Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology) in General
Focused on Palaeoclimate
The Pros and Cons of Pre-Neogene Growth Rings
Leaf Size and Shape and the Reconstruction of Past Climates
The Rise of Oxygen and the Global Carbon Cycle
! Triassic Climate@
! Wood Decay@
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy@
! Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate@
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany@
Laureen Sally da Rosa Alves and Margot Guerra-Sommer (2007):
Part I: Growth Rings in Fossil Woods and
Paleoclimates. PDF file; See also starting with PDF-page 16:
Part II: Leaf Assemblages (Taphonomy, Paleoclimatology and Paleogeography). In: Koutsoukos, Eduardo A.M. (ed.) Applied Stratigraphy. Series: Topics in Geobiology, Vol. 23.
See also here (in PDF) and there (Google books).
Archäologie Online: Dendrochronologie. A link directory with annotations (in German).
Eleni Asouti, School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology,
University of Liverpool:
Charcoal Analysis Web.
Cecilia A. Western Wood Reference Collection Archive: The Wood Anatomy Notebooks. Descriptions (typewriter, in PDF) and images (jpg). Mainly species from Southwest Asia and Southeast Europe, donated to the Institute of Archaeology by Cecilia A. Western.
Association for Tree-Ring Research
Bargain Doors Ltd, London: Knowing Your Wood: How to Identify Trees. An annotated and well structured link directory. How to identify trees by leaves, bark, etc.
! C.K. Boyce et al. (2001): Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon in permineralized fossils. In PDF, PNAS, 98.
Robyn J. Burnham (2009): An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós, and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
! Center for Wood Anatomy Research, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), Madison, Wisconsin (U.S. Department of Agriculture, USDA). Information about wood identification techniques, and several hundred technical sheets which give details of the properties of North American hardwoods and softwoods, tropical woods and lesser-known woods. You may navigate from here: Wood Properties. see also: Wood Identification Procedures.
! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany,
University of Wisconsin, Madison:
Instructional Technology (BotIT).
Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:
Wood, Secondary Growth,
A.Z. Csank (2009): An international tree-ring isotope data bank. A proposed repository for tree-ring isotopic data. PDF file, Tree-Ring Research, 65: 163-164.
Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University (Graphics & Web programming team in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory): Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery. Go to: The Tree Collection. Examine digital images made from stained thin sections cut from a variety of tree species (Click the headings). Images are accompanied by text describing characteristics and habitat of the individual trees.
Owen Kent Davis, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona Tucson: QUATERNARY PALYNOLOGY AND PLANT MACROFOSSILS. Lecture notes. Go to: Macrofossil Drawings, WOOD CROSS SECTION. Line drawings.
T. Drouet et al.: Long-term records of strontium isotopic composition in tree rings ... PDF file, Global Change Biology, 2005.
Dieter Eckstein and Sigrid Wrobel 2005): Dendrochronologie (in German). From: Pingel, V. and Hauptmann, A. (eds.): Archäometrie - eine Querschnittswissenschaft. Methoden und Anwendungsbeispiele naturwissenschaftlicher Verfahren in der Archäometrie. Stuttgart.
T. Eglin et al. (2008): Biochemical composition is not the main factor influencing variability in carbon isotope composition of tree rings. PDF file, Tree Physiology, 28: 1619-1628.
Exploring Earth (McDougal Littell). The investigations and visualizations on this site were designed to accompany Earth Science, a high school textbook. The Web site was developed by TERC, a non-profit educational research and development firm in collaboration with McDougal Littell. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation. Go to: Find out more about dendrochronology.
Howard J. Falcon-Lang (2005):
Global climate analysis of growth rings in woods, and its
implications for deep-time paleoclimate studies.
Abstract, Paleobiology: Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 434–444.
See also here.
H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2004): Palaeoecology of Late Cretaceous polar vegetation preserved in the Hansen Point Volcanics, NW Ellesmere Island, Canada. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 212: 45-64.
Juan Pedro Ferrio Díaz, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany: How can we study past climates?
Linda Finnegan, helium.com: An overview of dendrochronology.
Jane E. Francis and Imogen Poole (2002): Cretaceous and early Tertiary climates of Antarctica: evidence from fossil wood. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 182: 47-64.
! D.R. Greenwood: Fossil plants as environmental indicators. PDF file.
! Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, Department of Physics, Astronomy & Geosciences, Valdosta State University: TREE-RING WEB PAGES. Resources for information on tree-ring research (dendrochronology). Excellent!
Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, Department of Geography, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville: The Bibliography of Dendrochronology. This is an archive of printed documents relevant to tree-ring research worldwide, that you can search for free. It currently contains approximately 9000 references dating back to 1737.
H. Groenert, Bischöfliches Cusanus-Gymnasium, Koblenz: Jahresringe im Holzteil (in German).
Andreas G. Heiss, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna; also: Archaeobotany, Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science (VIAS): Anatomy of European and North American woods - an interactive identification key. A freeware DELTA-based interactive identification key for soft- and hardwoods. Macroscopic and microscopic features. The key is currently available in English and German (ZIP files).
R. Herbst et al. (2007): La Paleoxilología en la Argentina. Historia y desarrollo. PDF file (in Spanish), Asociación Paleontológica Argentina, Publicación Especial 11.
Book announcement: M. Hughes, T. Swetnam and H. Diaz (2011): Dendroclimatology - Progress and Perspectives. Progress and Prospects Series: Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, Vol. 11. This volume presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the last 30 years, and its future potential.
August Ilg, Alfred Selmeier and Madelaine Böhme: The fossil wood database (FWDS). Fossil wood from Central Europe, Triassic to the Pleistocene. Specimen chiefly from the Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie München, the Naturmuseum Augsburg and the private collection P. Holleis.
! The InsideWood Working Group (IWG). This site is a project of the Libraries and the Department of Wood and Paper Science, at North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh, NC, USA. The project benefits from collaboration with the Micromorphology Group, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. and the National Herbarium of the Netherlands, and CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Australia. Go to: Search The InsideWood Database, and Wood Anatomy Links. An annotated link list. Excellent!
International Academy of Wood Science (IAWS). IAWS is a non-profit assembly of wood scientists, recognizing all fields of wood science with their associated technological domains, and securing a worldwide representation.
The International Association
of Wood Anatomists (IAWA):
The IAWA Forum.
The purpose of the IAWA Forum is to facilitate science and
community within the world of wood anatomy and related sciences.
Anyone is welcome to join regardless of membership in the IAWA. See also:
WOOD ANATOMY WEB SITES.
! IAWA Journal (The International Association of Wood Anatomists). Free electronic access to full texts of IAWA journal vol. 21-26!
! The International Tree-Ring Data Bank ITRDB (website by Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee): The primary purpose for the ITRDB is to provide a permanent location for the storage of well-dated, high-quality dendrochronological data from around the world. See here, or go to The ITRDB Data Submission Form.
Paul James, Microscopy UK: Tree Rings. A cursory look at these well known features.
Steven Jansen, Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium: Links. Some links to web sites related to wood anatomy, including wood collections, general information, course materials, and plant taxonomy.
N. Latuske, Heidelberg University, Germany: Solare Variabilität und Klimaänderungen auf einer Zeitskala von einigen Dekaden bis Jahrhunderten im Holozän. PDF file, in German.
Frederic Lens and Steven Jansen, Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Links to web sites related to wood anatomy, including wood collections, general information, course materials, and plant taxonomy.
Mark McCaffrey, NOAA: Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. A comprehensive online set of attractive slides, providing background on a variety of paleoclimatology subjects, including Ice Ages, Tree Rings, Ice Cores, Coral Reefs and much more. Go to: Tree Rings.
Brian C. McCarthy, Dept. Env. & Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Dendrochronology Methods. The purpose of this website is to learn the basic field, lab, and computational procedures necessary to conduct dendrochronological research.
Martin Munro: Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research. Visit the link page Other information sources.
NCSU Libraries, Raleigh, NC: American Woods. Radial, tangential, and cross-sections of 350 North American woods from the 14-volume rare book The American Woods, published between 1888 and 1910 by the author, Romeyn Beck Hough. Excellent!
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC.
NOAA Paleoclimatology operate the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology which distributes data
contributed by scientists around the world. Paleo data come
from natural sources such as tree rings, ice cores, corals, and ocean and lake sediments,
and extend the archive of climate back hundreds to millions of years. Go to:
Tree Ring. The Data Bank includes raw ring width or wood density measurements, and site chronologies (growth indices for a site).
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, Colorado. Paleoclimatology Slide Sets. Go to: Tree Rings: Ancient Chronicles of Environmental Change.
Daniel Oakley et al. (2009): Morphometric analysis of some Cretaceous angiosperm woods and their extant structural and phylogenetic analogues: Implications for systematics. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 157: 375-390.
Mark E. Olson (2012): Linear Trends in Botanical Systematics and the Major Trends of Xylem Evolution. In PDF.
Marc Philippe (2011): How many species of Araucarioxylon? Abstract, Comptes Rendus Palevol., 10: 201-208.
Marc Philippe et al. (2008): Woody or not woody? Evidence for early angiosperm habit from the Early Cretaceous fossil wood record of Europe. PDF file, Palaeoworld, 17: 142-152.
Christian Pinter, Wiener Zeitung: Redselige Baumringe (in German). The onset of dendrochronology and the pioneering work of Andrew Ellicott Douglass.
! Marc Philippe and Marion K. Bamford (2008): A key to morphogenera used for Mesozoic conifer-like woods. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 148: 184-207.
D. Pons and D. de Franceschi (2007): Neogene woods from western Peruvian Amazon and palaeoenvironmental interpretation. Bulletin of Geosciences, 82: 343-354.
Imogen Poole and Pim F. van Bergen (2006): Physiognomic and chemical characters in wood as palaeoclimate proxies. PDF file, Plant Ecology, 182: 175-195.
J. Sakala (2004):
"Whole-Plant" concept in palaeobotany
with examples from the Tertiary
of northwestern Bohemia, Czech Republic
with particular reference to fossil wood. PDF file (12.8 MB), Doctoral Thesis. Further papers included:
Starting on PDF page 17: J. Sakala (2003): Podocarpoxylon helmstedtianum GOTTWALD from Kuklin (Late Eocene, Czech Republic) reinterpreted as Tetraclinoxylon vulcanense PRIVÉ Feddes Repertorium, 114: 25-29.
Starting on PDF page 25: J. Sakala and Catherine Privé-Gill(2004): Oligocene angiosperm woods from Northwestern Bohemia, Czech Republic. IAWA Journal, 25: 369-380.
Starting on PDF page 56: Z. Kvacek and J. Sakala (1999): Twig with attached leaves, fruits and seeds of Decodon (Lythraceae) from the Lower Miocene of northern Bohemia, and implications for the identification of detached leaves and seeds. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 107: 201-222.
! R.A. Savidge (2007): Wood anatomy of Late Triassic trees in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA, in relation to Araucarioxylon arizonicum Knowlton, 1889. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol. 82: 301-328.
! Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004
(Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt WSL,
Wood anatomy of central European species.
This web-based identification key is a completely revised
version with more and new micro photographs and new anatomic items of the book by Schweingruber et al., 1990:
Microscopic Wood Anatomy; Structural variability of stems and twigs in recent and
subfossil woods from Central Europe. 3rd edition 1990.
Identify your species with online high resolution cross- and length sections from trunks and twigs. Excellent!
Fritz Schweingruber and W. Landolt, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (an Institute of the ETH Board): Xylem Database. The Xylem database provides an anatomical description and classification of the xylem and phloem of herbs, shrubs and trees.
Fritz Schweingruber and W. Landolt, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (an Institute of the ETH Board): Dendrochronological Picture Database. 1400 slides cover most topics relevant to dendrochronology. Shown are general and species specific macroscopic and microscopic reactions to climate, extreme events and decomposition from all over the world.
A.C. Scott (2001): Federico Cesi and his field studies on the origin of fossils between 1610 and 1630. PDF file, Endeavour, vol. 25. Early descriptions of fossil wood!
Paul R. Sheppard, Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona, Tucson: Crossdating Tree Rings Using Skeleton Plotting. Information about dendrochronological crossdating using skeleton plots.
James H. Speer (2010):
of Tree Ring Research. Book announcemen. Click "Read Excerpt":
! (Chapter "Introduction").
! Rachel Spicer and Andrew Groover (2010): Evolution of development of vascular cambia and secondary growth. PDF file, New Phytologist, 186: 577-592.
Markus Stoffel et al. (2008): Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Debris-Flow Events Leading to Overbank Sedimentation on the Illgraben Cone (Valais Alps, Switzerland). PDF file (click: "Volume 2"), The Open Geology Journal, 2008, 2, 18-29.
Ed Strauss, Washington (article hosted by Evolving Earth Foundation Issaquah, WA). The Evolving Earth Foundation is committed to encouraging research and building community related to the earth sciences. How to Identify Conifers. Conifer micro photographs.
E.L. Taylor and P.E. Ryberg (2007): Tree growth at polar latitudes based on fossil tree ring analysis. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 255: 246-264. See here.
Susan Trulove, Virginia Tech: Ancient climate record preserved in prehistoric plants. Ancestor of modern trees preserves record of ancient climate change. About Devonian/Carboniferous growth rings. See also here.
! Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson: About Tree Rings. Tree-Ring Basics and Resources.
Pim F. van Bergen and Imogen Poole (2002): Stable carbon isotopes of wood: a clue to palaeoclimate? PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 182: 31-45.
Wayne´s World, Palomar University, CA The Anatomy of Wood. Easy to understand website, general macroscopic and microscopic features.
Carola Wenk, Computer Science Department, University of Texas, San Antonio: Algorithmen für das Crossdating in der Dendrochronologie (PDF, in German). See also here (Publications), and there.
Thorsten Westphal, Dendrochronologisches Labor, Seminar für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main: Dendrochronologie als Datierungsmethode. Brief introduction (in German).
E.A. Wheeler and S.R. Manchester (2007): Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 82: 329-342.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
List of woods,
C.J. Williams et al. (2010): Fossil wood in coal-forming environments of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Chickaloon Formation. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 363-375.
J.P. Wilson and A.H. Knoll (2010): A physiologically explicit morphospace for tracheid-based water transport in modern and extinct seed plants. PDF file, Paleobiology, 36: 335-355.
! Laurence D. Zuckerman, Omar Alvarado, and Michael W. Davidson,
The Florida State University (website hosted by Molecular Expressions, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory):
The Tree Collection.
Cross, radial, and tangential sections of about 50 common US woods, including the
Glossary of Terms.
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