dede Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology), Links for Palaeobotanists
Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Palaeoclimate / Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General

Focused on Palaeoclimate
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
Stomatal Density
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle

! Triassic Climate@
! Trees@
! Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record@
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy@
Plant Anatomy@
! Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@
Fossil Charcoal@
! Wound Response in Trees@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
! Trees@

Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General

Ü. Akkemik et al. (2023): Wood and leaf remains of palms with affinities to Sabal Adans., from the middle Eocene of Turkey. Free access, Turkish Journal of Botany, 47: 50-60. Available at:

! Harry Alden, Maryland Archaeological Conservation Lab: Wood & Charcoal Identification in Southern Maryland. Introductions to wood anatomy. Excellent! Please note especially the keys and description of soft- and hardwoods, including an array of microphotographs.

L.S.R. Alves et al. (2005): Paleobotany and Paleoclimatology Part I: Growth Rings in Fossil Woods and Paleoclimates. PDF file; See also starting with PDF-page 16:
Part II: Leaf Assemblages (Taphonomy, Paleoclimatology and Paleogeography). In: pp 179–202, Koutsoukos, Eduardo A.M. (ed.) Applied Stratigraphy. Series: Topics in Geobiology, Vol. 23.
See also here (Google books).

Archäologie Online: Dendrochronologie. A link directory with annotations (in German).

A Arzac et al. (2018): Applying methods of hard tissues preparation for wood anatomy: Imaging polished samples embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. In PDF, Dendrochronologia, 51: 76-81. See also here.

! Georg von Arx et al. (2016): Quantitative Wood Anatomy — Practical Guidelines. Free access, Front. Plant Sci., 7.
See also here.

Eleni Asouti, School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool: Charcoal Analysis Web. Go to:
Cecilia A. Western Wood Reference Collection Archive: The Wood Anatomy Notebooks. Descriptions (typewriter, in PDF) and images (jpg). Mainly species from Southwest Asia and Southeast Europe, donated to the Institute of Archaeology by Cecilia A. Western.

Association for Tree-Ring Research

A. Balzano et al. (2022): Scanning electron microscopy protocol for studying anatomy of highly degraded waterlogged archaeological wood. Open access, Forests, 13.
"... The applied SEM protocol allowed characterisation of the anatomy of the highly degraded WAW [waterlogged archaeological wood] while reducing the time required for sample preparation and examination under the microscope ..."

J.A. Ballesteros-Cánovas et al. (2015): A review of flood records from tree rings. In PDF, Progress in Physical Geography. See also here.

! A.C.F. Barbosa et al. (2021): Polishing entire stems and roots using sandpaper under water: An alternative method for macroscopic analyses. Open access, Applications in Plant Sciences, 9: e11421. doi:10.1002/aps3.11421.

! J. Barros et al. (2015): The cell biology of lignification in higher plants. Free access, Annals of Botany, 115: 1053–1074.

N.N.A. Bayam et al. (2018): Further contributions to the early Miocene forest vegetation of the Galatian Volcanic Province, Turkey. Free access, Palaeontologia Electronica.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley: Plant Tissues, Wood, Growth Rings, Bark. Begin Photosynthesis. Lecture notes. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.K. Boyce et al. (2001): Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon in permineralized fossils. Free access, PNAS, 98.

M. Brea et al. (2015): Reconstruction of a fossil forest reveals details of the palaeoecology, palaeoenvironments and climatic conditions in the late Oligocene of South America. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 418: 19-42.

! K.R. Briffa et al. (2004): Large-scale temperature inferences from tree rings: a review. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change, 40: 11-26. See also here.

! C.R. Brodersen et al. (2011): Automated analysis of three-dimensional xylem networks using high-resolution computed tomography. In PDF, New Phytologist, 191: 1168-1179.

R.J. Burnham (2009): An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós, and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! B. Cascales-Miñana et al. (2019): On the hydraulic conductance of three woody Devonian plants. In PDF, IAWA journal, 40: 446-465. See also here (abstract).

! Center for Wood Anatomy Research, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), Madison, Wisconsin (U.S. Department of Agriculture, USDA). Information about wood identification techniques, and several hundred technical sheets which give details of the properties of North American hardwoods and softwoods, tropical woods and lesser-known woods.
You may navigate from here: Wood Properties.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J. Chave et al. (2009): Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 12: 351–366.

! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:
Wood, Secondary Growth,

M. Collins et al. (2002): A comparison of the variability of a climate model with paleotemperature estimates from a network of tree-ring densities. In PDF, Journal of Climate, 15: 1497-1515.

! W.K. Cornwell et al. (2009): Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed? PDF file, Global Change Biology, 15: 2431-2449.
See also here.
Note figure 1: The five major fates for woody debris.
Table 2: Stem anatomy differences across woody and pseudo-woody plant clades.

Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University (Graphics & Web programming team in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory): Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery. Go to: The Tree Collection. Examine digital images made from stained thin sections cut from a variety of tree species (Click the headings). Images are accompanied by text describing characteristics and habitat of the individual trees.

Owen Kent Davis, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona Tucson: QUATERNARY PALYNOLOGY AND PLANT MACROFOSSILS. Lecture notes. Go to: Macrofossil Drawings, WOOD CROSS SECTION. Line drawings.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.L. Decombeix et al. (2022): Tyloses in fossil plants: New data from a Mississippian tree, with a review of previous records. In Pdf, Botany Letters, 169: 1-17.
See also here and there.
Note figure 1: Schematic representation of tylosis formation seen in transverse and longitudinal sections.
Figure 4: Tyloses in extant and extinct vascular plants.

! A.L. Decombeix et al. (2019): Plant hydraulic architecture through time: lessons and questions on the evolution of vascular systems. In PDF, IAWA Journal, 40: 387-420. See also here and there.

B. De Rybel et al. (2016): Plant vascular development: from early specification to differentiation. Abstract, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 2016: 30-40. see also here and there (in PDF).

M. Dolezych and W. Schneider (2006): Inkohlte Hölzer und Cuticulae dispersae aus dem 2. Miozänen Flözhorizont im Tagebau Welzow (Lausitz)–Taxonomie und vergleichende feinstratigraphisch-fazielle Zuordnung. PDF file, in German. Zeitschrift für geologische Wiss. See also here.

M. Dolezych (2005): Koniferenhölzer im Lausitzer Flöz und ihre ökologische Position. PDF file, thesis, in German, with English summary (starting on PDF page 27). LLP Contributions Series, 19.

Institut für Botanik, Technische Universität Dresden: Pinus sylvestris, Pinaceae, Gymnospermae (in German). Bordered pits and cross-field pits.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Drouet et al.: Long-term records of strontium isotopic composition in tree rings ... PDF file, Global Change Biology, 2005.

T.L. Dutra and A. Crisafulli (2022): Petrified woods in the mesozoic of southern Brazil. In PDF, Brazilian Paleofloras: From Paleozoic to Holocene.
See also here.
"... This chapter summarizes the main components of xylotaphofloras that have been studied since the twentieth century ..."

Dieter Eckstein and Sigrid Wrobel 2005): Dendrochronologie (in German). From: Pingel, V. and Hauptmann, A. (eds.): Archäometrie - eine Querschnittswissenschaft. Methoden und Anwendungsbeispiele naturwissenschaftlicher Verfahren in der Archäometrie. Stuttgart.

T. Eglin et al. (2008): Biochemical composition is not the main factor influencing variability in carbon isotope composition of tree rings. PDF file, Tree Physiology, 28: 1619-1628.

! European Commission: European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. Excellent!
! Don´t miss the Atlas Download Page. Plenty of downloadable PDFs, e.g. about Past forests of Europe, an ecological overview, about forest classifications and European forest tree species.

Exploring Earth (McDougal Littell). The investigations and visualizations on this site were designed to accompany Earth Science, a high school textbook. The Web site was developed by TERC, a non-profit educational research and development firm in collaboration with McDougal Littell. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation. Go to: Find out more about dendrochronology.

! H.J. Falcon-Lang and D.M. Digrius (2014): Palaeobotany under the microscope: history of the invention and widespread adoption of the petrographic thin section technique. In PDF.

H.J. Falcon-Lang (2005): Global climate analysis of growth rings in woods, and its implications for deep-time paleoclimate studies. In PDF, Paleobiology, 31: 434–444.
See also here.
"... Data reprocessed from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank are used to analyze three parameters, mean ring width, mean sensitivity, and percentage latewood, from 727 sites across a global climatic range.
[...] Only in well-constrained studies where paleoclimatic, ontogenetic, and taxonomic sources of variability can be controlled, and data sets are very large, may fossil growth ring analysis provide useful paleoecological data. ..."

! H.J. Falcon-Lang (2000): A method to distinguish between woods produced by evergreen and deciduous coniferopsids on the basis of growth ring anatomy: a new palaeoecological tool. In PDF, Palaeontology.

Juan Pedro Ferrio Díaz, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany: How can we study past climates?

Jane E. Francis and Imogen Poole (2002): Cretaceous and early Tertiary climates of Antarctica: evidence from fossil wood. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 182: 47-64.

W.E. Friedman and M.E. Cook (2000): The origin and early evolution of tracheids in vascular plants: integration of palaeobotanical and neobotanical data. In PDF, Phil.Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 355: 857-868.
See also here.
! Note figure 2. The three major types of early tracheids.

! H. Gärtner and F.H. Schweingruber (2013): Microscopic Preparation Techniques for Plant Stem Analysis. In PDF.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

N. Gentis et al. (2024): First fossil woods and palm stems from the mid-Paleocene of Myanmar and implications for biogeography and wood anatomy. Open access, Am J Bot., 111.

! A. Gessler et al. (2014): Stable isotopes in tree rings: towards a mechanistic understanding of isotope fractionation and mixing processes from the leaves to the wood. Free access, Tree Physiology, 34: 796–818.
Note figure 1: Overview of the different processes influencing the carbon (a) and oxygen (b) isotope signature, from primary sources (CO2 and H2O, respectively) to tree-ring cellulose, going through different organic and inorganic pools.

X.-D. Gou and Z. Feng (2024): Checklist of the Jurassic wood (updated March 2024). Open access, Mesozoic, 1.

! David R. Greenwood, Environmental Science Program, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada: Fossil plants as environmental indicators. Lecture note, PDF file (3.6 MB). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M. Gregory et al.(2009): Fossil dicot wood names – an annotated list with full bibliography. IAWA Journal, Supplement 6. 220 pp. See also here.
This publication represents a comprehensive list available for generic and specific names of fossil dicot woods, giving synonyms, geological ages and geographical sources. Excellent!

! H.D. Grissino-Mayer, Laboratory of Tree-Ring Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville: Lectures in Dendrochronology. Go to: History of Dendrochronology. PowerPoint presentation.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee: Software to Analyze Tree Rings. An annotated link list.

! Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, Department of Physics, Astronomy & Geosciences, Valdosta State University: TREE-RING WEB PAGES. Resources for information on tree-ring research (dendrochronology). Excellent!

Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (website hosted by Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL): Bibliography of Dendrochronology. This yearly updated Bibliography of Dendrochronology is a free searchable archive of printed documents relevant to tree-ring research worldwide. It currently contains 14,341 references dating back to 1737.

E. Gulbranson et al. (2022): Paleoclimate-induced stress on polar forested ecosystems prior to the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Scientific Reports.
See also here.

E.L. Gulbranson and P.E. Ryberg (2013): Paleobotanical and geochemical approaches to studying fossil tree rings: Quantitative interpretations of paleoenvironment and ecophysiology. In PDF, Palaios, 28: 137-140.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

U.G. Hacke et al. (2015): The Hydraulic Architecture of Conifers in Ecological and Functional Xylem Anatomy. In PDF, book chapter, Springer International.

Andreas G. Heiss, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna; also: Archaeobotany, Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science (VIAS): Anatomy of European and North American woods - an interactive identification key. A freeware DELTA-based interactive identification key for soft- and hardwoods. Macroscopic and microscopic features. The key is currently available in English and German (ZIP files).

S. Helama et al. (2017): Rereading a tree-ring database to illustrate depositional histories of subfossil trees. In PDF, Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.1.2A: 1-12.

! J. Hellawell et al. (2015): Incipient silicification of recent conifer wood at a Yellowstone hot spring. In PDF, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 149: 79-87. See also here (abstract).

T.E. Higham et al. (2022): The Evolution of Mechanical Properties of Conifer and Angiosperm Woods. In PDF, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 62: 668–682.
See also here.

Book announcement: M. Hughes, T. Swetnam and H. Diaz (2011): Dendroclimatology - Progress and Perspectives. Progress and Prospects Series: Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, Vol. 11. This volume presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the last 30 years, and its future potential.

August Ilg, Alfred Selmeier and Madelaine Böhme: The fossil wood database (FWDS). Fossil wood from Central Europe, Triassic to the Pleistocene. Specimen chiefly from the Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie München, the Naturmuseum Augsburg and the private collection P. Holleis.

The InsideWood Working Group (wood anatomists and North Carolina State University Libraries professionals):
! The InsideWood Database. This project integrates wood anatomical information from the literature and original observations into an internet-accessible database useful for research and teaching. Currently 8,735 descriptions and 45,225 images, including 1,807 fossil wood descriptions and 2,910 fossil wood images. Superbly done and very helpful! Also worth checking out:
! Wood Anatomy Links, Wood Collection Catalogs.

International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA).

International Academy of Wood Science (IAWS). IAWS is a non-profit assembly of wood scientists, recognizing all fields of wood science with their associated technological domains, and securing a worldwide representation.

! The International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA): The IAWA Forum. The purpose of the IAWA Forum is to facilitate science and community within the world of wood anatomy and related sciences. Anyone is welcome to join regardless of membership in the IAWA. See also:

! IAWA Journal (The International Association of Wood Anatomists). Free electronic access to full texts of IAWA journal vol. 21-26!

! Inside Wood (provoded by the InsideWood Working Group (IWG) wood anatomists and NCSU Libraries professionals).
The InsideWood project integrates wood anatomical information from the literature and original observations into an internet-accessible database (over 40,000 images showing anatomical details) useful for research and teaching. This database contains brief descriptions of fossil and modern woody dicots (hardwoods) from more than 200 plant families, and is searchable by an interactive, multiple-entry key. Note: Gymnosperm woods (softwoods) are not included.

! The International Tree-Ring Data Bank ITRDB (website by Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee): The primary purpose for the ITRDB is to provide a permanent location for the storage of well-dated, high-quality dendrochronological data from around the world. See here, or go to The ITRDB Data Submission Form.

Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin:
! Paleoclimate through Proxy Data Lake Core, Pollen and Tree Rings. Powerpoint presentation, by Peter Wiegand et al. (2011), San Joaquin Valley Rocks project.

Paul James, Microscopy UK: Tree Rings. A cursory look at these well known features.

Steven Jansen, Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium: Links. Some links to web sites related to wood anatomy, including wood collections, general information, course materials, and plant taxonomy.

T.H. Jefferson (1987): The preservation of conifer wood: examples from the Lower Cretaceous of Antarctica. In PDF, Palaeontology, 30. See also here.
! With instructive line drawings.

Z. Jiang et al. (2019): Tree ring phototropism and implications for the rotation of the North China Block. Open access, Scientific Reports,, 9.

Michael Knee, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University, Columbus: General Plant Biology Online Resources. Lecture notes. Go to: Woody plants.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Kus et al. (2020): Coal petrological and xylotomical characterization of Miocene lignites and in-situ fossil tree stumps and trunks from Lusatia region, Germany: Palaeoenvironment and taphonomy assessment. Abstract, International Journal of Coal Geology. See also here (in PDF).
Note figure 2: In-situ preserved stumps encountered in the 2nd Miocene Seam Horizon of Lower Lusatia.

Frederic Lens and Steven Jansen, Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Links to web sites related to wood anatomy, including wood collections, general information, course materials, and plant taxonomy.

! W.J. Lucas et al. (2013): The Plant Vascular System: Evolution, Development and Functions. In PDF, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 55: 294-388. See also here.

! L. Luthardt et al. (2023): Cycadodendron galtieri gen. nov. et sp. nov.: An Early Permian Gymnosperm Stem with Cycadalean Affinity. Free access, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 184.
Note figure 10: Details of cycad-specific stem-anatomical features.
"... Cycadodendron galtieri gen. nov. et sp. nov. represents a petrified cycad stem of early Permian age providing the oldest-known evidence of cycad anatomy.
[...] The broad anatomical similarities of C. galtieri with other fossil and extant cycads demonstrate the early evolution of various cycad-specific anatomical features in the lower Permian ..."

! Lori Martinez, Rex Adams and Henri D. Grissino-Mayer:
Guide to Dendrochronology for Educators. A tutorial and non-technical review of tree-ring dating.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! J. Marshall (2023): Laser ablation of tree-ring isotopes: pinpoint precision. Open access, Tree Physiology, 43: 691–693. Please take notice:
M. Saurer et al. (2023): Progress in high-resolution isotope-ratio analysis of tree rings using laser ablation. In PDF, Tree Physiology, 43: 694–705.

W.J. Matthaeus et al. (2022): Stems matter: Xylem physiological limits are an accessible and critical improvement to models of plant gas exchange in deep time. In PDF, Front. Ecol. Evol., 10:955066. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2022.955066.
See also here.
Note figure 1: Vascular plant hydraulic pathway conducting element features.

P. Matysová (2016): Study of fossil wood by modern analytical methods: case studies. Doctoral Thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute of Geology and Palaeontology. Please take notice:
Fig. 6 (PDF page 39): Artistic reconstruction of wood deposition and silicification in river sediments.
Fig. 7 (PDF page 39): Artistic reconstruction of plant burial by volcanic fall-out.

Mark McCaffrey, NOAA: Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. A comprehensive online set of attractive slides, providing background on a variety of paleoclimatology subjects, including Ice Ages, Tree Rings, Ice Cores, Coral Reefs and much more. Go to: Tree Rings.
Websites outdated, download versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Brian C. McCarthy, Dept. Env. & Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Dendrochronology Methods. The purpose of this website is to learn the basic field, lab, and computational procedures necessary to conduct dendrochronological research.

V. Mencl et al. (2014): Summary of Occurrence and Taxonomy of Silicified Agathoxylon-Type of Wood in Late Paleozoic Basins of the Czech Republic. In PDF, Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica, 47. See also here.

Martin Munro: Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research. Visit the link page Other information sources.

NCSU Libraries, Raleigh, NC: American Woods. Radial, tangential, and cross-sections of 350 North American woods from the 14-volume rare book The American Woods, published between 1888 and 1910 by the author, Romeyn Beck Hough. Excellent!

! National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC. NOAA Paleoclimatology. NOAA Paleoclimatology operate the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology which distributes data contributed by scientists around the world. Paleo data come from natural sources such as tree rings, ice cores, corals, and ocean and lake sediments, and extend the archive of climate back hundreds to millions of years. Go to:
Tree Ring. The Data Bank includes raw ring width or wood density measurements, and site chronologies (growth indices for a site).

! Sandra Niemirowska, Warsaw: Petrified Wood. Various species of fossilized wood taken under the microscope and shown in tomograms.
Worth checking out:
! Anatomical details under the stereoscopic optical microscope and scanning electron microscope.
Gallery of petrified wood. A collection of petrified wood arranged in order of locations.

NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, Colorado. Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. Go to: Tree Rings: Ancient Chronicles of Environmental Change.

D. Oakley et al. (2009): Morphometric analysis of some Cretaceous angiosperm woods and their extant structural and phylogenetic analogues: Implications for systematics. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 157: 375-390.
See also here.

Mark E. Olson (2012): Linear Trends in Botanical Systematics and the Major Trends of Xylem Evolution. In PDF.

! J.G. Onyenedum and M.R. Pace (2021): The role of ontogeny in wood diversity and evolution. Free access, American Journal of Botany, 108: 2331-2355.
See also here.

! M. Philippe (2023): Palaeoclimate and fossil woods—is the use of mean sensitivity sensible? Free access, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 68: 561–569.
"... The growth rings of fossil wood provide valuable data on tree ecology. As many of the parameters controlling width are climatic, it is tempting to use these rings as an indicator of climate.
[...] Within fossil wood assemblages, average sensitivity varies widely, but rarely consistently ..."

Marc Philippe (2011): How many species of Araucarioxylon? Abstract, Comptes Rendus Palevol., 10: 201-208.

Christian Pinter, Wiener Zeitung: Redselige Baumringe (in German). The onset of dendrochronology and the pioneering work of Andrew Ellicott Douglass.

! M. Philippe et al. (2008): Woody or not woody? Evidence for early angiosperm habit from the Early Cretaceous fossil wood record of Europe. PDF file, Palaeoworld, 17: 142-152.
See also here.

! Marc Philippe and Marion K. Bamford (2008): A key to morphogenera used for Mesozoic conifer-like woods. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 148: 184-207.

! J. Pittermann et al. (2015): The structure and function of xylem in seed-free vascular plants: an evolutionary perspective. In PDF. See also here.

D. Pons and D. de Franceschi (2007): Neogene woods from western Peruvian Amazon and palaeoenvironmental interpretation. Bulletin of Geosciences, 82: 343-354.

Imogen Poole and Pim F. van Bergen (2006): Physiognomic and chemical characters in wood as palaeoclimate proxies. PDF file, Plant Ecology, 182: 175-195.

I. Poole (2000): Fossil angiosperm wood anatomy: its role in the reconstruction of biodiversity and palaeoenvironment. Free access, Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, 134: 361-381.

R.R. Pujana et al. (2016): Proposals for quantifying two characteristics of tracheid pitting arrangement in gymnosperm woods. In PDF, Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 18. See also here.

! L. Ragnia and T. Greb (2018): Secondary growth as a determinant of plant shape and form. Open access, Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 79: 58-67.

Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research (a nonprofit research organization, founded by P.M. Brown): OldList, a database of ancient trees. The purpose of this database is to identify maximum ages that different tree species in different localities can attain.

R. Rößler et al. (2014): Which name(s) should be used for Araucaria-like fossil wood?—Results of a poll. In PDF, Taxon, 63: 177–184. See also here.

J. Sakala (2023): Fossil Wood Analyses: Several Examples from Five Case Studies in the Area of Central and NW Bohemia, Czech Republic. Abstract, Xylem, pp 89–104.

J. Sakala (2004): The "Whole-Plant" concept in palaeobotany with examples from the Tertiary of northwestern Bohemia, Czech Republic with particular reference to fossil wood. PDF file (12.8 MB), Doctoral Thesis.
This expired link is still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here. Further papers included:
Starting on PDF page 17: J. Sakala (2003): Podocarpoxylon helmstedtianum GOTTWALD from Kuklin (Late Eocene, Czech Republic) reinterpreted as Tetraclinoxylon vulcanense PRIVÉ Feddes Repertorium, 114: 25-29.
Starting on PDF page 25: J. Sakala and Catherine Privé-Gill(2004): Oligocene angiosperm woods from Northwestern Bohemia, Czech Republic. IAWA Journal, 25: 369-380.
Starting on PDF page 56: Z. Kvacek and J. Sakala (1999): Twig with attached leaves, fruits and seeds of Decodon (Lythraceae) from the Lower Miocene of northern Bohemia, and implications for the identification of detached leaves and seeds. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 107: 201-222.

M. Saurer et al. (2023): Progress in high-resolution isotope-ratio analysis of tree rings using laser ablation. In PDF, Tree Physiology, 43: 694–705.
See likewise here.
"... we give an update on the current status of laser ablation research for analysis of the carbon isotope ratio (d13C) of wood, describe an easy-to-use laser ablation system, its operation and discuss practical issues related to tree core preparation, including cellulose extraction ..."

! R.A. Savidge (2007): Wood anatomy of Late Triassic trees in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA, in relation to Araucarioxylon arizonicum Knowlton, 1889. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol. 82: 301-328.

! Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004 (Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland: Wood anatomy of central European species. This web-based identification key is a completely revised version with more and new micro photographs and new anatomic items of the book by Schweingruber et al., 1990: Microscopic Wood Anatomy; Structural variability of stems and twigs in recent and subfossil woods from Central Europe. 3rd edition 1990.
Identify your species with online high resolution cross- and length sections from trunks and twigs. Excellent!

K. Schollaen et al. (2014): UV-laser-based microscopic dissection of tree rings - a novel sampling tool for d13C and d18O studies. In PDF, New Phytologist, 201: 1045–1055.

! F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner (2018):
The Plant Stem
A Microscopic Aspect
. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Open access! Excellent!

! F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner (2018): Fossilization, permineralization, coalification, carbonization and wet wood conservation. PDF file, pp. 183-192.
In: F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner:
! The Plant Stem. A Microscopic Aspect. Open access!

! F.H. Schweingruber and P. Poschlod (2005): Growth Rings in Herbs and Shrubs: life span, age determination and stem anatomy. In PDF, For. Snow Landsc. Res., 79: 195-415.

Fritz Schweingruber and W. Landolt, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (an Institute of the ETH Board):
! Xylem Database. The Xylem database provides an anatomical description and classification of the xylem and phloem of herbs, shrubs and trees.

Fritz Schweingruber and W. Landolt, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (an Institute of the ETH Board): Dendrochronological Picture Database. 1400 slides cover most topics relevant to dendrochronology. Shown are general and species specific macroscopic and microscopic reactions to climate, extreme events and decomposition from all over the world.

A.C. Scott (2001): Federico Cesi and his field studies on the origin of fossils between 1610 and 1630. PDF file, Endeavour, vol. 25. Early descriptions of fossil wood!

Paul R. Sheppard, Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona, Tucson: Crossdating Tree Rings Using Skeleton Plotting. Information about dendrochronological crossdating using skeleton plots.

K.C. Shunn and C.T. Gee (2023): Cross-sectioning to the core of conifers: pith anatomy of living Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae, with comparisons to fossil pith. Open access, IAWA Journal.
"... In addition to a general paucity in pith descriptions [...] we focus here on the pith of 16 conifer species [...] as well as comparing pith anatomy in regard to branch age, genus, and family. Furthermore, comparisons are made to fossil conifer pith to elucidate common features shared by living conifers and their ancient relatives ..."

Thomas Siccama and Daniel Vogt, Yale School for Forestry and Environmental Studies: Methods of Ecosystem Analysis, Saltonstall Ridge, East Haven, Ct., Tree Rings Introduction. Go to: Challenges to Accurate Tree Ring Measurement. About false rings.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

James H. Speer (2010): Fundamentals of Tree Ring Research. Book announcemen. Click "Read Excerpt":
! (Chapter "Introduction").

! J.S. Sperry (2003): Evolution of water transport and xylem structure. PDF file, International Journal of Plant Sciences.

! R. Spicer and A. Groover (2010): Evolution of development of vascular cambia and secondary growth. Open access, New Phytologist, 186: 577-592.
Note figure 1: Orientation of cells and tissues within a woody stem.
Figure 2: A phylogeny of vascular plants illustrating multiple origins of secondary growth via a vascular cambium.

! R.A. Spicer (1989): Physiological characteristics of land plants in relation to environment through time. In PDF, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, 80.
See also here.

M. Stoffel et al. (2019): Tree-ring correlations suggest links between moderate earthquakes and distant rockfalls in the Patagonian Cordillera. Open access, Scientific Reports.

Ed Strauss, Washington (article hosted by Evolving Earth Foundation Issaquah, WA). The Evolving Earth Foundation is committed to encouraging research and building community related to the earth sciences.
How to Identify Conifers. Conifer micro photographs.
Websites still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Ed Strauss, Washington (article hosted by Evolving Earth Foundation Issaquah, WA). The Evolving Earth Foundation is committed to encouraging research and building community related to the earth sciences. How to Identify Conifers. Conifer micro photographs.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Tanrattana et al. (2019): A new approach for modelling water transport in fossil plants. In PDF, IAWA Journal 40: 466–487.

E.L. Taylor and P.E. Ryberg (2007): Tree growth at polar latitudes based on fossil tree ring analysis. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 255: 246-264.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Susan Trulove, Virginia Tech: Ancient climate record preserved in prehistoric plants. Ancestor of modern trees preserves record of ancient climate change. About Devonian/Carboniferous growth rings.

! Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson: About Tree Rings. Tree-Ring Basics and Resources.

Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI, U.S. Department of Agriculture: Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. About the characteristics and availability of commercially important woods, the structure, physical properties and moisture relations of wood, the mechanical properties of wood, etc.
Available in PDF.

! E.A. Vaganov et al. (2011): How well understood are the processes that create dendroclimatic records? A mechanistic model of the climatic control on conifer tree-ring growth dynamics. In PDF, Dendroclimatology. See also here (abstract).

! Pim F. van Bergen and Imogen Poole (2002): Stable carbon isotopes of wood: a clue to palaeoclimate? PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 182: 31-45.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Vázquez-González et al. 2020): Resin ducts as resistance traits in conifers: linking dendrochronology and resin-based defences. Free access, Tree Physiology, 40 :1313–1326.

Mike Viney, Ft. Collins, Colorado: The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum. Images of fossil wood and other fossils sorted by geological age. See especially:
! The Anatomy of Arborescent Plant Life Through Time.

Wayne's Word An Online Textbook Of Natural History (Wayne P. Armstrong, alias Mr. Wolffia, Palomar College):
The Anatomy Of Wood. Easy to understand website, general macroscopic and microscopic features.
Tree-Ring Dating.

Carola Wenk, Computer Science Department, University of Texas, San Antonio: Algorithmen für das Crossdating in der Dendrochronologie (PDF, in German). See also here (Publications), and there.

! E.A. Wheeler (2024): Fossil woods of Yellowstone National Park. Free access, Parks Stewardship Forum, 40.

! E.A. Wheeler and P. Baas (2022): Wood anatomy of modern and fossil Fagales in relation to phylogenetic hypotheses, familial classification, and patterns of character evolution. Free access, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 183.

E.A. Wheeler and S.R. Manchester (2007): Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 82: 329-342.

! E.A. Wheeler and P. Baas (1991): A Survey of the Fossil Record for Dicotiledonous Wood and its Significance for Evolutionary and Ecological Wood Anatomy. Open access, IAWA Bulletin n.s., 12: 275-332. Note figure 1: Major ecophyletic trends ofvessel element specialisation.

! E.A. Wheeler, P. Baas and P.E. Gasson (eds., 1989; 4th printing 2007):
IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification
with an Appendix on non-anatomical information
. In PDF, IAWA Bulletin n.s., 10: 219–332. 4th printing 2007, published for the International Association of Wood Anatomists at the National Herbarium of the Netherlands, Leiden.

! A.C. Wiedenhoeft and R.B. Miller (2005): Structure and function of wood. In PDF, Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, Boca Raton, Fla. (CRC Press), pages 9-33.
An extended description of the microscopic structure of soft- and hardwoods, e.g. tracheids, rays, vessels, pits, growth rings, etc.
See also here (Google books), and there.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Dendrochronology,
List of woods,

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Plant anatomy.
Verthyllung (in German).

C.J. Williams et al. (2010): Fossil wood in coal-forming environments of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Chickaloon Formation. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 363-375.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.P. Wilson and A.H. Knoll (2010): A physiologically explicit morphospace for tracheid-based water transport in modern and extinct seed plants. PDF file, Paleobiology, 36: 335-355.
See also here.

! D.W. Woodcock (2022): A Typology of Vessel Patterning in Trees with Examples from the Fossil Record. Free access, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 183: 235-250.
"... Variation in vessel patterning shows clear relationships to climate and environment that can be used in interpreting paleoenvironments. ..."
! Note figure 8: Typology of vessel patterning in trees, showing the variation in vessel patterning and geographical and ecological correlates.

W.E. Wright et al. (2016): Dendrochronology and middle Miocene petrified oak: Modern counterparts and interpretation. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 445: 38–49. See also here (In PDF).

Yale Forestry School, Methods of Ecosystem Analysis: Challenges to Accurate Measurement of Tree Rings. About false rings.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Laurence D. Zuckerman, Omar Alvarado, and Michael W. Davidson, The Florida State University (website hosted by Molecular Expressions, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory): The Tree Collection. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Cross, radial, and tangential sections of about 50 common US woods, including the Glossary of Terms.

Top of page
Links for Palaeobotanists
Search in all "Links for Palaeobotanists" Pages!
index sitemap advanced
site search by freefind

This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated February 04, 2024

eXTReMe Tracker