Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Plant Anatomy & Taxonomy / Plant Anatomy

Taxonomy, Systematics, Plant Classification
Cladistic Methods of Phylogenetic Analysis
Chemotaxonomy and Chemometric Palaeobotany
! Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy@
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
! Cuticles@
Permineralized Plants and Petrified Forests@
Fossil Charcoal@
Coal Petrology@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@

Plant Anatomy

! R. Barclay, P. Wilf, D. Dilcher, A. Sokoloff, J. Leon-Guerrero & C. Thurman: Cuticle Database. The Cuticle Database Project aims to promote the understanding and identification of living and fossil plants. This project is a collaborative effort between researchers at Northwestern University, The Field Museum, the Florida Museum of Natural History, and Pennsylvania State University. See also here:
! R. Barclay, et al. (2007): The cuticle database: developing an interactive tool for taxonomic and paleoenvironmental study of the fossil cuticle record. PDF file, In: Jarzen, D. M., Steven, R., Retallack, G. J. and Jarzen, S. A. (eds.), Advances in Angiosperm Paleobotany and Paleoclimatic Reconstruction, Contributions Honouring David L. Dilcher and Jack A. Wolfe, Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt, pgs. 39-56.

! Charles B. Beck (2009): An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development: Plant Anatomy for the Twenty-First Century. Provided by Google books (limited preview), see also here (book announcement).

Dale M. Benham, Nebraska Wesleyan University, Plant Study Resources: Plant Anatomy Photo Archive. More than 50 images of stems, roots, and leaves of vascular plants commonly studied in Plant Biology courses. Also worth checking out: Interactive Version Plant Anatomy Study. (Flash). Four lessons (Cell Types, Meristems, Plant Organs and Tissues) are available for study.
! Die Botanik.
Lecture notes, in German.

! Botanical Society of America: Online Image Collection. Educational images for instructional use.

! The Botanical Society of America: The American Journal of Botany Cover Images Index. The collection on the page holding the cover images of the American Journal of Botany. A great set of images! See also:
! Online Image Collection. This page acts as a map to the entire collection. Images are classified in groups in which they were submitted for historical purposes, e.g. Carnivorous Plants, Cellular Communication Channels, Economic Botany, Floral Ontogeny, Lichens, Organography, Paleobotany, Phloem Development, Plant Anatomy, Plant Defense Mechanisms, Plant Geography ,Plant Morphology, Pollen, Xylem Development, Filicophyta, Psilophyta, Sphenophyta. Each image acts as a link to a page containing more information, and a larger version of the picture.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Botany On-line, Hamburg: The Xylem. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

W.E. Boyd and G.L. Pretty (2009): Some prospects for archaeological palaeobotany in Australia: An example from South Australia. Australian Archaeology.

L. Cooper et al. (2013): The Plant Ontology as a Tool for Comparative Plant Anatomy and Genomic Analyses. Plant and Cell Physiology, 54.

! John D. Curtis, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin; Nels R. Lersten, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, and Michael D. Nowak, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin: Photographic Atlas of Plant Anatomy.

David F. Cutler, Ted Botha and Dennis Wm. Stevenson: Plant anatomy: an applied approach. Provided by Google books. See also here (Wiley). See also:
Morphology and tissue systems: the integrated plant body (in PDF).

D.L. Dilcher (1991): The importance of anatomy and whole plant reconstructions in palaeobotany. PDF file, Current Science 61: 627-629.

! D.L. Dilcher (1974): Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains. In PDF, The Botanical Review, 40: 1–157. See also here.

Debra Cleveland, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis: Remembering Katherine Esau.

Ray F. Evert and Susan E. Eichhorn: Esau´s Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function, and Development. Provided by Google books. See also here (Amazon).

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes.

U.G. Hacke et al. (2015): The Hydraulic Architecture of Conifers in Ecological and Functional Xylem Anatomy. In PDF, book chapter, Springer International.

E. Iglich, McDaniel College, Westminster, Maryland, USA: Images of Leaves, Stem, Root and Woody Tissues.

K. Ilic et al. (2007): The plant structure ontology, a unified vocabulary of anatomy and morphology of a flowering plant. PDF file, Plant Physiology, 143: 587-599. see also here (abstract).

The InsideWood Working Group (wood anatomists and North Carolina State University Libraries professionals):
! The InsideWood Database. This project integrates wood anatomical information from the literature and original observations into an internet-accessible database useful for research and teaching. Currently 8,735 descriptions and 45,225 images, including 1,807 fossil wood descriptions and 2,910 fossil wood images. Superbly done and very helpful! Also worth checking out:
! Wood Anatomy Links, Wood Collection Catalogs.

Steven Jansen, Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium: Links. Some links to web sites related to wood anatomy, including wood collections, general information, course materials, and plant taxonomy.

! Jane Elizabeth Kraus & Juliana Pisaneschi, Department of Botany, Universidade de São Paulo (IBUSP), Brazil: Atlas of Plant Anatomy. Plant micro photographs. Select the plant organ you want to see: stem, leaf or root. For each of these options, choose monocotyledon or dicotyledon. For each photo, click on the highlighted region to attain a definition about the structure.

! Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima: Plant Biology at OSU Lima. Go to:
Plant Tissues and Cell Types.

! W.J. Lucas et al. (2013): The Plant Vascular System: Evolution, Development and Functions. In PDF, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 55: 294-388.

Alan Maude & M. Smith, SCHOOL RESOURCES from Plant Biology. Images with explanations.

James D. Mauseth, Integrative Biology, University of Texas: Plant Anatomy Laboratory: Micrographs of plant cells and tissues. With explanatory text.

Gilbert J. Muth, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA: Biological Foundations. Biological Foundations is the botany section of the a three quarter sequence in general biology for biology majors and pre-professional students. It contains 38 lectures with a (incomplete) supporting glossary, photographs, photomicrographs, diagrams, animations, video clips, self test and set of references. See chapter 1-8!

Mark E. Olson (2012): Linear Trends in Botanical Systematics and the Major Trends of Xylem Evolution. In PDF.

PageWise Inc.: Public Bookshelf, Methods in Plant Histology. This book has been published in the early 1900´s.

! N. Pérez-Harguindeguy et al. (2013): New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. In PDF, Australian Journal of Botany, 61: 167-234.

R.L. Peterson et al. (2008): Teaching plant anatomy through creative laboratory exercises. Book review (PDF file) by N. Chaffey, Annals of Botany, 2009.

! J. Pittermann et al. (2015): The structure and function of xylem in seed-free vascular plants: an evolutionary perspective. In PDF. See also here.

Quizlet LLC: Plant Anatomy and Physiology.

! James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland: FindIT, Links to Web Sites of Botanical Interest, Dictionaries. Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology - Life Sciences - e.g. Biology, Botany, Cell Biology, Ecology, Evolution, Molecular Biology, Systematics, etc. Excellent!

! Alison Roberts, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI: Plant Anatomy BIO 311. The table of contents, lab schedule and an electronic copy of the lab manual in Adobe Acrobat pdf ("portable document format") are available for viewing online. The lab manual is also available for downloading and printing. The Slides are also organized by lab topic.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Alison Roberts, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI: Plant Anatomy BIO 311. To view photomicrographs of plant anatomy slides, visit the Lab review slides section.
! Don´t miss the Glossary.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Plant Micromorphology Bibliographic Database. A database of references relevant to the anatomy and pollen/spore morphology of flowering plants, gymnosperms and ferns. Free of charge. Registration gives access to a much larger number of references. There is a search option looking for palaeobotany!
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! L. Sack and C. Scoffoni (2013): Leaf venation: structure, function, development, evolution, ecology and applications in the past, present and future. In PDF, New Phytologist, 198: 983–1000.

! Schmidt, Diane, Allison, Melody M., Clark, Kathleen A., Jacobs, Pamela F. and Porta, Maria A., Libraries Unlimited (a member of the Greenwood Publishing Group): Guide to Reference and Information Sources in Plant Biology. This directory contains the URLs and annotations for Web-accessible resources. Go to:
General Sources,
Systematics and Identification,
Anatomy, Morphology, and Development.

! F.H. Schweingruber and P. Poschlod (2005): Growth Rings in Herbs and Shrubs: life span, age determination and stem anatomy. In PDF, For. Snow Landsc. Res., 79: 195-415.

H.-C. Spatz et al. (1998): Biomechanics and functional anatomy of hollow-stemmed sphenopsids. I. Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae) PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 85: 305-314. See also here.

Sloan Center for Asynchronous Learning Environments, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana: Virtual Cell. This is a collection of still images, texts and movies covering the structure and functioning of a typical plant cell.

W.L. Stern (1978): A retrospective view of comparative anatomy, phylogeny, and plant taxonomy PDF file, IAWA Bull.

The School of Biological Sciences and the University of Sydney Library, The University of Sydney:
eBot Plant Sciences Collection. This website provides access to a rich research collection of micrographs and plant images.

Mike Viney, Ft. Collins, Colorado: The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum. Images of fossil wood and other fossils sorted by geological age. See especially:
! The Anatomy of Arborescent Plant Life Through Time.

Roy Volkwyn and Jocelyn Collins, Internet BioEd Project, Western Cape Schools Network and Botany Department, University of the Western Cape, South Africa: Angiosperm Anatomy. Go to: Resources.

Elisabeth A. Wheeler, Department of Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University: Wood Anatomy and Properties. See the Lecture notes. The first part of the course discusses the macroscopic features common to all native woods, tree growth, and wood formation. Next is a study of softwood and hardwood anatomy that emphasizes the relationship between structure, function, and material characteristics. Discussion of cell wall properties precedes an introduction to some of wood´s physical and mechanical properties. Worth checking out: The handlens identificacation page.

! A.C. Wiedenhoeft and R.B. Miller (2005): Structure and function of wood. In PDF, Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, Boca Raton, Fla. (CRC Press), pages 9-33.
An extended description of the microscopic structure of soft- and hardwoods, e.g. tracheids, rays, vessels, pits, growth rings, etc. See also here. (abstract).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Plant anatomy.
! Phytotomie (in German).
Category:Plant anatomy.

Hugh D. Wilson, Department of Biology Herbarium (TAMU), Texas A&M University (with support from the Texas A&M Center for the Study of Digital Libraries), BOTANY 201--TAXONOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS: Lab 2: Vegetative Characters, and Laboratory 3: Reproductive Characters. Photomicrographs, Plant Tissues. Powerpoint presentation.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated February 14, 2017

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