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! What is Palaeontology or Palaeobiology?
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Teaching Documents about Ichnology
Teaching Documents about Ecology
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research
Teaching Documents about Botany
Teaching Documents about Biology
Teaching Documents about Evolution
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction
Teaching Documents about Classification and Nomenclature
Teaching Documents about Cladistics and Phylogeny
Teaching Documents about Palaeogeography
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology
Teaching Documents about Geochronological Methods
Introductions to Statistics
Meta Indexes of Online Education
Virtual Field Trips
! Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Living Fossils@
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction@
! Phylogeography@
The Gaia Hypothesis@
! Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design@
Sources of Fossil Clip Art@
Palaeobotanical and Palaeontological Collections@
Fossil Protection@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
International Palaeobotanical and Palaeontological Institutions@
! Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@

Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology

Stephen T. Abedon, Microbiology, Ohio State University, Mansfield: Supplemental Lecture. Fossilization, palaeontology, biases in the fossil record etc. in brief. Education > Biology > Evolution, and Education > Geology > Fossils, Time and Evolution.

Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada: History of Paleontology. Powerpoint presentation.

Alexa (Alexa Internet, Inc., an Company). Alexa is a Web Information Company, perhaps best known for the Alexa Rank, the website ranking system which tracks over 30 million websites worldwide. See especially: The top ranked sites in category "Science". Go to:
! Paleontology.

! Warren D. Allmon, Palaeontologia Electronica, Volume 7, Issue 2 December 2004 (Coquina Press): Googling Turritella, or The Present and Future Value of the Web for Paleontological Research (PDF file). A state of the art report of palaeontological search strategies.

Masdouq Al-Taj, Department of Enviroment and Earth Sciences, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan: Introduction to Paleontology. Powerpoint presentation.

American Geological Institute (AGI): Why Earth Science? PDF file, 1.7 MB.

John R. Anderson, Georgia Perimeter College Geology: The World of Geology, Prefix/Suffix Meanings. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

A.D. Barnosky et al. (2017): Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems. Abstract, Science, 355.

! D.J. Bottjer (2016): Paleoecology: past, present, and future. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.). See also here (Google books).

! Nicholas H. Barton (Edinburgh University), Derek E.G. Briggs (Yale University), Jonathan A. Eisen (University of California, Davis), David B. Goldstein (Duke University Medical Center), and Nipam H. Patel (University of California, Berkeley): Evolution (by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press). This textbook is designed to serve as the primary text for undergraduate courses in evolution. It differs from currently available alternatives in containing more molecular biology than is traditionally the case. Go to: Table of Contents: Some figures and tables free of charge! See: Evolution Figures: Chapter 4.

BBC Earth timeline.

! J.B. Bennington et al. (2009): Critical issues of scale in paleoecology. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 1-4.

Michael J. Benton (2010): The origins of modern biodiversity on land. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B.

M.J. Benton and D.A.T. Harper: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. Go to:
! Companion Website: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. On this website you can download the figures in jpeg format at standard resolution (96 dpi) for viewing on screen and at a higher resolution (300 dpi) for downloading. They can also be downloaded as a Powerpoint file for each chapter.
! See also here (in PDF).
For better navigation note the table of contents (in PDF).

! M.J. Benton and B.C. Emerson (2007): How did life become so diverse? The dynamics of diversification according to the fossil record and molecular phylogenetics. PDF file, snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Palaeontology, 50: 23-40.

! University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley (with support provided by the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute): Understanding Evolution. Understanding Evolution is a non-commercial, education website, teaching the science and history of evolutionary biology. Go to: History of life on Earth. Topics are "From soup to cells - The origin of life", "Evolution and the fossil record", "Deep Time" (an interactive timeline), etc.

! Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California, Berkeley (sponsored in part by Shell Offshore Inc.): Learning from the Fossil Record. This is a hypertext version of a book originally published by the Paleontological Society.

University of California, Berkeley: Biology 1B - Lecture 24: Taphonomy & Paleontology. Videos, Youtube. See also here.

University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley: Explorations Through Time. A series of interactive modules (curriculum and classroom resources) that explore the history of life on Earth, while focusing on the processes of science. Each module contains suggested lesson plans and an extensive teacher’s guide.

Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, CA: Frequently asked questions (FAQ). Questions about paleontology. See also here.

Biology-Nation. This website provides resources for anyone with an interest in biology. (see also Whois Record). Many links lead to Wikipedia. Go to: Introduction to Paleontology.

Biology Online. Biology Online aims to educate and promote awareness of all things biology, offering free and easy access to information in the biological sciences. Go to:
The Origins of Life. See also:
Biology Articles > Paleobiology.

H. John B. Birks (2011): Stay or Go? A Q-Time Perspective. Powerpoint presentation.

BookRags, a research location for students of any age: Paleontology.

! D.J. Bottjer (2016): Paleoecology: Past, Present and Future. Book announcement (Wiley).
! See also here (in PDF).

M.C. Boulter, Palaeobiology Research Unit, University of East London, Romford Road, London: The Inevitability of Publishing Electronically About Palaeontology. The PaleoNet Forum: An Irregular Electronic Journal April, 1996: Volume 2, Issue 4.

C. Kevin Boyce (2010): The evolution of plant development in a paleontological context. PDF file, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13: 102-107.

Brent H. Breithaupt, University of Wyoming Laramie:
An Introduction,from Tapping Educational Resources.
See especially: Museums: The Underutilized Resource.

Brent H. Breithaupt (1992): The use of fossils in interpreting past environments. PDF file, Pages 147–158, in: Tested studies for laboratory teaching, Volume 13 (C. A. Goldman, Editor). Proceedings of the 13th Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Excellent! Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Your Planet Earth (prepared by Jess Trofimovs and Howard Falcon-Lang).
A library of talks on earth sciences and evolutionary topics that may be of interest to earth sciences and education professionals as a basis for engagement and outreach shows in schools. Go to:
The History of Life. Powerpoint Presentation.
Geological Time. Powerpoint Presentation.

! Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol: Palaeofiles Home Page. Articles here have all been prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol. Go to:
Major animal groups. See also:
Failures, frauds, fakes, and fixes in palaeontology. This website is about the frauds and errors that have been made by palaeontologists through the years, the implications the mistakes have had on the science of palaeontology, and how these frauds and errors are being uncovered and fixed.

MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author´s name appears on the title page for each section): Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Graham E. Budd (2008): The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B, 363, 1425-1434.

Andrew M. Bush University of Connecticut, and Gwen M. Daley, Winthrop University (website hosted by the Paleontological Society, Boulder): Comparative Paleoecology of Fossils and Fossil Assemblages. In PDF, lecture notes, snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. PS Centennial Short Course. See also here.

! The Science Education Resource Center (SERC), Carleton College, Northfield, MN: On the Cutting Edge, Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty (supported by the National Science Foundation): Teaching Paleontology in the 21st Century. Links to a collection of activities and assignments, internet and computer resources. (no information available who is behind this trade name): Themes. A structured link directory. Go to: What can fossils tell us? Information provided by:
See also: Fossils And Fossilisation.

! (a consortium of Lebanese universities that have collected some of the best content sites of the web): Science > Paleontology / Paleozoology. Go to: Frequently Asked Questions about Paleontology.

! Miguel Chavez: The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive. Access to many articles and books, e.g. via Library, and Books. Excellent!

Rick Cheel, Department of Earth Sciences, Brock University: Fossils. Powerpoint presentation.

! Chris (?), Peripatus Home Page, New Zealand: Paleontology Page. This page offers a broad range of selected topics from the whole field of paleontology. Go to: What are Lagerstätten? or Major Events in the History of Life.

Citizendium. This is an open wiki project. Go to: Fossilization.

R.M. Clary and J.H. Wandersee (2008): Earth Science Teachers´ Perceptions of an Autonomous Fieldwork Assignment in a Nationwide Online Paleontology Course. In PDF, Journal of Geoscience Education, 56: 149-155.

J.J. Collins and K. Lindstrom, University of California Museum of Paleontology: Getting Into the Fossil Record. Easy to understand websites.

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources (CGER) 1995 (page images at NAP): Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

! Richard Cowen (web pages were first created by D.J. Eernisse for Biology 404: Evolution at CSUF): History of Life (4th Edition, 2005), Web Links by Chapter.

J. Cracraft (1981): Pattern and process in paleobiology: the role of cladistic analysis in systematic paleontology. In PDF, [Paleobiology.

! J.A. Cunningham et al. (2014): A virtual world of paleontology. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 347-357. See also here.
"... in recent years the discipline has been revolutionized by the emergence of powerful methods for the digital visualization and analysis of fossil material. This has included improvements in both computer technology and its availability, and in tomographic techniques, which have made it possible to image a series of 2D sections or slices through a fossil and to use these to make a 3D reconstruction of the specimen".

A. Currie (2019): Paleobiology and philosophy. Free access, Biology & Philosophy, 34.

Owen Kent Davis, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona Tucson: Life on Earth. In this course, you will learn about biological systems, from molecular to global. Navigate from the Lecture Topics.

Senatskommission für Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): Dynamische Erde – Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften. 10.2 – Herkunft und Entwicklung des Lebens. In German.

Melanie DeVore, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA:
! The Evolution of Plants.
Powerpoint presentations. Provided by D. Freile, New Jersey City University: Historical Geology.

The Digital Atlas of Ancient Life (DAoAL), managed by the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York.
The goal of the Digital Atlas of Ancient Life project is to provide a free resource to help individuals identify and better understand fossil species from particular regions and time intervals.
Note the resources for teachers: Classroom lesson plans, activities, and associated materials that relate to either the Neogene or Ordovician Atlas. All of these resources may be freely accessed and downloaded.

! The Digital Encyclopedia of Ancient Life (DEAL), part of the Digital Atlas of Ancient Life project by the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York: This is an online, open-access textbook, currently under development. The goal of DEAL is to produce a comprehensive paleontological textbook with coverage of all major groups of organisms, including plants.
! Note the chapter on Embryophytes, by E.J. Hermsen. The pages covering general botanical subjects such as vascular plant structure, leaf structure and evolution, and plant life cycles.

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay: Power Point and Photographic Slides. Go to: Geologic Time and Earth History . Powerpoint presentation.

Earth Science Teachers´ Association (ESTA).
The aim of the Association is to advance education by encouraging and supporting the teaching of Earth sciences at all levels, whether as a single subject such as Geology, or as part of Science or Geography or other courses. See for instance:
Open Resources Page A number of existing web-based resources for the teaching and learning of geology.
! Don´t miss the archive access, especially of the journal "Geology Teaching". Excellent! This archive contains back issues of ESTA publications which have been scanned and stored in Portable Document Format (pdf).

James R. Ebert, Earth Sciences Department SUNY College at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY:
Principles of Paleoecology. Powerpoint presentation.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University: Historical Geology. An investigative course of geological and biological aspects of Earth History as developed through the use of fossil evidence and the principles of stratigraphy, geochronology, and the geology of structures. PowerPoint slides for lecture, e.g.:

EarthComm (developed by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and supported by the National Science Foundation and donors of the American Geological Institute Foundation). Actually a link directory. Go to: Changing Life (now via wayback archive).

Earth Learning Idea (James Devon, London). Free PDF downloads for Earth-related teaching ideas. Go to:
Evolution of Life.

D.D. Edwards, Department of Biology, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN: Dinosaur Paleobiology. Powerpoint presentation. See also here and there.

C. Faist, Geohorizon: Geochronologie (in German). All in a nutshell about Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:

Lynn S. Fichter, Department of Geology and Environmental Science, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA:
Part Two - The Evolution of Life And Its Impact on the Evolution of the Earth. Power Point Presentations.

Walter M. Fitch and Francisco J. Ayala (eds.), The National Academies Press (NAP), National Academy of Sciences (NAS): Tempo and Mode in Evolution: Genetics and Paleontology 50 Years After Simpson.

Karl W. Flessa, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleontology. Lecture notes. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Explained in a nutshell.

Florissant Fossil Beds, National Monument Colorado. Beneath a grassy mountain valley in central Colorado lies one of the richest and most diverse fossil deposits in the world. See especially:
! Curriculum Materials. A variety of lesson plans developed to help students gain an understanding of geology and paleontology at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. Most of the activities in PDF.

D. Fox (2008): Dig Deeper. See also here.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Historical Geology. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture.
! See for instance: The Mesozoic. Powerpoint presentation.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University: Historical Geology. Go to: Fossilisation. Powerpoint presentation.

! J.C. Gall (2009): Terre et Vie: des histoires imbriquées (in French, with an abridged English version p. 106). PDF file, Comptes Rendus Palevol, 8: 105-117.

! The Geological Society of London:
Lyell Meeting 2018: Mass extinctions – understanding the world’s worst crises. Keynote speakers M. Benton and S. Lindström. It's probably better to start the YouTube video lectures from here. See also there. See especially: ! Recovery of life from the greatest mass extinction of all time.

Stephen Jay Gould Archive (sponsored by Art Science Research Laboratory): Cyber Library, Harvard Course:
! B16: History of Earth and Life. A kittenish website. Difficult to set a link, click "Stephen Jay Gould" on the right hand side. Go to:
! Lab 1: The Invertebrate Phyla,
! Lab 2: The Fossil Record,
! Lab 3: Communities through Time, and
! Lab 4: Variation and Evolution (PDF files). See also:
B16: History of Earth and Life, Source Books.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Hill, UK: Geology Rocks. A geological meta directory, including tutorials and photographs. Go to: Geology Tutorials. Tutorials and essays ranging from the most basic of geological concepts to postgraduate degree level on all aspects of Earth sciences; palaeontology, sedimentology, igneous and metamorphic petrology and geophysics. The difficulty of the topic is indicated by the number of volcanoes next to the title. See also: Palaeontology Tutorials.

Trevor Hodkinson, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin: Global Change & Evolution. In PDF. Lecture notes.

B. Holgado and M. Suñer (2018): Palaeodiversity and evolution in the Mesozoic world. In PDF, Journal of Iberian Geology, 44: 1–5. See also here.

Thomas R. Holtz, Department of Geology, University of Maryland: Principles of Paleontology. Lecture notes. Navigate from here.

Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum (named for now retired Dr. Ken Hooper, a Carleton University micropaleontologist) Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). The principle objective of this museum is to provide a state-of-the-art summary of items of geological interest, emphasizing areas currently being studied by students and research faculty.
For some special topics you may navigate from here or from there (The archives).
See especially:
! Classification Systems - What´s in a Name?
! Terrestrialization - Who, Why, How, and When.

M.J. Hopkins et al. (2018): The inseparability of sampling and time and its influence on attempts to unify the molecular and fossil records. Free access, Paleobiology, 44: 561–574.
"... Although neither the molecular record nor the fossil record are perfect, the two records bear independent limitations, and what is missing from one is often available in the other. We must deal with the different and sometimes complex relationships between time and sampling to take full advantage of the complementary nature of the two records. ..."

John Horgan, Scientific American: Life, Life Everywhere.

D.M. Hoskins (1999): (illustrations drafted by A.E. Van Olden and J.G. Kuchinski): Common Fossils of Pennsylvania. In PDF, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th ser., Educational Series 2. Education 2001, Leaving the Water. A link directory.

Gene Hunt, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution (website hosted by the Paleontological Society, Boulder): Evolutionary Patterns in Fossil Lineages. In PDF, lecture notes, PS Centennial Short Course.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here. (a non-profit making, private website, serving the international academic community):
Open Education Directory.
Open Courseware. Annotated links to publicily-available courseware. See especially to:
Health and Life Sciences,
Earth Sciences.

! Harald Immel, Institut für Paläontologie und Historische Geologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München (Paläontologische Gesellschaft): Literaturempfehlungen zur "Allgemeinen Paläontologie". Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine (version 2009). See also: Literaturempfehlungen zur "Historischen Geologie". Textbook recommendations, in German.

Kania´s Science Page, Lake Central High School, St. John, IN:
Biology Page. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See for instance:
The History of Life.

D.C. Kendrick, Hobart & Wm Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY:
! Fossils and Their Preservation. See also here.

Kent Geologists´ Group: What Are Microfossils?

I.G. Kenyon, Earth Science Teachers´ Association (ESTA): Background reading for Geologists. Book recommendations, Powerpoint presentation.

! A.H. Knoll (2013): Systems Paleobiology. In PDF, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 125. About paleobiology and its important role in understanding how the Earth system works.

! A.H. Knoll, Harvard University: Lecture Systems Paleobiology. Videos, Youtube. From Kongsberg Seminar 2012.
See also
Systems paleobiology. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin. See also here (in PDF).

M. Koopman and E. Hoffmann, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI: Temporal Sequences. Powerpoint presentation.

Glen J. Kuban: FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions). Nine articles from an introduction to fossil collecting, e.g. What is a fossil?

H. Richard Lane, Amoco Corporation, Houston, Texas: Paleontology in the 21st Century or Which Way Ought Paleontology Proceed from Here? From PALAIOS, Volume 12.2, April 1997 (via wayback).

Cyril Langlois, ENS de Lyon: Évolution et crises biologiques. PDF file, in French.

J. Laurie et al. (2009): Living Australia (in PDF). Earth history in Australia.

! Michel Laurin (2012): Recent progress in paleontological methods for dating the Tree of Life. In PDF, Frontiers in Genetics, 3.

Reinhold Leinfelder (2009): Palaeontologia Quo Vadis? - Zur Situation und Zukunft der palãontologischen Forschung. PDF file (in German), Berliner paläobiologische Abhandlungen, 10: 229-243.

Stephen A. Leslie, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock: Paleobiology. Paleobiology lecture notes in brief.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Harold L. Levin (2013): The Earth Through Time, 8th Edition, The Student Companion Site. This Web site gives you access to the rich tools and resources. See especially:
Chapter Tutorials.
Web Links.
You can also navigate from here (chapter headings visible).

Sonjia Leyva, College of Natural & Social Sciences, Department of Geosciences and Environment, California State University, Los Angeles:
The Geophile Pages. These pages are designed to help everyone explore the wonders of geology and oceanography. Go to:
Lessons. Lectures presented in classes. You can also navigate from ! here. See for example:
Earth History. Powerpoint presentation.

David Liddell, Department of Geology, Utah State University, Logan: PALEONTOLOGY, and PALEOECOLOGY. Lecture notes in brief.

Bruce S. Lieberman and Roger Kaesler (2010): Prehistoric Life Evolution and the Fossil Record. Book announcement (Wiley-Blackwell), including table of contents.
The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.
! Available in PDF from here. See especially:
PDF page 38: "Taphonomy."
PDF page 74: "Introduction to Evolution."
PDF page 123: "Extinctions: The Legacy of the Fossil Record."
PDF page 137: "The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences."
PDF page 227: "Life, Climate, and Geology."
PDF page 236: "Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind."
PDF page 242: "Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology."

! Jere H. Lipps, University of California, Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, CA: The Decline of Reason? About science and anti-science. See also:
The Future of Paleontology — The Next 10 Years. Palaeontologia Electronica 10, 1; 2007.

Ronald J. Litwin, Robert E. Weems, and Thomas R. Holtz, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver (Maintained by Eastern Publications Group Web Team): Dinosaurs: Facts and Fiction.

H. Mallison (2012): Digitizing Methods for Paleontology: Applications, Benefits and Limitations. In PDF.

! C.V. McLelland (2008): Nature of Science and the Scientific Method. PDF file, The Geological Society of America.
This article promotes understanding of the nature of science and how the scientific method is used to advance science, focusing in particular on the Earth sciences. It also includes talking points for those who would like help explaining the nature of science to others who have developed misconceptions.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Norman MacLeod, Natural History Museum, London: PalaeoMath. Aspects of quantitative analysis in paleontological contexts. Each essay (from the Palaeontological Association Newsletter since 2004) is written for the novice data analyst, especially those who always wanted to gain knowledge of this subject, but never had the opportunity to do so and haven´t managed to make much progress through self-education. Including some MS Excel spreadsheets providing examples and data.

P.D. Mannion et al. (2014): The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 42–50. See also here.

A.J. McGowan (2011): Biodiversity: more than just how many species. In PDF, Palaeontology Online. See also here.

The University of Michigan: Global Change, Physical Processes:
Global Change 1 Fall 2011 Schedule . Go to:
! The Fossil Record of Lineages and Ecosystems.

D.W. Mogk and C. Goodwin (2012): Learning in the field: Synthesis of research on thinking and learning in the geosciences. In PDF, Geological Society of America Special Papers, 486: 131-163. See also here.

! A.D. Muscente et al. (2017): Exceptionally preserved fossil assemblages through geologic time and space. Abstract, Gondwana Research, 48: 164-188. See also here (in PDF).

The Natural History Museum London: Paleobase. An illustrated, relational database of invertebrate fossils for education and research.

Dennis O´Neil, Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marcos, California: Record of Time. An introduction to the nature of fossils and paleoanthropological dating methods.

! E.G. Nisbet and N.H. Sleep (2001): The habitat and nature of early life. PDF file, Nature, 409.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

W.R. Norris, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM:
The Challenges of Life on Land. Lecture notes, powerpoint presentation. See also here (in PDF).

John Nudds and Paul Selden (2008): Fossils explained 56, Fossil Lagerstätten. PDF file, Geology Today, Vol. 24.

The Open University , UK (the world´s first successful distance teaching university): The Open University provides high-quality university education to all. Go to: LearningSpace, Life in the Palaeozoic.

! Wolfgang Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: The Evolution of the Atmosphere of our Planet Earth. In PDF. About the the origin of earth and the early atmosphere, the role of biosphere and the carbon-cycle and the atmospheric evolution through time.

W. Oschmann (2006): Evolution und Sterben der Dinosaurier. In PDF, Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 93, 345, 117-143. PDF file, in German.

W. Oschmann et al. (2000): Evolution des Systems Erde: Geobiologische und paläobiologische Prozesse als Antrieb. In German. See also here.

W. Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Paläontologie - Eine Zeitreise. Phasen der Evolution des Systems Erde: Es gibt keinen Stillstand (in German).

! Wolfgang Oschmann, Christian Dullo, Volker Mosbrugger & Fritz F. Steininger, "PALÄONTOLOGIE IM 21. JAHRHUNDERT": Evolution des Systems Erde: Geobiologische und paläobiologische Prozesse als Antrieb. Palaeontology explained in a nutshell (in German).

Wolfgang Oschmann, Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut, Frankfurt a.M.: Phasen der Evolution des Systems Erde: Es gibt keinen Stillstand (in German).

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA: Fossils. Easy to understand lecture notes.
See especially: Fossils. Powerpoint presentation.

The Palaeontological Association:
! Careers in Palaeontology and Postgraduate Opportunities.
! Current PhD projects in Palaeontology.

Paläontologische Gesellschaft: Was ist eigentlich Paläontologie? What is palaeontology (in German).

The Paläontologische Gesellschaft, Germany: Paläontologie in Schlagworten (in German).
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Palaeontologia Electronica: Fossil Calibration Database (project developed by the Working Group "Synthesizing and Databasing Fossil Calibrations: Divergence Dating and Beyond").
The mission of the Fossil Calibration Database is to provide vetted fossil calibration points that can be used for divergence dating by molecular systematists. The curated collection of well-justified calibrations also promote best practices for justifying fossil calibrations and citing calibrations properly. Raising the Standard in Fossil Calibration! See also:
D.T. Ksepka et al. (2015): The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Resource for Divergence Dating. Abstract, Systematic Biology.

! The Paleontological Society: Educational Resources.

The Paleontological Society: Future Research Directions in Paleontology. The report of the NSF-funded workshop on Future Research Directions in Paleontology has been published, discussed at the GSA meeting in Denver.

Available from The Paleontology Society:
! The Oldest Fossil Evidence of Life. In PDF, prepared by J. William Schopf and designed by Diane Lonardelli.

! Paleontology in the 21st Century (An International Senckenberg Conference and Workshop): Reports and Recommendations. In early September 1997, 108 paleontologists and allied individuals from 30 countries met at Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt, Germany. The purpose of the Senckenberg workshop was to initiate and nurture a dialogue concerning the future of palaeontology.
Website now saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Paleontological Research Institution (PRI), Ithaca, NY: (PRI was founded by Gilbert Dennison Harris, 1865-1952):
The Paleontological Research Institution pursues and integrates education and research, and interprets the history and systems of the Earth and its life. Go to:
Conservation Paleobiology. Opportunities for the Earth Sciences. In PDF, Report of an NSF-Funded Workshop, 2011. Table of contents on PDF page 04. Worth checking out:
PDF page 09: "Major Science Themes in Conservation Paleobiology".
PDF page 17: "Frontiers in Conservation Paleobiology".
PDF page 19: "Emerging Opportunities for the Earth Sciences" (i.e. Analysis and Modeling of the Near-time Fossil Record, Scaling and Other Issues for Merging Neo- and Paleobiological Data, etc.).

! J.F. Parham et al. (2012): Best Practices for Justifying Fossil Calibrations. In PDF, Syst Biol., 61: 346-359. See also here

Stephen B. Parsons, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA: Historical Geology, Laboratory Solution Sets. Go to:
Life of the Late Paleozoic Era. Powerpoint presentation.

Patzkowsky Paleoecology Lab: Ten Must read Books for Paleontology Graduate Students.

! J.G. Pausas and J.E. Keeley (2009): A burning story: the role of fire in the history of life. PDF file, BioScience, 59: 593-601.

K.J. Peterson et al. (2007): Molecular palaeobiology. PDF file, Palaeontology, 50: 775-809.

! D.R. Prothero (2013): Bringing fossils to life: An introduction to paleobiology. Some chapters, provided by Google books. Look here for the table of contents.
Don´t miss the book review by Catherine Badgley
and by David Penney, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58 (in PDF).
A further chapter is also available online:
The Truth About Transitional Fossils.

! William K. Purves, David Sadava, Gordon H. Orians, and H. Craig Heller Life, The Science of Biology (Seventh Edition). The Companion Site. Interactive summaries, the glossary, animated tutorials and lots of flahcards (review figures). Go to: Chapter 22: The History of Life in Earth. study tools:
! Search for Palaeontology.

I.A. Rahman et al. (2012): Virtual Fossils: a New Resource for Science Communication in Paleontology. In PDF, Evolution: Education and Outreach, 5: 635–641.

Hugh Rance, City University of New York: The Present is the Key to the Past. An electronic, college level, introductory historical geology textbook.

Michael Rasser, Austrian Palaeontological Society: Introduction to Palaeontology. In German. See especially:
! Die Palâoökologie.

! Allister Rees, GEON SDSC Meeting Webcast Archive, San Diego Supercomputer Center: GEON SDSC Meeting, webcast live: Go to: Dinosaurs and More: Integration of the DINO and PGAP Databases (August 22, 2005). Biomes, climates and floral development from the Permian to the Jurassic.

Regressive Palaeontology (a weekly discussion group covering a broad range of palaeontological topics), Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Paper(s) Discussed. A link list.

P.D. Roopnarine (2009): Ecological modeling of paleocommunity food webs. In Conservation Paleobiology: Using the Past to Manage for the Future, Paleontological Society Short Course, October 17th, 2009. The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 15, Gregory P. Dietl and Karl W. Flessa (eds.).

Valentí Rull (2010): Ecology and Palaeoecology: Two Approaches, One Objective. PDF file, The Open Ecology Journal, 3: 1-5.

M.J.S. Rudwick (2018): Functional Morphology in Paleobiology: Origins of the Method of ‘Paradigms’. Open access, Journal of the History of Biology, 51: 135–178.

M.J.S. Rudwick (2018): The Fate of the Method of ‘Paradigms’ in Paleobiology. Open access, Journal of the History of Biology, 51: 479–533.

J. Rust (2007): Die Bedeutung von Fossilien für phylogenetische Rekonstruktionen. In German (PDF file). Go to PDF page 75. In: Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H.M. Sachs et al. (1977): Paleoecological transfer functions. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 5. See also here (abstract).

Sabine Schmidt, Gravity Research Group, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany: Die Erde (in German).
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Geology, Evolution upset: Oxygen-making microbes came last, not first.

D.B. Scott & Trecia Schell, Department of Earth Sciences, Dalhousie University, Canada: Introduction to Paleontology. Brief summaries (PDF files).

J.D. Schiffbauer and M. LaFlamme (2012): Lagerstätten through time: A collection of exceptional preservational pathway from the terminal Neoproterozoic through today. In PDF, Palaios.

Scholastic Science World: Fossils. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations.

R.B. Schultz, Department of Geography and Geosciences, Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, IL: Geologic Time and Earth History. Powerpoint presentation.

Michon Scott: Strange Science. Curious missteps in biology and paleontology are featured here. This Web site also provides a timeline of events, gives biographies of a few of the people who have gotten us where we are today, and show a bibliography you can use to learn more. Visit the Goof Gallery.

Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Paleoenvironment of Utah: Fading the Mists of Time. Powerpoint presentation.

! A.W.R. Seddon et al. (2014): Looking forward through the past: identification of 50 priority research questions in palaeoecology. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 102: 256-267. See also here.

! A. Seilacher et al. (1985): Sedimentological, ecological and temporal patterns of fossil Lagerstätten. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, Biological sciences, 311: 5-23.
! See also here (in PDF).

! P.A. Selden (2016): Land Animals, Origins of. In PDF. In: Kliman, R. M. (ed.): Encyclopedia of evolutionary biology. Volume 2: 288-295. Oxford, Academic Press.
About the colonization of the land habitat from the sea by plants and animals.

D. Sepkoski (2009): The Emergence of Paleobiology. In PDF, starting on PDF page 16. In: Sepkoski, D. and Ruse, M. (eds.): The Paleobiological Revolution: Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleontology (University of Chicago Press).

D. Sepkoski and M. Ruse (2009): Introduction: Paleontology at the High Table. In PDF, starting on PDF page 5. In: Sepkoski, D. and Ruse, M. (eds.): The Paleobiological Revolution: Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleontology (University of Chicago Press).

Hartmut Seyfried & Reinhold Leinfelder: Meeresspiegelschwankungen - Ursachen, Folgen, Wechselwirkungen (in German).

Roy Shepherd, Discovery Fossils, UK: What is a fossil? Easy to understand introduction.

D. Silvestro et al. (2016): Fossil biogeography: a new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from palaeontological data. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B, 371. See also here. NASA's astrobiology home page. For instance: Life in Extreme Environments.

Nancy E. Spaulding & Samuel N. Namowitz (McDougal Littell): Exploring Earth. The investigations and visualizations on this site were designed to accompany Earth Science, a high school textbook. The Web site was developed by TERC, a non-profit educational research and development firm in collaboration with McDougal Littell. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation. Go to: Studying the Past, and Views od Earth´s Past.

Alycia L. Stigall, Department of Geological Sciences and OHIO Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies (website hosted by the Paleontological Society, Boulder): Tracking Species in Space and Time: Assessing the relationships between paleobiogeography, paleoecology, and macroevolution. In PDF, lecture notes, PS Centennial Short Course. See also here.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Paul K. Strother, Palaeobotany Laboratory, Weston Observatory, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Boston College, Weston, Massachusetts: Origin and Evolution of Life on Planet Earth. This is an introductory science course using the scientific study of the origins of life as a central point from which to examine science as a process. The interdisciplinary curriculum touches on biology, biochemistry, geology, palaeontology and a bit of physics and astronomy.

Paul K. Strother, Palaeobotany Laboratory, Weston Observatory, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Boston College, Weston, Massachusetts: Paleontology. Lecture notes.

! Roger Summons and Tanja Bosak, MIT Opencourseware, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Geobiology. An introduction about the parallel evolution of life and the environment. Life processes are influenced by chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and the solid earth. In turn, life can influence chemical and physical processes on our planet. This course explores the concept of life as a geological agent and examines the interaction between biology and the earth system during the roughly 4 billion years since life first appeared. Go to:
Lecture Notes. See especially: Theories Pertaining to the Origin of Life. In PDF.

! Teaching Paleontology in the 21st Century. On the Cutting Edge - Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty. Browse Paleontology Courses.

! R.C. Terry (2009): Palaeoecology: Methods. Abstract. See also here (in PDF), and there.

J.C. Thackray et al. (1990): History of Palaeontology. (in PDF). In: D.E.G. Briggs and P.R. Crowther: Palaeobiology, a Synthesis.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Ellen Thomas, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University: Macroevolution. Lecture notes. Please, navigate from here. Worth checking out: Assignment: Plants (via wayback).

Greg Thorn, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, Canada:
! Evolution of Plants . Lecture notes, e.g.:
Evolution of the Angiosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

Bruce H. Tiffney, UC Santa Barbara: What is Science? Tracking the course of evolution.

Sean Tvelia, Suffolk County Community College, Selden, NY: This Old Earth. Go to: Paleontology (in PDF).

U.S. Geological Survey:
USGS frequently asked questions, Popular FAQs. See especially:

G.J. Vermeij (2015): Paleophysiology: From Fossils to the Future. Trends in ecology & evolution.

J.W.F. Waldron et al. (2016): Building an Outdoor Classroom for Field Geology: The Geoscience Garden. Abstract, Journal of Geoscience Education, 64: 215-230. See also here.

Helmut Weissert Geologie, ETH Zürich: Evolution der Biosphäre. Bilder aus der Erdgeschichte. PDF file, in German.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Roger M. Wells Jr. et al., Department of Geology, SUNY Cortland, Cortland, NY: The Invertebrate Paleontology Tutorial Web Site. Lecture notes.

Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada: Lecture Resources. Go to:
Fossils and their preservation.

! Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: High School Earth Science.
Contributed by John Benner et al. Worth checking out:
Evidence About Earth´s Past.
Earth´s History.

Wikibooks, an open content textbooks collection that anyone can edit:
History and Origin of Life.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
List of years in paleontology. These entries cover events related to the study of paleontology which occurred in the listed year. Go to:
! 2017 in paleontology. Excellent!

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Category:Paleontology.
Paläontologie (in German).
Paläobiologie (in German).
! Kategorie:Paläontologie (in German).
Category:History of paleontology.
Category:Paleontology timelines.
Kategorie:Geschichte der Paläontologie (in German).
Origin of life.
History of paleontology. See especially: Paleobotany and the origin of the word paleontology.
Kategorie:Paläobotanik in German).

! Wikiversity: This is a Wikimedia Foundation project devoted to learning resources, learning projects, and research for use in all levels, types, and styles of education from pre-school to university. Go to:
! Paleontology resources. Lecture notes.
Go to: Learning Projects Undergraduate.
! Lesson 1: Introduction to Palaeontology.
! Lesson 2: Evolution of the Universe down to biological evolution.
! Lesson 3: Life structures and anatomy.
! Lesson 4: The planet Earth, its physical environment and resources.

D.M. Wilkinson (2012): Paleontology and Ecology: Their Common Origins and Later Split. In PDF.
In: J. Louys (ed.): Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation.
See also here (in PDF).

Ewan Wolff, Montana State University Geoscience Education Web Development Team: Advances in Paleontology. Go to: Morphology - the study of form and function in anatomy, and Hot Topics in Paleontology: Histology, Evolution of Development (Evo-Devo), and Biomolecular Markers.

Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History: Earth Timeline. Powerpoint presentation.

Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, CT: Image Gallery. This gallery presents images of fossils from the research collections in the Division of Invertebrate Paleontology. You may also navigate from a list of Lagerstätten (Mistaken Point, Elmo, Burgess Shale, Florissant, Solnhofen, Mazon Creek, etc).

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated May 29, 2021

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