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Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany
Palaeobotanical Maps
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa
Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies
What is Palaeontology or Palaeobiology?
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology
Teaching Documents about Ichnology
Teaching Documents about Ecology
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research
Teaching Documents about Botany
Teaching Documents about Biology
Teaching Documents about Evolution
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction
Teaching Documents about Classification and Nomenclature
Teaching Documents about Cladistics and Phylogeny
Teaching Documents about Palaeogeography
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology
Teaching Documents about Geochronological Methods
Introductions to Statistics
Meta Indexes of Online Education
Virtual Field Trips
! Plant Anatomy@
! Cuticles@
! Stomatal Density@
! Wound Response in Trees@
Plant Photographs@
! Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@

Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy

Karen Antell, Biology Department, Eastern Oregon University, La Grande: Plant Biology Images. Images about herbaceous stems, leaves, roots, embryos, fruits, fungi, protista, and non-vascular plants (Mosses, Liverworts). Provided for the students home study. Anyone else is free to use them for similar purpose, but not for commercial reproduction.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Arlington Central School District, LaGrangeville, NY.:
Plant Anatomy and Physiology. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! E.M. Armstrong et al. (2023): One hundred important questions facing plant science: an international perspective. Open access, New Phytologist, 238: 470481.
"... we present the outcome of a global collaboration to identify emerging plant research themes.
[...] Over 600 questions were collected from anyone interested in plants, which were reduced to a final list of 100 ..."

! Charles B. Beck (2009): An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development: Plant Anatomy for the Twenty-First Century. Provided by Google books (limited preview), see also here (book announcement).

Ernst-Georg Beck, Zentrale für Unterrichtswesen: Biokurs 2001 (in German). Go to: Pflanzenanatomie und Photosynthese.

Dale Benham, Nebraska Wesleyn University: Plant Anatomy Study - Interactive Version. Four lessons (Cell Types, Meristems, Plant Organs and Tissues) are available here for study. See also: The Plant Anatomy Archive.

Dale Benham, Nebraska Wesleyn University: Angiosperm Reproduction.

! Alice Bergfeld (the English editor), Rolf Bergmann, University of Hamburg, and Peter v. Sengbusch, University of Bielefeld and Institut für Allgemeine Botanik, University of Hamburg: BOTANY Online - The Internet Hypertextbook. Botany online is based on the textbook "Botanik" by Peter von Sengbusch (Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 1989). Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Karen Bledsoe, Western Oregon University, Monmouth OR:
Plant anatomy (in PDF), and
Plant Anatomy: Plant Tissues. Powerpoint presentations.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! The Botanical Society of America: Online Image Collection. This is a collection of approximately 800 images available for instructional use. Currently, there are 14 collections of images: Plant Geography, Plant Morphology, Phloem Development, Xylem Development, Floral Ontogeny, Lichens, Economic Botany, Carnivorous Plants, Organography, Pollen, Paleobotany, Plant Defense Mechanisms, Plant Anatomy, and Cellular Communication Channels. Excellent!

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: Welcome to the Botanical Education site. Here you find information on courses and blogs created by Jamie Boyer, e.g.
! Plant Diversity. About the diversity, morphologies, life histories, and evolution of plants, as well as information about bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae/protists.

Nathan Bushman, Lehi, Utah (Lehi FFA Homepage): Biology Agriculture. A broad range of biology topics. Go to: Plant Anatomy and Physiology. Easy to understand Powerpoint presentation.

The Canadian Nature Photographer, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
This website provides a resource for learning about nature photography, art and great places to visit and photograph Nature both in Canada and around the world. Worth checking out:
Photoshop Workbook 1 and Photoshop Workbook 2 (in PDF).
! Robert Berdan (2020): The Microscopic Beauty of Plants and Trees. How to prepare and photograph plant sections for viewing with a microscope.

! Curtis Clark, Biological Sciences Department California State Polytechnic University, Pomona: Plant Morphology. Resources, PDF files.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Go to: Botany. See also:
Wood, Secondary Growth.

! The Cornell University Plant Anatomy Collection (CUPAC).
CUPAC is an historically important collection of anatomical slide preparations of a wide array of plant parts. Slides are being imaged by volunteers and undergraduate student workers, and simultaneously barcoded and databased. Post-processing involves automated resizing and labeling as well as magnification calibration that allows online measurement tools to be used as overlays on the images. Superbly done!

Richard Crang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Andrey Vassilyev, St. Petersburg State University, Russia (McGraw-Hill Higher Education): Plant Anatomy. A website that supports the Electronic Plant Anatomy CD-ROM. An instructor view provides links to dynamic cartoons viewable using the Macromedia Flash Player.

! John D. Curtis, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin; Nels R. Lersten, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, and Michael D. Nowak, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin: Photographic Atlas of Plant Anatomy.

David F. Cutler, Ted Botha and Dennis Wm. Stevenson: Plant anatomy: an applied approach. Provided by Google books. See also here (Wiley). See also:
Morphology and tissue systems: the integrated plant body (in PDF).

D.L. Dilcher (1991): The importance of anatomy and whole plant reconstructions in palaeobotany. PDF file, Current Science 61: 627-629.

Ray F. Evert and Susan E. Eichhorn: Esau´s Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function, and Development. Provided by Google books. See also here (Amazon).

M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College, Phoenix, Arizona:
! On-Line Biology Book. Table of Contents. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:
! Plants and their structure.
! Plants and their Structure II.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

The Plant Histology Facility, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Plant anatomy: online microscopy.
These freely accessible virtual slides can be explored interactively by zooming-and-panning in real-time. A HTML5-based virtual microscope allows the examination of large and small tissues or cell types in the same specimen within the context of the whole plant organ.

E. Iglich, McDaniel College, Westminster, Maryland, USA: Images of Leaves, Stem, Root and Woody Tissues.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Johnny M. Jessup (Hobbton FFA): Plant Anatomy and Physiology. Powerpoint presentation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Li Wenyan & Lu Dadao (1998): Atlas of Fossil Plant Anatomy in China. 390 pages. Provided by VSP through the Google Books Partner Program. Registration procedure required. Use "More results from this book" or "Search this book" to navigate. Unfortunately, you can view two pages around your search result, but you can search again! Use Google Book Search to search the full text of books.

James D. Mauseth, Integrative Biology, University of Texas: Plant Anatomy Laboratory: Micrographs of plant cells and tissues. With explanatory text.

Edgar Moctezuma. Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, Washington D.C.
Lecture 3: Plant anatomy and physiology. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.
See also here and there.
Plant´s Tissue Systems.
Systems in Plants.
Powerpoint presentations.
Available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M.R. Pace (2020): Phloem: Cell Types, Structure, and Commercial Uses. Chapter 1, in:
A. Gonzalez et al. (eds., 2020). Plant Science - Structure, Anatomy and Physiology in Plants Cultured in Vivo and in Vitro. Open access, (IntechOpen).
"... Phloem is the vascular tissue in charge of transport and distribution of the organic nutrients. The phloem is also a pathway to signaling molecules and has a structural function in the plant body. It is typically composed of three cell types: sieve elements, parenchyma, and sclerenchyma
[...] In this chapter, the structure of the phloem and its cell types are described in detail and also some of the known commercial uses of this tissue ..."

PageWise: Methods in Plant Histology. PageWise publishes articles on the internet, making them available to everyone. Book extract (published early in the 1900s), without images.

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi:
NCERT Books for Class 11 Biology PDF.
Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants. In PDF.

! Plant Ontology Consortium (POC). The main objective of the POC is to develop, curate and share controlled vocabularies (ontologies) that describe plant structures and growth and developmental stages, providing a semantic framework for meaningful cross-species queries across databases. Go to: Search, or visit the
Plant Ontology Tutorials (Quicktime movies or Powerpoint slides).

! Alison Roberts, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI: Plant Anatomy BIO 311. To view photomicrographs of plant anatomy slides, visit the Lab review slides section.
! Don´t miss the Glossary.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. Go to: Class Sphenopsida (PDF file).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Paul Schulte, University of Nevada, Las Vegas: Atlas of Plant Anatomy. Light microscopic images of cells and tissues, roots, stems, leaves, apical meristems, and reproductive structures.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! F.H. Schweingruber and A. Börner (2018):
The Plant Stem
A Microscopic Aspect
. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Open access! Excellent!

! Plant Anatomy. Auto-generated by ScienceDirect using heuristic and machine-learning approaches to extract relevant information.

! O. Serra et al. (2022): The making of plant armor: the periderm Annual review of plant biology, 73: 405-432.
Note figure 1: Different protective tissues act during primary and secondary growth of stem and roots.
! Figure 4: Wound periderm formation and phellogen regulatory network.

Michael G. Simpson: Plant Anatomy & Physiology. Powerpoint presentation.

Jeff Snyder, Department of Biology, Western Oregon University: Plant Anatomy and Nutrient Transport. Powerpoint presentation.
TutorVista provides online tutoring to students across the world. Go to:
Plant Anatomy.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

School of Integrative Biology, School of Molecular & Cellular Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign: Life Sciences.
Courses with web-based info (lecture notes, exams, quizzes, links, lab exercises): life sciences, biophysics, cell and structural biology, cell and structural biology, ecology, ethology and evolution, entomology, microbiology, molecular and integrative physiology, plant biology.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Wayne´s Word.
Biology and Botany, Stem and Root Anatomy. Cellular structure of vascular plants.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Wayne's Word An Online Textbook Of Natural History (Wayne P. Armstrong, alias Mr. Wolffia, Palomar College):
The Anatomy Of Wood. Easy to understand website, general macroscopic and microscopic features.
Biology and Botany, Stem and Root Anatomy. Cellular structure of vascular plants.

! A.C. Wiedenhoeft and R.B. Miller (2005): Structure and function of wood. In PDF, Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, Boca Raton, Fla. (CRC Press), pages 9-33.
An extended description of the microscopic structure of soft- and hardwoods, e.g. tracheids, rays, vessels, pits, growth rings, etc.
See also here (Google books), and there.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Plant anatomy.
! Category:Plant anatomy.
Phytotomie (in German).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Plant anatomy.
Verthyllung (in German).

! The World of Teaching.
Over 1000 powerpoint presentations made by teachers are available for download.
Free Biology powerpoints. See e.g.:
Botany, Photomicrographs, Plant Tissues Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

Laurence D. Zuckerman, Omar Alvarado, and Michael W. Davidson (© by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University): Molecular Expressions, The Tree Collection. An image gallery of cross, radial, and tangential sections.

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