Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Palaeoclimate


Focused on Palaeoclimate
Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
Stomatal Density
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle

Home / Palaeoclimate / Focused on Palaeoclimate

Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
Stomatal Density
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle
! Triassic Climate@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@
! The Carnian Pluvial Event@
! Lightning Strikes@
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@

Focused on Palaeoclimate

American Meteorological Society (website supported by the National Science Foundation): Water in the Earth System Learning Files. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Baum, Texas Center for Climate Studies and Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University: Climatology and Paleoclimatology Resources. Web links to climatology and paleoclimatology. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D. Beerling et al. (2009): Methane and the CH4 related greenhouse effect over the past 400 million years. In PDF.

! D.J. Beerling and D.L. Royer (2002): Fossil plants as indicators of the Phanerozoic global carbon cycle. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 30: 527-556.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
see also here.

! M.J. Benton (2018): Hyperthermal-driven mass extinctions: killing models during the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 376. See also here.
Note Fig. 3: Palaeogeographic map of the Permo-Triassic, showing the single supercontinent Pangaea, modelled climate belts, and the distribution of terrestrial tetrapods.

! M.J. Benton and A.J. Newell (2014): Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Gondwana Research.

Robert A. Berner, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT: Atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time. PNAS, Vol. 96, Issue 20, 10955-10957, September 28, 1999.

John Birks University of Bergen and University College, London:
Pollen-climate transfer functions - problems and pitfalls.
Powerpoint presentation.

H. John B. Birks (2011): Stay or Go? A Q-Time Perspective. Powerpoint presentation.

! J.L. Blois et al. (2013): Climate Change and the Past, Present, and Future of Biotic Interactions. In PDF, Science 341.

! B. Blonder et al. (2012): The leaf-area shrinkage effect can bias paleoclimate and ecology research In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 99: 1756-1763.

Botany.Com, the Encyclopedia of Plants: Zone Temperatures. Zones in Fahrenheit and Celsius. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.K. Boyce and M.A. Zwieniecki (2018): The prospects for constraining productivity through time with the whole-plant physiology of fossils. Open access, New Phytologist.

C.K. Boyce and J.-E. Lee (2017): Plant Evolution and Climate over Geological Timescales. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 45.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Your Planet Earth (prepared by Jess Trofimovs and Howard Falcon-Lang).
A library of talks on earth sciences and evolutionary topics that may be of interest to earth sciences and education professionals as a basis for engagement and outreach shows in schools. Go to:
Climate Change. Powerpoint Presentation, for 14–15 year-olds.

British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK: Climate through time poster map. Click the climate through time online interactive version or download the Climate through time poster.

Monica Bruckner, Montana State University ( website hosted by Microbial Life, Educational Resources): Paleoclimatology: How Can We Infer Past Climates?

! S.E. Bryan and L. Ferrari (2013): Large igneous provinces and silicic large igneous provinces: Progress in our understanding over the last 25 years. In PDF, GSA Bulletin. See also here.

Joe Buchdahl, aric, Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester: aric provides world class research and education in atmospheric and sustainability issues to encourage responsible development. Global Climate Change Student Information Guide. The Global Climate Change Student Information Guide includes chapters on: the climate system; causes of climate change; empirical observation and climatic reconstruction; climate modelling; and palaeo- and contemporary climate change. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See also here. In PDF.

Christine Bui, Trumbull College, Yale Scientific Magazine (YSM): Paleobotany: Fossilized plant remains give insights to global climate balances.

R.J. Burnham and K.R. Johnson (2004): South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 1595-1610.

! R. Caballero and P. Lynch (2011): Climate modelling and deep-time climate change. PDF file, In: Climate Change, Ecology and Systematics, ed. Trevor R. Hodkinson, Michael B. Jones, Stephen Waldren and John A. N. Parnell. Published by Cambridge University Press.

Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, Northfield, MN: On the Cutting Edge, Workshops for Geoscience Faculty, Paleoclimate: Climate Change Through Time. This website provides access to a spectrum of visualizations and supporting material that can be used effectively to teach students about palaeoclimate through geologic time. Visualizations include simple animations, GIS-based animated maps, paleogeographic maps, as well as numerous illustrations and photos.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Timothy Casey, Victoria, Australia: Climate Change Catastrophes in Critical Thinking.

M. Chevalier et al. (2014): CREST (Climate REconstruction SofTware): A probability density function (PDF)-based quantitative climate reconstruction method. In PDF. Clim. Past, 10: 2081-2098. See also here.

J.C.H. Chiang (2009): The Tropics in Paleoclimate Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 37: 263–297. See also here.

N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003): Climate during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2. Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.

! C.J. Cleal et al. (2011): Pennsylvanian vegetation and climate in tropical Variscan Euramerica. In PDF, Episodes, 34.

! Climate Ark (a project of Ecological Internet, Inc). The ClimateArk is a Climate Change Portal and Search Engine.

Climate of the Past. An interactive open access journal of the European Geosciences Union. Navigate from Volumes and Issues or Title and Author Search.

C. Coiffard et al. (2012): Deciphering Early Angiosperm Landscape Ecology Using a Clustering Method on Cretaceous Plant Assemblages. In PDF.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University: Tutorial: Using the Viewer. Data Catalog: Datasets by Category, go to Paleoclimate Data.

Committee on the Geologic Record of Biosphere Dynamics, National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (The National Academies Press): The Geological Record of Ecological Dynamics: Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future Environmental Change. 216 pages, 2005. Produced by a committee consisting of both ecologists and paleontologists, the report provides ecologists with background on techniques for obtaining and evaluating geohistorical information, and provides paleontologists with background on the nature of ecological phenomena amenable to analysis in the geological record. The report can be read online for free!

Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS); European Commission; Luxembourg: Environment and Climate. This site offers all recent enviromental and climate projects of the European Union. Govermental and commercial institutions are included in the environment and climate programme.

! T.M. Cronin (1999): Principles of Paleoclimatology. In PDF.
"Principles of Paleoclimatology describes the history of the Earth´s climate — the ice age cycles, sea level changes, volcanic activity, changes in atmosphere and solar radiation — and the resulting, sometimes catastrophic, biotic responses".
See also here.

C.W. Crowley (2012):
An Atlas Of Cenozoic Climate Zones, and Plates to accompany an Atlas Of Cenozoic Climate Zones. In PDF, Master thesis, Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Texas, Arlington.
See also here.

! T.J. Crowley and G.R. North (1988): Abrupt climate change and extinction events in earth history. In PDF, Science.

! T.J. Crowley (1983): The geologic record of climatic change. In PDF, Reviews of Geophysics.

S. Cruddas, BBC (2013): Climate change: A prehistoric window on Earth´s future?

R. H. Cummins, School of Interdisciplinary Studies, Miami University, OH: Internet links to paleoclimate resources.

! T.W. Dahl and S.K.M. Arens (2020): The impacts of land plant evolution on Earth's climate and oxygenation state – An interdisciplinary review. Open access, Chemical Geology, 547.

Timothy M. Demko et al. (1998): Plant taphonomy in incised valleys: Implications for interpreting paleoclimate from fossil plants. Abstract, Geology, 26: 1119-1122. See also here (in PDF).

! A.F. Diefendorf et al. (2010): Global patterns in leaf 13C discrimination and implications for studies of past and future climate. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 5738-5743. See also here.

D. Dilcher et al. (2009): A climatic and taxonomic comparison between leaf litter and standing vegetation from a Florida swamp woodland. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 1108-1115.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2020): Uplands, lowlands, and climate: Taphonomic megabiases and the apparent rise of a xeromorphic, drought-tolerant flora during the Pennsylvanian-Permian transition. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 559.

William A. DiMichele et al. (2010): Cyclic changes in Pennsylvanian paleoclimate and effects on floristic dynamics in tropical Pangaea. PDF file, International Journal of Coal Geology, 83: 329-344.

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. PDF file, Geobiology (2009), 7: 200-226. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2006): From wetlands to wet spots: Environmental tracking and the fate of Carboniferous elements in Early Permian tropical floras. PDF file. In Greb, S.F., and DiMichele, W.A., Wetlands through time: Geological Society of America Special Paper 399, p. 223–248. See also here and there (Google books).

! W.A. DiMichelle, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and T.L. Phillips, University of Illinois: The Response of Hierarchially Structured Ecosystems to Long-Term Climatic Change: A Case Study using Tropical Peat Swamps of Pennsylvanian Age. From:
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

William A. DiMichele et al. (2001): Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian plant communities to climate change. PDF file, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29: 461-4871.

Y. Donnadieu et al. (2009): Exploring the climatic impact of the continental vegetation on the Mezosoic atmospheric CO2 and climate history. In PDF, Clim. Past, 5: 85-96.

François Doumenge, Institut océanographique, Musée océanographique, Monaco, and Arie S. Issar, Water Resource Center, Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel: United Nations University Lecture Series, The Mediterranean Crises, and: Climate Change: Is It a Positive or Negative Process? The United Nations University is an international academic organization that provides and manages a framework for bringing together the world's leading scholars to tackle pressing global problems of major concern to the United Nations.

A.M. Dunhill et al. (2018): Modelling determinants of extinction across two Mesozoic hyperthermal events. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B, 285.

! Erin Eastwood (2008): Pangean Paleoclimate. PDF file, GEO 387H.

K. Edvardsson Björnberg (2017): Climate and environmental science denial: A review of the scientific literature. In PDF, Journal of Cleaner Production, 167: 229-241. See also here.

! Dianne Edwards (1998): Climate signals in Palaeozoic land plants. PDF file, Phil.Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:
Weather and Climate.

! R.E. Ernst and N. Youbi (2017): How Large Igneous Provinces affect global climate, sometimes cause mass extinctions, and represent natural markers in the geological record. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 478: 30-52. See also here (in PDF).

! D.H. Erwin (2009): Climate as a driver of evolutionary change. PDF file, Current Biology, 19: R575-R583.

H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2018): New insights on the stepwise collapse of the Carboniferous Coal Forests: Evidence from cyclothems and coniferopsid tree-stumps near the Desmoinesian–Missourian boundary in Peoria County, Illinois, USA. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 490: 375–392. See also here and there.

H.J. Falcon-Lang and W.A. DiMichelle (2010): What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases? PDF file, Palaios, 25: 611-617.

Paul D. Farrar, Ocean Projects Department, Naval Oceanographic Office, Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, MS (The World Wide Web Virtual Library): Paleoclimatology and Paleoceanography. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Juan Pedro Ferrio Díaz, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany: How can we study past climates?

M. Fichman (2013): Raindrop Imprints and Their Use in the Retrodeformation of Carboniferous Trace Fossils. In PDF, Master's Theses.

B.J. Fletcher et al. (2008): Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change. In PDF, Nat. Geosci., 1: 43-48.

F. Fluteau et al. (2001): The Late Permian climate. What can be inferred from climate modelling concerning Pangea scenarios and Hercynian range altitude? PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 167: 39-71.

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2013): Latest Permian paleosols from Wapadsberg Pass, South Africa: Implications for Changhsingian climate. In PDF, GSA Bulletin.

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1996): Out of the Icehouse into the Greenhouse: A Late Paleozoic Analog for Modern Global Vegetational Change. In PDF. See also here.

Robert A. Gastaldo, Colby College: Plants as keys to past climatic conditions.

D.G. Gavin et al. (2014): Climate refugia: joint inference from fossil records, species distribution models and phylogeography. New Phytologist, 204: 37-54.

! S.D. Gedzelman, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, City College of New York: Climate and Climate Change. Lecture notes. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to: Climates of the Past and Climate Change (DOC file). (Michael Wegner, Köln):
! Historische Geologie, Paläoklima. Palaeogeographic maps (based on Scotese 2000) with palaeoclimate symbols. In German. (published by Hobart King). News and information about geology and earth science. Go to:
Climate Change Articles, Information, News and Facts.

GeoSystems. GeoSystems is a developing community-based initiative that focuses on the importance of the deep-time perspective for understanding the complexities of Earth´s atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and surficial lithosphere using climate as the focus. Go to: Links to Other Websites of Interest. A growing list of web sites that relate to GeoSystems and deep-time paleoclimate.

GEsource (the geography and environment hub of the Resource Discovery Network (RDN), the UK´s free national gateway to Internet resources for the learning, teaching and research community). Browse and navigate from here. Go to: Climatology.

The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, (GISS), New York: Paleoclimate.

! X.-D. Gou et al. (2021): Leaf phenology, paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental insights derived from an Agathoxylon stem from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, Northwest China. Open access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 289.

Rhys E. Green, Mike Harley, Lera Miles, Jörn Scharlemann, Andrew Watkinson and Olly Watts (eds.): Global climate change and biodiversity (PDF file). A summary of papers and discussion from a conference, held at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK in April 2003, organised jointly by the RSPB, WWF-UK, English Nature, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.

G.W. Grimm and A.J. Potts (2015): Fallacies and fantasies: the theoretical underpinnings of the Coexistence Approach for palaeoclimate reconstruction. In PDF, Clim. Past Discuss., 11: 5727-5754.

G.W. Grimm et al. (2015): Fables and foibles: a critical analysis of the Palaeoflora database and the Coexistence approach for palaeoclimate reconstruction. In PDF.

R.S. Harbert and K.C. Nixon (2015): Climate reconstruction analysis using coexistence likelihood estimation (CRACLE): A method for the estimation of climate using vegetation. In PDF, American journal of botany, 102.

S.P. Harrison et al. (2016): What have we learnt from palaeoclimate simulations? Journal of Quaternary Science. See also here (in PDF).

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA: The Cretaceous greenhouse climate. Powerpoint presentation.

W.W. Hay (2017): Toward understanding Cretaceous climate — An updated review. SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 60: 5-19.

! Alan M. Haywood, School of Earth & Environment, University of Leeds:
Modelling Ancient Earth Climate: Methods & Models.
Modelling Ancient Earth Climate.
Powerpoint presentations.

David F. Hendry (2010): Climate Change: Lessons for our Future from the Distant Past. PDF file, Economics Series Working Papers.

Rüdiger Henrich, Polar Research 2011: Book review of: Thomas M. Cronin (2010): Paleoclimates. Understanding climate change past and present. 441 pp., New York, Columbia University Press.

E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237.

! W.W. Hay (2017): Toward understanding Cretaceous climate - An updated review. Science China Earth Sciences, 60: 5–19. See also here (abstract).

D. Hibbett et al. (2016): Climate, decay, and the death of the coal forests. In PDF, Current Biology, 26. See also here.

! D. Hibbett et al. (2016): Climate, decay, and the death of the coal forests. Current Biology, 26: R563-R567: See also here (in PDF).

P.F. Hoffman et al. (2017): Snowball Earth climate dynamics and Cryogenian geology-geobiology. In PDF, Science Advances, 3. See also here.

M. Holz (2015): Mesozoic paleogeography and paleoclimates - a discussion of the diverse greenhouse and hothouse conditions of an alien world. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Thomas R. Holtz: An Introduction to Paleoclimatology. See also here.

B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Y. Huang et al. (2015): Distribution of Cenozoic plant relicts in China explained by drought in dry season. Open access, Scientific Reports, 5.

Brian T. Huber, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Tropical Paradise at the Cretaceous Poles? Scroll down to: HyperNotes. Related resources on the World Wide Web.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Brian T. Huber et al. (2000): Warm climates in earth history. Table of contents, provided by Google books.

R.B. Huey et al. (2002): Plants versus animals: do they deal with stress in different ways? PDF file, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42: 415-423.

! E. Jansen et al. (2007): Palaeoclimate. PDF file, in: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., Miller, H.L. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assesement Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

P. Jardine (2011): The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In PDF, Palaeontology Online. See also here.

M.M. Joachimski et al. (2012): Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology, 40: 195-198.

Miriam Jones (presentation hosted by Katherine Leonard, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University): Paleoclimate Review. Powerpoint presentation.

! Dennis V. Kent and Giovanni Muttoni (2003): Mobility of Pangea: Implications for Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Paleoclimate. PDF file, In: Peter M. LeTourneau and Paul Eric Olsen: The great rift valleys of Pangea in eastern North America (Columbia University Press), New York.
See also here.

J.P. Klages et al. (2020): Temperate rainforests near the South Pole during peak Cretaceous warmth. In PDF, Nature, 580: 81-86. See also here.
Note fig. 3: Reconstruction of the West Antarctic Turonian–Santonian temperate rainforest.

George Kling, Globalchange 1 (The University of Michigan):
Past Climates on Earth. Climate patterns, past and present.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! A.H. Knoll and H.D. Holland, Harvard University: Oxygen and Proterozoic Evolution: An Update. From:
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

Patricia Houle and Ping Zhu, Department of Earth Sciences, Florida International University: Global Climate Change: Science, Society, and Solution. This lecture notes address the core topics which are central to understanding global climate change in a way that is understandable and accessible. See especially:
Climate Change Basics. Powerpoint presentations.
! Navigate from here.

J.T. Kiehl and C.A. Shields (2005): Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. In PDF, Geology, 33: 757-760.

J. Kovar-Eder and V. Teodoridis (2018): The Middle Miocene Central European plant record revisited; widespread subhumid sclerophyllous forests indicated. In PDF, Fossil Imprint, 74: 115–134.

M.J. Kraus, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder: Using multiple paleosol proxies to interpret paleoclimate change: An earliest Eocene example from Wyoming. In PDF.
See also here (Powerpoint presentation).

! C.H. Lear et al. (2020): Geological Society of London Scientific Statement: what the geological record tells us about our present and future climate. In PDF, Journal of the Geological Society, 178. See also here and there.

G. Le Hir et al. (2011): The climate change caused by the land plant invasion in the Devonian. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 310: 203-212.

J. Li et al. (2019): Mesozoic and Cenozoic palaeogeography, palaeoclimate and palaeoecology in the eastern Tethys. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 515, 1–5.

Bruce S. Lieberman and Roger Kaesler (2010): Prehistoric Life Evolution and the Fossil Record. Book announcement (Wiley-Blackwell), including table of contents.
The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.
! Available in PDF from here. See especially:
PDF page 38: "Taphonomy."
PDF page 74: "Introduction to Evolution."
PDF page 123: "Extinctions: The Legacy of the Fossil Record."
PDF page 137: "The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences."
! PDF page 227: "Life, Climate, and Geology."
! PDF page 236: "Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind."
! PDF page 242: "Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology."

B.H. Lomax and W.T. Fraser (2015): Palaeoproxies: botanical monitors and recorders of atmospheric change. In PDF, Palaeontology. See also here (abstract).

University of London External System, London, UK (This is is a division of the University of London that grants external degrees: Study in Economics, Management, Finance and Social Sciences (EMFSS), Biogeography. Go to: Chapter 4: Patterns in time. This PDF file briefly reviews the evolution of the flora and fauna of the earth and the role that plate tectonics, climate and sea level played in their evolution.

C.V. Looy et al. (2016): Biological and physical evidence for extreme seasonality in central Permian Pangea. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 451: 210–226. See also here (in PDF).

! C.V. Looy et al. (2014): The late Paleozoic ecological-evolutionary laboratory, a land-plant fossil record perspective. In PDF, The Sedimentary Record, 12: 4-18. See also here.

! M. Lu et al. (2021): A synthesis of the Devonian wildfire record: Implications for paleogeography, fossil flora, and paleoclimate. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 571. See also here (in PDF).

L. Luthardt et al. (2018): Severe growth disturbances in an early Permian calamitalean – traces of a lightning strike? Abstract, Palaeontographica Abteilung B, 298: 1-22.
! "... The special injury of the calamitalean described herein [...] exhibits an elongated to triangular shape, a central furrow, a scar-associated event ring of collapsed to distorted tracheids, and was ultimately overgrown by callus parenchyma. We suggest that this scar most likely was caused by a lightning strike ..."

L. Luthardt et al. (2016): Palaeoclimatic and site-specific conditions in the early Permian fossil forest of Chemnitz—Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobotanical evidence. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441: 627–652. See also here.

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai´i at Manoa:
The Cretaceous greenhouse climate. Powerpoint presentation.

! E. Martinetto et al. (2018): Worldwide temperate forests of the Neogene: Never more diverse? Abstract, in PDF. 10th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference, University College Dublin, Ireland.
See also here.

! V. Masson-Delmotte et al., (2013): Information from Paleoclimate Archives. PDF file, In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.

P.J. Mayhew et al. (2008): A long-term association between global temperature and biodiversity, origination and extinction in the fossil record. In PDF, Proc Biol Sci., 275: 47-53.

C. Mays et al. (2017): Polar wildfires and conifer serotiny during the Cretaceous global hothouse. In PDF, Geology, 45: 1119-1122. See also here.

Mark McCaffrey, NOAA: Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. A comprehensive online set of attractive slides, providing background on a variety of paleoclimatology subjects, including Ice Ages, Tree Rings, Ice Cores, Coral Reefs and much more.

! N.G. McDowell (2011): The interdependence of mechanisms underlying climate-driven vegetation mortality. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here

Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin: Climate change and mass extinction: What can we learn from 200 million year old plants? PDF file.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

MCELWAIN, JENNIFER C. Department of Geology, Field Museum, Chicago: A novel climate-independent method for estimating paleo-elevation from fossil plants. Abstract. Botany 2001, August 12 - 16, 2001; Albuquerque, New Mexico.

S. McLoughlin (2017): Antarctica’s Glossopteris forests. In PDF, In: 52 More Things You Should Know About Palaeontology, eds. A. Cullum, A.W. Martinius. Nova Scotia: Agile Libre, p. 22-23. See also here.

A. Menendez (2014): Developing Criteria for Identifying Fossil Raindrop Prints. In PDF.

University of Michigan, Global Change Courses:
Past Climate Change and the Ice Ages. Powepoint presentation. See also:
! Global Change 1 Fall 2015 Schedule. Lecture notes.

! B.J.W. Mills et al. (2017): Nutrient acquisition by symbiotic fungi governs Palaeozoic climate transition. Open access, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373.

B.J.W. Mills et al. (2017): Elevated CO2 degassing rates prevented the return of Snowball Earth during the Phanerozoic. Nature Communications, 8.

! I.P. Montañez (2016): A Late Paleozoic climatewindow of opportunity. In PDF, PNAS, 113: 2334-2336. See also here.

I.P. Montañez and C.J. Poulsen (2013): The Late Paleozoic Ice Age: An Evolving Paradigm. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 41: 629–656.

! J.L. Morris et al. (2015): Investigating Devonian trees as geo-engineers of past climates: linking palaeosols to palaeobotany and experimental geobiology. In PDF, Palaeontology, 58: 787-801. See also here.

! V. Mosbrugger et al. (2005): Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe. PDF file, PNAS, 102: 14964-14969. See also here.

! V. Mosbrugger and T. Utescher (1997): The coexistence approach -- a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 134: 61-86.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Richard A. Muller, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley: A Brief Introduction to History of Climate.

NASA: Global Change Master Directory. A comprehensive directory about Earth science and global change data. Go to Paleoclimate (Search results).

! National Center for Science Education (NCSE), Oakland, CA.
NCSE defends the integrity of science education against ideological interference. NCSE provides information dedicated to keeping evolution in the science classroom and creationism out. Go to:
! Climate Change. The National Center for Science Education is the only national organization devoted to defending the teaching of climate change in public schools.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC):
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, CO, Global Pollen Database. With data from Africa, the Americas, and northern Asia. This database continues to grow as new data are organized and made available by various regional data cooperatives such as the Indo-Pacific Pollen Database, the Latin American Pollen Database, and the North American Pollen Database.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Asheville NC: NCDC Publications. A link list (some access restrictions). NCDC is the world´s largest active archive of weather data.

! NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Jump to this book's table of contents to begin reading online for free.

! National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC. NOAA Paleoclimatology. NOAA Paleoclimatology operate the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology which distributes data contributed by scientists around the world. Paleo data come from natural sources such as tree rings, ice cores, corals, and ocean and lake sediments, and extend the archive of climate back hundreds to millions of years. Go to:
! What is Paleoclimatology?

! National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC: NOAA´s mission is to understand and predict changes in Earth´s environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources. Go to: NOAA Paleoclimatology. NOAA Paleoclimatology operates the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology and the Applied Research Center for Paleoclimatology, with the goal to provide data and information scientists need to understand natural climate variability as well as future climate change.
See also: NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, CO: Other Places of Interest. A link directory.

! National Research Council (2011), The National Academies Press, Washington, DC: Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. 177 pages.
In Understanding Earth's Deep Past, the National Research Council reports that rocks and sediments that are millions of years old hold clues to how the Earth's future climate would respond in an environment with high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases.
! See also here (PDF files available to download for free). You may download PDF files from NAP by logging in as a guest, providing only your email address.

Jörg F.W. Negendank, GFZ Potsdam: Klima im Wandel: Die Geschichte des Klimas aus geobiowissenschaftlichen Archiven. PDF file, in German.

! M.P. Nelsen et al. (2016): Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 2442-2447. See also here.

The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program at the National Geophysical Data Center: A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming. This site offers a good, non-political starting point for those who want to learn more about global warming. See also: New releases in Paleoclimatology.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

NOAA Paleoclimatology Program (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Boulder: Drought: A Paleo Perspective. The devastating effects of drought are outlined here, limiting the focus to North America. You may navigate from here. See also: Paleoclimatology and Drought. An introduction about the natural environmental (or proxy) records to infer past climate conditions.

T. Nyman et al. (2012): Climate-driven diversity dynamics in plants and plant-feeding insects. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 14: 1-10. See also here.

C. Oh et al. (2015): Xenoxylon synecology and palaeoclimatic implications for the Mesozoic of Eurasia. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60: 245-256. See also here.

Paul E. Olsen and Jessica H. Whiteside: PRE-QUATERNARY MILANKOVITCH CYCLES AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY. PDF file, Encyclopedia of paleoclimatology and ancient environments, p. 826-835.

The Open University , UK (the world´s first successful distance teaching university): The Open University provides high-quality university education to all. Go to: Global warming. An introduction.

Wolfgang Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: The Evolution of the Atmosphere of our Planet Earth. In PDF. About the the origin of earth and the early atmosphere, the role of biosphere and the carbon-cycle and the atmospheric evolution through time.

PAGES (a core project of IGBP, funded by the U.S. and Swiss National Science Foundations and NOAA). The primary objective of PAGES is to improve the understanding of past changes in the earth system in order to improve projections of future climate and environment.

Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago: Permian Introduction, and Jurassic Geography and Climates. Detailed paleotopographic and paleobathymetric maps. See also: Jurassic Floras and Climate.

! J.T. Parrish (1983): Climate of the supercontinent Pangea. Abstract, The Journal of Geology. Sede also here (in PDF).

! D.J. Peppe (2018): Reconstructing paleoclimate and paleoecology using fossil leaves. Abstract, in: Croft D., Su D., Simpson S. (eds) Methods in Paleoecology. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology. Springer. See also here (in PDF).

! D.J. Peppe et al. (2011): Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications. In PDF, New Phytologist, 190: 724-739. See also here (abstract).

O. Peterffy et al. (2016): Early Jurassic microbial mats - A potential response to reduced biotic activity in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here.

R.J. Petit et al. (2008): Forests of the past: a window to future changes. PDF file, Science, 320.

H.W. Pfefferkorn et al. (2017): Impact of an icehouse climate interval on tropical vegetation and plant evolution. In PDF, Stratigraphy, 14: 365-376. See also here.

Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to: Introduction to the Atmosphere, and Introduction to the Hydrosphere.

G. Pienkowski et al. (2016): Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming. In PDF, Sci. Rep., 6.

A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 216.

I.C. Prentice and S.P. Harrison (2009): Ecosystem effects of CO2 concentration: evidence from past climates. PDF file, Clim. Past, 5: 297-307.

J. Quirk et al. (2015): Constraining the role of early land plants in Palaeozoic weathering and global cooling. Proc. R. Soc., B 282.

RealClimate (a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists).
! See especially: Paleoclimate.
! Don´t miss to search e.g. for "Triassic".
Visit the link directory Paleo-data and Paleo Reconstructions (including code).

P.M.A. Rees et al. (1999): Permian climates: Evaluating model predictions using global paleobotanical data. In PDF, Geology, 27: 891-894. See also here.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleobiography Project. Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
There are three databases, including a map-based search function, plotting on paleomaps, references search, genus name search for the dinosaurs and plants, and tutorial pages:
PGAP, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project Lithofacies Database. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lithofacies.
CSS, the Climate Sensitive Sediments Database. Permian and Jurassic Climate Sensitive Sediments.
DINO, the Dinosauria Distributions Database. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Dinosaur Distributions.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Permian Phytogeography and Climate Inference. Downloadable PowerPoint Presentation, Nonmarine Permian Symposium. 18 MB!

! T. Reichgelt et al. (2018): The relation between global palm distribution and climate. Free access, Scientific Reports, 8:4721, doi:10.1038/s.

Gregory J. Retallack (2010): Greenhouse crises of the past 300 million years. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 121: 1441-1455.

Laura Roberts, Mark Kirschbaum, and Pete McCabe, the U.S. Geological Survey's Energy Resources Program: Global Warming. Lessons from the Past? This study of paleogeography of the western United States, from about 98 million years ago to about 66 million years ago, is part of the Cretaceous Coals of North America project. Results of this work will provide a better understanding of the origins and distribution of high-quality coals in the United States.

M. Roscher: Environmental reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic. Numeric modelling and geological evidences. In PDF. Dissertation, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg.

Florian Rötzer, Telepolis: Spuren aus der biogeologischen Geschichte der Erde (in German).

Daniel H. Rothman, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA: Global biodiversity and the ancient carbon cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 98, Issue 8, 4305-4310, April 10, 2001.

Daniel H. Rothman, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA: Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the last 500 million years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 7, 4167-4171, April 2, 2002.

Dana L. Royer et al. (2007): Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. PDF file, Nature, 446.

K. Ruckwied et al. (2015): Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South Africa): Utilizing climatic icehouse-greenhouse signals for cross basin correlations. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 413: 167-172.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers School of Arts and Sciences : Cenozoic Tectonic and Climate. Powerpoint Presentation, 9 MB.

I. Sanmartín and F. Ronquist (2004): Southern Hemisphere Biogeography Inferred by Event-Based Models: Plant versus Animal Patterns. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 216-243.

S.M. Savin (1977): The history of the Earth´s surface temperature during the past 100 million years. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 5: 319-355.

E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2012): Extinguishing a Permian World. In PDF, Geology, 40: 287-288.

G. Schweigert (2016), smnstuttgart-blog, Understanding Nature: Klimawandel im Jura. In German.

! C.R. Scotese et al. (2021): Phanerozoic paleotemperatures: The earth's changing climate during the last 540 million years. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 215. See also here.
"... This study provides a comprehensive and quantitative estimate of how global temperatures have changed during the last 540 million years. It combines paleotemperature measurements determined from oxygen isotopes with broader insights obtained from the changing distribution of lithologic indicators of climate, such as coals, evaporites, calcretes, reefs, and bauxite deposits. ..."

! Christopher R. Scotese, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas: Climate History. Check out what the Earth's climate was like millions of years ago. See also:
Climatic Change. The animation shows the changing location of the Earth's climatic belts through time.

! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2007): Mesozoic climates. In: Mark Williams et al. (eds.): Deep-time perspectives on climate change: marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. Google books.

! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2006): Mesozoic climates: General circulation models and the rock record. In PDF, Sedimentary geology, 190: 269-287.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Sha et al. (2015): Triassic-Jurassic climate in continental high-latitude Asia was dominated by obliquity-paced variations (Junggar Basin, Ürümqi, China). In PDF, PNAS.

Nir J. Shaviv, Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, and Ján Veizer, Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universität, Bochum, Germany, and Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, University of Ottawa: Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? GSA Today, Volume 13, Number 7; July 2003.

Nathan D. Sheldon and Neil J. Tabor (2009): Quantitative paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction using paleosols. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews.

! G.R. Shi and J.B. Waterhouse (2010): Late Palaeozoic global changes affecting high-latitude environments and biotas: an introduction. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298: 1-16. See also here (in PDF).

Lisa Sloan, Department of Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz: Paleoclimate and Climate Change.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.J. Smiley (1967): Paleoclimatic Interpretations of Some Mesozoic Floral Sequences. AAPG Bulletin.

Stephen A. Smith and Jeremy M. Beaulieu (2009): Life history influences rates of climatic niche evolution in flowering plants. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 276: 4345-4352. See also here.

H. Song et al. (2021): Thresholds of temperature change for mass extinctions. Open access, Nature Communications, 12.
Note fig. 1: Temperature change and extinction rate over the past 450 million years.

L.A. Spalletti et al. (2003): Geological factors and evolution of southwestern Gondwana Triassic plants. In PDF, Gondwana Research. See also here (abstract).

R.A. Spicer et al. (2009): New developments in CLAMP: Calibration using global gridded meteorological data. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 283: 91-98.

! R.A. Spicer (1992): Fossils as Environmental Indicators, Climate from Plants. PDF file.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Robert A. Spicer, The Warm Earth Environmental Systems Research Group: Plant Fossils as Climatic Indicators. Go to: Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Programe (CLAMP). An introduction to the use of leaf architecture for determining past climatic conditions.

! W.T. Summers et al. (2011): Synthesis of Knowledge: Fire History and Climate Change. Abstract.
See also here. In PDF, slow download. Table of contents on PDF page 5.
Worth checking out:
Chapter 5 (PDF page 57): Change, Variability, Pattern and Scale.
Pattern and Scale in Fire History (PDF page 57).

Eugene S. Takle and Richard C. Seagrave, The Global Learning Resource Network, Iowa State University: GLOBAL CHANGE. About the long-term characteristics of the atmosphere: why the atmosphere is what it is, how it got that way, and what is necessary to make significant changes in its structure and composition. Go to: Evolution of the Earth´s Atmosphere.

P.E. Tarasov et al. (2013): The biome reconstruction approach as a tool for interpretation of past vegetation and climate changes: application to modern and fossil pollen data from Lake El´gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic. In PDF, Clim. Past Discuss., 9: 3449-3487.

! H Tian et al. (2016): The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In PDF, Nature. See also here (abstract).

! Triassic Climate (Links for Palaeobotanists). An annotated link directory.

A. Uchman et al. (2004): Oligocene trace fossils from temporary fluvial plain ponds: an example from the Freshwater Molasse of Switzerland. Open access, Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 97: 133–148.

! D. Uhl (2006): Fossil plants as palaeoenvironmental proxies - some remarks on selected approaches. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica, 46: 87-100.

United States Environmental Protection Agency: Climate Change. EPA's Climate Change Site offers comprehensive information on the issue of climate change. Go to: Past Climate Change. Worth checking out: Glossary of Climate Change Terms.

U.S. National Geophysical Data Center: Climate Timeline Tool. Descriptions with graphics of the general climatic conditions during different periods of time.

! T. Utescher et al. (2014): The Coexistence Approach - Theoretical background and practical considerations of using plant fossils for climate quantification. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 410: 58-73.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

V. Vajda et al. (2016): Mesozoic ecosystems – climate and biotas. In PDF, Preface, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464.

P.J. Valdes (2000): Warm climate forcing mechanism. PDF file, in: Brian T. Huber et al. (2000): Warm climates in earth history (Cambridge University Press).

F. Valladares (2008): A mechanistic view of the capacity of forests to cope with climate change. In PDF, Managing Forest Ecosystems: the challenge of climate changes.

B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2020): The Mesozoic Arctic: warm, green, and highly diverse. In PDF, Geological Magazine, 157: 1543–1546.

! A.P.M. Vaughan (2007): Climate and geology - a Phanerozoic perspective. In PDF.

Mittsy Voiles and Al Stenstrup: What Information Do Paleobotanists Use to Study Ancient Climates? PDF file, Global Change Education Resource Guide, L.L. Mortensen (ed.), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring. Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (Teacher Education for Sustainability. I. Global Change Education).

P. Voosen (2019): A 500-million-year survey of Earth's climate reveals dire warning for humanity. Science, 364. Worth checking out (scroll down to):
! A deep-time temperature curve, the "Fever line" graph, showing the global temperature of marine life in Earth´s history.

! P.X. Wang et al. (2017): The global monsoon across time scales: Mechanisms and outstanding issues. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.

P.X. Wang et al. (2014): The global monsoon across timescales: coherent variability of regional monsoons. In PDF, Clim. Past, 10: 2007–2052.

P.X. Wang (2009): Global monsoon in a geological perspective. Abstract, Chinese Science Bulletin, 54: 1113-1136.

! Z. Wang (1993): Evolutionary ecosystem of Permian-Triassic redbeds in North China: a historical record of global desertification. In PDF; The Nonmarine Triassic. See also here.

! J.K. Warren (2010) Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 98: 217–268. Worth checking out, excellent!

Robert S. Webb, NOAA ESRL Climate Analysis Branch (formerly the Climate Diagnostics Center) Boulder, Colorado: An Introduction to Global Climate Change. Powerpoint presentation.

Michael Wegner, Köln, Palaeoclimate (in German).

M.C. Wiemann et al. (1998): Estimation of temperature and precipitation from morphological characters of dicotyledonous leaves. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 85: 1796–1802. See also here.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Raindrop impressions.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Paleoclimatology.
Snowball Earth.

P. Wilf (2008): Insect-damaged fossil leaves record food web response to ancient climate change and extinction. In PDF, New Phytologist.

P. Wilf et al. (1998): Using fossil leaves as paleoprecipitation indicators: an Eocene example. In PDF, Geology,26: 203-206. See also here.

! J.W. Williams and S.T. Jackson (2007): Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. In PDF, Front. Ecol. Environ., 5: 475-482.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K.J. Willis and K.J. Niklas (2004): The role of Quaternary environmental change in plant macroevolution: the exception or the rule? In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 159-172.

Q. Wu et al. (2021): High-precision U-Pb age constraints on the Permian floral turnovers, paleoclimate change, and tectonics of the North China block. Free access, Geology. See also here.

! J.P. Wilson et al. (2020): Carboniferous plant physiology breaks the mold. Free access, New Phytologist.

! J.P. Wilson et al. (2017): Dynamic carboniferous tropical forests: new views of plant function and potential for physiological forcing of climate. Free access, New Phytologist, 215: 1333–1353.

! Yuri D. Zakharov et al. (2009): Permian to earliest Cretaceous climatic oscillations in the eastern Asian continental margin (Sikhote-Alin area), as indicated by fossils and isotope data. PDF file (3 MB), GFF, 131: 25-47. See also here.

! A.E. Zanne et al. (2014): Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. In PDF, Nature. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! L. Zhang et al. (2016): A new paleoclimate classification for deep time. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443: 98–106. See also here.

A.M. Ziegler et al. (2003): Tracing the tropics across land and sea: Permian to present. In PDF; Lethaia.

! A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993): Early Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.

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