimate classifications. Free access, Geoscience Frontiers, 14.
"... the application of climate classification in deep time (i.e., climate paleogeography) is prohibited due to the usually qualitatively constrained paleoclimate and the inconsistent descriptions and semantic heterogeneity of the climate types. In this study, a climate paleogeography knowledge graph is established under the framework of the Deep-Time Digital Earth program
[...] We also reconstruct the global climate distributions in the Late Cretaceous according to these classifications ..."

! Yuri D. Zakharov et al. (2009): Permian to earliest Cretaceous climatic oscillations in the eastern Asian continental margin (Sikhote-Alin area), as indicated by fossils and isotope data. PDF file (3 MB), GFF, 131: 25-47. See also here.

! A.E. Zanne et al. (2014): Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. In PDF, Nature. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B.N. Zepernick et al. (2023): Climate change and the aquatic continuum: A cyanobacterial comeback story. Free access, Environmental Microbiology Reports, 15: 3-12.
Note figure 1: Diagram showing the interactive environmental controls on CyanoHABs [Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms] along the freshwater-marine continuum.

! S.-h. Zhang et al. (2022): Two cosmopolitanism events driven by different extreme paleoclimate regimes. Abstract, Global and Planetary Change.

! L. Zhang et al. (2016): A new paleoclimate classification for deep time. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443: 98–106. See also here.

A.M. Ziegler et al. (2003): Tracing the tropics across land and sea: Permian to present. In PDF; Lethaia.

! A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993): Early Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.

Top of page
Links for Palaeobotanists
Search in all "Links for Palaeobotanists" Pages!
index sitemap advanced
site search by freefind

This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated April 26, 2024

eXTReMe Tracker