Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Palaeoclimate


Focused on Palaeoclimate
Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
Stomatal Density
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle

Home / Palaeoclimate / Focused on Palaeoclimate

Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
Stomatal Density
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle
! Triassic Climate@
! Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
! Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants@
! Abscission and Tissue Separation in Fossil and Extant Plants@
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@

Focused on Palaeoclimate

American Meteorological Society (website supported by the National Science Foundation): Water in the Earth System Learning Files. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Baum, Texas Center for Climate Studies and Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University: Climatology and Paleoclimatology Resources. Web links to climatology and paleoclimatology. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D. Beerling et al. (2009): Methane and the CH4 related greenhouse effect over the past 400 million years. In PDF.

! D.J. Beerling and D.L. Royer (2002): Fossil plants as indicators of the Phanerozoic global carbon cycle. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 30: 527-556.

! M.J. Benton and A.J. Newell (2014): Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Gondwana Research.

Robert A. Berner, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT: Atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time. PNAS, Vol. 96, Issue 20, 10955-10957, September 28, 1999.

John Birks University of Bergen and University College, London:
Pollen-climate transfer functions - problems and pitfalls.
Powerpoint presentation.

H. John B. Birks (2011): Stay or Go? A Q-Time Perspective. Powerpoint presentation.

! J.L. Blois et al. (2013): Climate Change and the Past, Present, and Future of Biotic Interactions. In PDF, Science 341.

! B. Blonder et al. (2012): The leaf-area shrinkage effect can bias paleoclimate and ecology research In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 99: 1756-1763.

Botany.Com, the Encyclopedia of Plants: Zone Temperatures. Zones in Fahrenheit and Celsius. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.K. Boyce and J.-E. Lee (2017): Plant Evolution and Climate over Geological Timescales. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 45.

Monica Bruckner, Montana State University ( website hosted by Microbial Life, Educational Resources): Paleoclimatology: How Can We Infer Past Climates?

Joe Buchdahl, aric, Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester: aric provides world class research and education in atmospheric and sustainability issues to encourage responsible development. Global Climate Change Student Information Guide. The Global Climate Change Student Information Guide includes chapters on: the climate system; causes of climate change; empirical observation and climatic reconstruction; climate modelling; and palaeo- and contemporary climate change. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! See also here. In PDF.

Christine Bui, Trumbull College, Yale Scientific Magazine (YSM): Paleobotany: Fossilized plant remains give insights to global climate balances.

R.J. Burnham and K.R. Johnson (2004): South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 1595-1610.

! R. Caballero and P. Lynch (2011): Climate modelling and deep-time climate change. PDF file, In: Climate Change, Ecology and Systematics, ed. Trevor R. Hodkinson, Michael B. Jones, Stephen Waldren and John A. N. Parnell. Published by Cambridge University Press.

Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, Northfield, MN: On the Cutting Edge, Workshops for Geoscience Faculty, Paleoclimate: Climate Change Through Time. This website provides access to a spectrum of visualizations and supporting material that can be used effectively to teach students about palaeoclimate through geologic time. Visualizations include simple animations, GIS-based animated maps, paleogeographic maps, as well as numerous illustrations and photos.

Timothy Casey, Victoria, Australia: Climate Change Catastrophes in Critical Thinking.

M. Chevalier et al. (2014): CREST (Climate REconstruction SofTware): A probability density function (PDF)-based quantitative climate reconstruction method. In PDF. Clim. Past, 10: 2081-2098. See also here.

N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2003): Climate during the Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations. Article 2. Climate of the Late Permian and Early Triassic: general inferences. PDF file, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 11: 361-375. Translated from Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya Korrelyatsiya, 11: 55-70. See also:
N.M. Chumakov and M.A. Zharkov (2002): Climate during Permian-Triassic Biosphere Reorganizations, Article 1: Climate of the Early Permian. See also:
M.A. Zharkov and N.M. Chumakov (2001): (web-site hosted by the Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow): Paleogeography and Sedimentation Settings during Permian-Triassic Reorganizations in Biosphere.

! C.J. Cleal et al. (2011): Pennsylvanian vegetation and climate in tropical Variscan Euramerica. In PDF, Episodes, 34. See also here.

! Climate Ark (a project of Ecological Internet, Inc). The ClimateArk is a Climate Change Portal and Search Engine.

Climate of the Past. An interactive open access journal of the European Geosciences Union. Navigate from Volumes and Issues or Title and Author Search.

C. Coiffard et al. (2012): Deciphering Early Angiosperm Landscape Ecology Using a Clustering Method on Cretaceous Plant Assemblages. In PDF.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University: Tutorial: Using the Viewer. Data Catalog: Datasets by Category, go to Paleoclimate Data.

Committee on the Geologic Record of Biosphere Dynamics, National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (The National Academies Press): The Geological Record of Ecological Dynamics: Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future Environmental Change. 216 pages, 2005. Produced by a committee consisting of both ecologists and paleontologists, the report provides ecologists with background on techniques for obtaining and evaluating geohistorical information, and provides paleontologists with background on the nature of ecological phenomena amenable to analysis in the geological record. The report can be read online for free!

Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS); European Commission; Luxembourg: Environment and Climate. This site offers all recent enviromental and climate projects of the European Union. Govermental and commercial institutions are included in the environment and climate programme.

! T.M. Cronin (1999): Principles of Paleoclimatology. In PDF.
"Principles of Paleoclimatology describes the history of the Earth´s climate — the ice age cycles, sea level changes, volcanic activity, changes in atmosphere and solar radiation — and the resulting, sometimes catastrophic, biotic responses".
See also here.

C.W. Crowley (2012):
An Atlas Of Cenozoic Climate Zones, and Plates to accompany an Atlas Of Cenozoic Climate Zones. In PDF, Master thesis, Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Texas, Arlington.
See also here.

! T.J. Crowley and G.R. North (1988): Abrupt climate change and extinction events in earth history. In PDF, Science.

! T.J. Crowley (1983): The geologic record of climatic change. In PDF, Reviews of Geophysics.

S. Cruddas, BBC (2013): Climate change: A prehistoric window on Earth´s future?

R. H. Cummins, School of Interdisciplinary Studies, Miami University, OH: Internet links to paleoclimate resources.

D. Dilcher et al. (2009): A climatic and taxonomic comparison between leaf litter and standing vegetation from a Florida swamp woodland. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 1108-1115.

William A. DiMichele et al. (2010): Cyclic changes in Pennsylvanian paleoclimate and effects on floristic dynamics in tropical Pangaea. PDF file, International Journal of Coal Geology, 83: 329-344.

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. PDF file, Geobiology (2009), 7: 200-226. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! W.A. DiMichelle, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and T.L. Phillips, University of Illinois: The Response of Hierarchially Structured Ecosystems to Long-Term Climatic Change: A Case Study using Tropical Peat Swamps of Pennsylvanian Age. From:
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

William A. DiMichele et al. (2001): Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian plant communities to climate change. PDF file, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29: 461-4871.

Y. Donnadieu et al. (2009): Exploring the climatic impact of the continental vegetation on the Mezosoic atmospheric CO2 and climate history. In PDF, Clim. Past, 5: 85-96.

François Doumenge, Institut océanographique, Musée océanographique, Monaco, and Arie S. Issar, Water Resource Center, Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel: United Nations University Lecture Series, The Mediterranean Crises, and: Climate Change: Is It a Positive or Negative Process? The United Nations University is an international academic organization that provides and manages a framework for bringing together the world's leading scholars to tackle pressing global problems of major concern to the United Nations.

! Erin Eastwood (2008): Pangean Paleoclimate. PDF file, GEO 387H.

! Dianne Edwards (1998): Climate signals in Palaeozoic land plants. PDF file, Phil.Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:
Weather and Climate.

! D.H. Erwin (2009): Climate as a driver of evolutionary change. PDF file, Current Biology, 19: R575-R583. See also here.

H.J. Falcon-Lang and W.A. DiMichelle (2010): What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases? PDF file, Palaios, 25: 611-617.

Paul D. Farrar, Ocean Projects Department, Naval Oceanographic Office, Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, MS (The World Wide Web Virtual Library): Paleoclimatology and Paleoceanography. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Juan Pedro Ferrio Díaz, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany: How can we study past climates?

B.J. Fletcher et al. (2008): Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change. In PDF, Nat. Geosci., 1: 43-48.

F. Fluteau et al. (2001): The Late Permian climate. What can be inferred from climate modelling concerning Pangea scenarios and Hercynian range altitude? PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 167: 39-71.

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2013): Latest Permian paleosols from Wapadsberg Pass, South Africa: Implications for Changhsingian climate. In PDF, GSA Bulletin.

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (1996): Out of the Icehouse into the Greenhouse: A Late Paleozoic Analog for Modern Global Vegetational Change. In PDF. See also here.

Robert A. Gastaldo, Colby College: Plants as keys to past climatic conditions.

D.G. Gavin et al. (2014): Climate refugia: joint inference from fossil records, species distribution models and phylogeography. New Phytologist, 204: 37-54.

! S.D. Gedzelman, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, City College of New York: Climate and Climate Change. Lecture notes. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to: Climates of the Past and Climate Change (DOC file). (Michael Wegner, Köln):
! Historische Geologie, Paläoklima. Palaeogeographic maps (based on Scotese 2000) with palaeoclimate symbols. In German. (published by Hobart King). News and information about geology and earth science. Go to:
Climate Change Articles, Information, News and Facts.

GeoSystems. GeoSystems is a developing community-based initiative that focuses on the importance of the deep-time perspective for understanding the complexities of Earth´s atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and surficial lithosphere using climate as the focus. Go to: Links to Other Websites of Interest. A growing list of web sites that relate to GeoSystems and deep-time paleoclimate.

GEsource (the geography and environment hub of the Resource Discovery Network (RDN), the UK´s free national gateway to Internet resources for the learning, teaching and research community). Browse and navigate from here. Go to: Climatology.

The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, (GISS), New York: Paleoclimate.

Rhys E. Green, Mike Harley, Lera Miles, Jörn Scharlemann, Andrew Watkinson and Olly Watts (eds.): Global climate change and biodiversity (PDF file). A summary of papers and discussion from a conference, held at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK in April 2003, organised jointly by the RSPB, WWF-UK, English Nature, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.

! David R. Greenwood, Environmental Science Program, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada: Fossil plants as environmental indicators. Lecture note, PDF file (3.6 MB). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G.W. Grimm and A.J. Potts (2015): Fallacies and fantasies: the theoretical underpinnings of the Coexistence Approach for palaeoclimate reconstruction. In PDF, Clim. Past Discuss., 11: 5727-5754.

G.W. Grimm et al. (2015): Fables and foibles: a critical analysis of the Palaeoflora database and the Coexistence approach for palaeoclimate reconstruction. In PDF.

R.S. Harbert and K.C. Nixon (2015): Climate reconstruction analysis using coexistence likelihood estimation (CRACLE): A method for the estimation of climate using vegetation. In PDF, American journal of botany, 102.

S.P. Harrison et al. (2016): What have we learnt from palaeoclimate simulations? Journal of Quaternary Science. See also here (in PDF).

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA: The Cretaceous greenhouse climate. Powerpoint presentation.

W.W. Hay (2017): Toward understanding Cretaceous climate — An updated review. SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 60: 5-19.

! Alan M. Haywood, School of Earth & Environment, University of Leeds:
Modelling Ancient Earth Climate: Methods & Models.
Modelling Ancient Earth Climate.
Powerpoint presentations.

David F. Hendry (2010): Climate Change: Lessons for our Future from the Distant Past. PDF file, Economics Series Working Papers.

Rüdiger Henrich, Polar Research 2011: Book review of: Thomas M. Cronin (2010): Paleoclimates. Understanding climate change past and present. 441 pp., New York, Columbia University Press.

E. Hermann et al. (2012): Climatic oscillations at the onset of the Mesozoic inferred from palynological records from the North Indian Margin. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 169: 227-237.

B. Hönisch et al. (2012): The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. In PDF, Science, 135.

M. Holz (2015): Mesozoic paleogeography and paleoclimates - a discussion of the diverse greenhouse and hothouse conditions of an alien world. Abstract, Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Thomas R. Holtz: An Introduction to Paleoclimatology. See also here.

Brian T. Huber, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Tropical Paradise at the Cretaceous Poles? Scroll down to: HyperNotes. Related resources on the World Wide Web.

Brian T. Huber et al. (2000): Warm climates in earth history. Table of contents, provided by Google books.

R.B. Huey et al. (2002): Plants versus animals: do they deal with stress in different ways? PDF file, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42: 415-423.

! E. Jansen et al. (2007): Palaeoclimate. PDF file, in: Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.): Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

P. Jardine (2011): The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In PDF, Palaeontology Online. See also here.

M.M. Joachimski et al. (2012): Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology, 40: 195-198.

Miriam Jones (presentation hosted by Katherine Leonard, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University): Paleoclimate Review. Powerpoint presentation.

! Dennis V. Kent and Giovanni Muttoni (2003): Mobility of Pangea: Implications for Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Paleoclimate. PDF file, In: Peter M. LeTourneau and Paul Eric Olsen: The great rift valleys of Pangea in eastern North America (Columbia University Press), New York.
See also here.

George Kling, Globalchange 1 (The University of Michigan): Past Climates on Earth. Climate patterns, past and present. See also here.

! A.H. Knoll and H.D. Holland, Harvard University: Oxygen and Proterozoic Evolution: An Update. From:
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

J.T. Kiehl and C.A. Shields (2005): Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. In PDF, Geology, 33: 757-760.

M.J. Kraus, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder: Using multiple paleosol proxies to interpret paleoclimate change: An earliest Eocene example from Wyoming. In PDF.
See also here (Powerpoint presentation).

G. Le Hir et al. (2011): The climate change caused by the land plant invasion in the Devonian. In PDF, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 310: 203-212.

Bruce S. Lieberman and Roger Kaesler (2010): Prehistoric Life Evolution and the Fossil Record. Book announcement (Wiley-Blackwell), including table of contents.
The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.
! Available in PDF from here. See especially:
PDF page 38: "Taphonomy."
PDF page 74: "Introduction to Evolution."
PDF page 123: "Extinctions: The Legacy of the Fossil Record."
PDF page 137: "The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences."
! PDF page 227: "Life, Climate, and Geology."
! PDF page 236: "Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind."
! PDF page 242: "Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology."

B.H. Lomax and W.T. Fraser (2015): Palaeoproxies: botanical monitors and recorders of atmospheric change. In PDF, Palaeontology. See also here (abstract).

University of London External System, London, UK (This is is a division of the University of London that grants external degrees: Study in Economics, Management, Finance and Social Sciences (EMFSS), Biogeography. Go to: Chapter 4: Patterns in time. This PDF file briefly reviews the evolution of the flora and fauna of the earth and the role that plate tectonics, climate and sea level played in their evolution.

C.V. Looy et al. (2016): Biological and physical evidence for extreme seasonality in central Permian Pangea. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 451: 210–226. See also here (in PDF).

! C.V. Looy et al. (2014): The late Paleozoic ecological-evolutionary laboratory, a land-plant fossil record perspective. In PDF, The Sedimentary Record, 12: 4-18. See also here.

L. Luthardt et al. (2016): Palaeoclimatic and site-specific conditions in the early Permian fossil forest of Chemnitz—Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobotanical evidence. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441: 627–652. See also here.

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai´i at Manoa:
The Cretaceous greenhouse climate. Powerpoint presentation.

P.J. Mayhew et al. (2008): A long-term association between global temperature and biodiversity, origination and extinction in the fossil record. In PDF, Proc Biol Sci., 275: 47-53.

Mark McCaffrey, NOAA: Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. A comprehensive online set of attractive slides, providing background on a variety of paleoclimatology subjects, including Ice Ages, Tree Rings, Ice Cores, Coral Reefs and much more.

Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin: Climate change and mass extinction: What can we learn from 200 million year old plants? PDF file.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

MCELWAIN, JENNIFER C. Department of Geology, Field Museum, Chicago: A novel climate-independent method for estimating paleo-elevation from fossil plants. Abstract. Botany 2001, August 12 - 16, 2001; Albuquerque, New Mexico.

University of Michigan, Global Change Courses:
Past Climate Change and the Ice Ages. Powepoint presentation. See also:
! Global Change 1 Fall 2015 Schedule. Lecture notes.

! I.P. Montañez (2016): A Late Paleozoic climatewindow of opportunity. In PDF, PNAS, 113: 2334-2336. See also here.

! J.L. Morris et al. (2015): Investigating Devonian trees as geo-engineers of past climates: linking palaeosols to palaeobotany and experimental geobiology. In PDF, Palaeontology, 58: 787-801. See also here.

! V. Mosbrugger et al. (2005): Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe. PDF file, PNAS, 102: 14964-14969. See also here.

! V. Mosbrugger and T. Utescher (1997): The coexistence approach -- a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 134: 61-86.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Richard A. Muller, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley: A Brief Introduction to History of Climate.

NASA: Global Change Master Directory. A comprehensive directory about Earth science and global change data. Go to Paleoclimate.

! National Center for Science Education (NCSE), Oakland, CA.
NCSE defends the integrity of science education against ideological interference. NCSE provides information dedicated to keeping evolution in the science classroom and creationism out. Go to:
! Climate Change. The National Center for Science Education is the only national organization devoted to defending the teaching of climate change in public schools.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC):
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, CO, Global Pollen Database. With data from Africa, the Americas, and northern Asia. This database continues to grow as new data are organized and made available by various regional data cooperatives such as the Indo-Pacific Pollen Database, the Latin American Pollen Database, and the North American Pollen Database.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Asheville NC: NCDC Publications. A link list (some access restrictions). NCDC is the world´s largest active archive of weather data.

! NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,1995: Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Jump to this book's table of contents to begin reading online for free.

! National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC. NOAA Paleoclimatology. NOAA Paleoclimatology operate the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology which distributes data contributed by scientists around the world. Paleo data come from natural sources such as tree rings, ice cores, corals, and ocean and lake sediments, and extend the archive of climate back hundreds to millions of years. Go to:
! What is Paleoclimatology?

! National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC: NOAA´s mission is to understand and predict changes in Earth´s environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources. Go to: NOAA Paleoclimatology. NOAA Paleoclimatology operates the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology and the Applied Research Center for Paleoclimatology, with the goal to provide data and information scientists need to understand natural climate variability as well as future climate change.
See also: NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, CO: Other Places of Interest. A link directory.

Jörg F.W. Negendank, GFZ Potsdam: Klima im Wandel: Die Geschichte des Klimas aus geobiowissenschaftlichen Archiven. PDF file, in German.

The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program at the National Geophysical Data Center: A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming. This site offers a good, non-political starting point for those who want to learn more about global warming. See also: New releases in Paleoclimatology.

NOAA Paleoclimatology Program (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Boulder: Drought: A Paleo Perspective. The devastating effects of drought are outlined here, limiting the focus to North America. You may navigate from here. See also: Paleoclimatology and Drought. An introduction about the natural environmental (or proxy) records to infer past climate conditions.

T. Nyman et al. (2012): Climate-driven diversity dynamics in plants and plant-feeding insects. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 14: 1-10. See also here.

C. Oh et al. (2015): Xenoxylon synecology and palaeoclimatic implications for the Mesozoic of Eurasia. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60: 245-256. See also here.

Paul E. Olsen and Jessica H. Whiteside: PRE-QUATERNARY MILANKOVITCH CYCLES AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY. PDF file, Encyclopedia of paleoclimatology and ancient environments, p. 826-835.

The Open University , UK (the world´s first successful distance teaching university): The Open University provides high-quality university education to all. Go to: Global warming. An introduction.

Wolfgang Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: The Evolution of the Atmosphere of our Planet Earth. In PDF. About the the origin of earth and the early atmosphere, the role of biosphere and the carbon-cycle and the atmospheric evolution through time.

PAGES (a core project of IGBP, funded by the U.S. and Swiss National Science Foundations and NOAA). The primary objective of PAGES is to improve the understanding of past changes in the earth system in order to improve projections of future climate and environment.

Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago: Permian Introduction, and Jurassic Geography and Climates. Detailed paleotopographic and paleobathymetric maps. See also: Jurassic Floras and Climate.

! D.J. Peppe et al. (2011): Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications. In PDF, New Phytologist, 190: 724-739. See also here (abstract).

O. Peterffy et al. (2016): Early Jurassic microbial mats - A potential response to reduced biotic activity in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here.

R.J. Petit et al. (2008): Forests of the past: a window to future changes. PDF file, Science, 320.

Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to: Introduction to the Atmosphere, and Introduction to the Hydrosphere.

G. Pienkowski et al. (2016): Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming. In PDF, Sci. Rep., 6.

A. Piombino (2016): The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline. In PDF, International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 216.

I.C. Prentice and S.P. Harrison (2009): Ecosystem effects of CO2 concentration: evidence from past climates. PDF file, Clim. Past, 5: 297-307.

J. Quirk et al. (2015): Constraining the role of early land plants in Palaeozoic weathering and global cooling. Proc. R. Soc., B 282.

RealClimate. This is a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. The discussion here is restricted to scientific topics and will not get involved in any political or economic implications of the science. This is a moderated forum.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: PaleoIntegration Project (PIP). The Paleointegration Project is facilitating interoperability between global-scale fossil and sedimentary rock databases, enabling a greater understanding of the life, geography and climate of our planet throughout the Phanerozoic. Go to: Mesozoic.

! Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleobiography Project. There are three databases, including a map-based search function, plotting on paleomaps, references search, genus name search for the dinosaurs and plants, and tutorial pages:
PGAP, the Paleogeographic Atlas Project Lithofacies Database. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lithofacies.
CSS, the Climate Sensitive Sediments Database. Permian and Jurassic Climate Sensitive Sediments.
DINO, the Dinosauria Distributions Database. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Dinosaur Distributions.
Registration procedure required.

Allister Rees, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Permian Phytogeography and Climate Inference. Downloadable PowerPoint Presentation, Nonmarine Permian Symposium. 18 MB!

Gregory J. Retallack (2010): Greenhouse crises of the past 300 million years. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 121: 1441-1455.

Laura Roberts, Mark Kirschbaum, and Pete McCabe, the U.S. Geological Survey's Energy Resources Program: Global Warming. Lessons from the Past? This study of paleogeography of the western United States, from about 98 million years ago to about 66 million years ago, is part of the Cretaceous Coals of North America project. Results of this work will provide a better understanding of the origins and distribution of high-quality coals in the United States.

M. Roscher: Environmental reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic. Numeric modelling and geological evidences. In PDF. Dissertation, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg.

Florian Rötzer, Telepolis: Spuren aus der biogeologischen Geschichte der Erde (in German).

Daniel H. Rothman, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA: Global biodiversity and the ancient carbon cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 98, Issue 8, 4305-4310, April 10, 2001.

Daniel H. Rothman, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA: Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the last 500 million years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 7, 4167-4171, April 2, 2002.

Dana L. Royer et al. (2007): Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. PDF file, Nature, 446.

K. Ruckwied et al. (2015): Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South Africa): Utilizing climatic icehouse-greenhouse signals for cross basin correlations. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 413: 167-172.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers School of Arts and Sciences : Cenozoic Tectonic and Climate. Powerpoint Presentation, 9 MB.

I. Sanmartín and F. Ronquist (2004): Southern Hemisphere Biogeography Inferred by Event-Based Models: Plant versus Animal Patterns. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 216-243.

S.M. Savin (1977): The history of the Earth´s surface temperature during the past 100 million years. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 5: 319-355.

E. Schneebeli-Hermann (2012): Extinguishing a Permian World. In PDF, Geology, 40: 287-288.

G. Schweigert (2016), smnstuttgart-blog, Understanding Nature: Klimawandel im Jura. In German.

! Christopher R. Scotese, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas: Climate History. Check out what the Earth's climate was like millions of years ago. See also:
Climatic Change. The animation shows the changing location of the Earth's climatic belts through time.

! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2007): Mesozoic climates. In: Mark Williams et al. (eds.): Deep-time perspectives on climate change: marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. Google books.

! B.W. Sellwood and P.J. Valdes (2006): Mesozoic climates: General circulation models and the rock record. In PDF, Sedimentary geology, 190: 269-287.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Sha et al. (2015): Triassic-Jurassic climate in continental high-latitude Asia was dominated by obliquity-paced variations (Junggar Basin, Ürümqi, China). In PDF, PNAS.

Nir J. Shaviv, Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, and Ján Veizer, Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universität, Bochum, Germany, and Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, University of Ottawa: Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? GSA Today, Volume 13, Number 7; July 2003.

Nathan D. Sheldon and Neil J. Tabor (2009): Quantitative paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction using paleosols. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews.

! G.R. Shi and J.B. Waterhouse (2010): Late Palaeozoic global changes affecting high-latitude environments and biotas: an introduction. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298: 1-16. See also here (in PDF).

Lisa Sloan, Department of Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz: Paleoclimate and Climate Change.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.J. Smiley (1967): Paleoclimatic Interpretations of Some Mesozoic Floral Sequences. AAPG Bulletin.

Stephen A. Smith and Jeremy M. Beaulieu (2009): Life history influences rates of climatic niche evolution in flowering plants. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 276: 4345-4352. See also here.

L.A. Spalletti et al. (2003): Geological factors and evolution of southwestern Gondwana Triassic plants. In PDF, Gondwana Research. See also here (abstract).

R.A. Spicer et al. (2009): New developments in CLAMP: Calibration using global gridded meteorological data. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 283: 91-98.

! R.A. Spicer: Fossils as Environmental Indicators, Climate from Plants. PDF file.

! Robert A. Spicer, The Warm Earth Environmental Systems Research Group: Plant Fossils as Climatic Indicators. Go to: Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Programe (CLAMP). An introduction to the use of leaf architecture for determining past climatic conditions.

Eugene S. Takle and Richard C. Seagrave, The Global Learning Resource Network, Iowa State University: GLOBAL CHANGE. About the long-term characteristics of the atmosphere: why the atmosphere is what it is, how it got that way, and what is necessary to make significant changes in its structure and composition. Go to: Evolution of the Earth´s Atmosphere.

P.E. Tarasov et al. (2013): The biome reconstruction approach as a tool for interpretation of past vegetation and climate changes: application to modern and fossil pollen data from Lake El´gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic. In PDF, Clim. Past Discuss., 9: 3449-3487.

! H Tian et al. (2016): The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In PDF, Nature. See also here (abstract).

! D. Uhl (2006): Fossil plants as palaeoenvironmental proxies - some remarks on selected approaches. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica, 46: 87-100.

United States Environmental Protection Agency: Climate Change. EPA's Climate Change Site offers comprehensive information on the issue of climate change. Go to: Past Climate Change. Worth checking out: Glossary of Climate Change Terms.

U.S. National Geophysical Data Center: Climate Timeline Tool. Descriptions with graphics of the general climatic conditions during different periods of time.

! T. Utescher et al. (2014): The Coexistence Approach - Theoretical background and practical considerations of using plant fossils for climate quantification. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 410: 58-73.

V. Vajda et al. (2016): Mesozoic ecosystems – climate and biotas. In PDF, Preface, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 464.

P.J. Valdes (2000): Warm climate forcing mechanism. PDF file, in: Brian T. Huber et al. (2000): Warm climates in earth history (Cambridge University Press).

F. Valladares (2008): A mechanistic view of the capacity of forests to cope with climate change. In PDF, Managing Forest Ecosystems: the challenge of climate changes.

! A.P.M. Vaughan (2007): Climate and geology - a Phanerozoic perspective. In PDF.

Mittsy Voiles and Al Stenstrup: What Information Do Paleobotanists Use to Study Ancient Climates? PDF file, Global Change Education Resource Guide, L.L. Mortensen (ed.), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring. Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (Teacher Education for Sustainability. I. Global Change Education).

PinXian Wang (2009): Global monsoon in a geological perspective. PDF file, Chinese Science Bulletin, 54: 1113-1136.

! Z. Wang (1993): Evolutionary ecosystem of Permian-Triassic redbeds in North China: a historical record of global desertification. In PDF; The Nonmarine Triassic.

! J.K. Warren (2010) Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 98: 217–268. Worth checking out, excellent!

Michael Wegner, Köln, Palaeoclimate (in German).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Paleoclimatology.
Snowball Earth.

P. Wilf (2008): Insect-damaged fossil leaves record food web response to ancient climate change and extinction. In PDF, New Phytologist.

P. Wilf et al. (1998): Using fossil leaves as paleoprecipitation indicators: an Eocene example. In PDF, Geology,26: 203-206. See also here.

! J.W. Williams and S.T. Jackson (2007): Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. In PDF, Front. Ecol. Environ., 5: 475-482.

K.J. Willis and K.J. Niklas (2004): The role of Quaternary environmental change in plant macroevolution: the exception or the rule? In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 359: 159-172.

! Yuri D. Zakharov et al. (2009): Permian to earliest Cretaceous climatic oscillations in the eastern Asian continental margin (Sikhote-Alin area), as indicated by fossils and isotope data. PDF file (3 MB), GFF, 131: 25-47. See also here.

! A.E. Zanne et al. (2014): Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. In PDF, Nature. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! L. Zhang et al. (2016): A new paleoclimate classification for deep time. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443: 98–106. See also here.

A.M. Ziegler et al. (2003): Tracing the tropics across land and sea: Permian to present. In PDF; Lethaia.

! A.M. Ziegler et al. (1993): Early Mesozoic Phytogeography and Climate. Abstract.

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Last updated March 06, 2017

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