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! What is Palaeontology or Palaeobiology?
Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany
Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies
Teaching Documents about Ichnology
Teaching Documents about Ecology
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research
Teaching Documents about Botany
Teaching Documents about Biology
Teaching Documents about Evolution
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction
Teaching Documents about Classification and Nomenclature
Teaching Documents about Cladistics and Phylogeny
Teaching Documents about Palaeogeography
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology
Teaching Documents about Geochronological Methods
Introductions to Statistics
Meta Indexes of Online Education
Virtual Field Trips

! The Molecular Clock and/or/versus the Fossil Record
! Focussed on the Fossil Record@
! Living Fossils@
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction@
! Phylogeography@
The Gaia Hypothesis@
! Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design@
Sources of Fossil Clip Art@
Palaeobotanical and Palaeontological Collections@
Fossil Protection@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
International Palaeobotanical and Palaeontological Institutions@
! Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@

Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology

Stephen T. Abedon, Microbiology, Ohio State University, Mansfield: Supplemental Lecture. Fossilization, palaeontology, biases in the fossil record etc. in brief.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Education > Biology > Evolution, and Education > Geology > Fossils, Time and Evolution.

Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada: History of Paleontology. Powerpoint presentation.

Masdouq M.I. Al-Taj, Faculty of Prince AlHasan Bin Talal for Natural Resources and Environment, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan: Lectures.
See especially: Introduction to Paleontology (Powerpoint presentation).

Alexa (Alexa Internet, Inc., an Company). Alexa is a Web Information Company, perhaps best known for the Alexa Rank, the website ranking system which tracks over 30 million websites worldwide. See especially: The top ranked sites in category "Science". Go to:
! Paleontology.

! Warren D. Allmon, Palaeontologia Electronica, Volume 7, Issue 2 December 2004 (Coquina Press): Googling Turritella, or The Present and Future Value of the Web for Paleontological Research (PDF file). A state of the art report of palaeontological search strategies.

Masdouq Al-Taj, Hashemite University, Jordan:
Introduction Palaeontology. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

American Geological Institute (AGI): Why Earth Science? PDF file, 1.7 MB.

John R. Anderson, Georgia Perimeter College Geology: The World of Geology, Prefix/Suffix Meanings. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

Arizona State University:
Virtual Field Trips (VFT): VFT's are topic based interactive and educationally rich experiences captured during real expeditions with scientists doing current research. These resources were developed with support from NASA, NSF, and HHMI.

! S. Asche et al. (2023): What it takes to solve the Origin (s) of Life: An integrated review of techniques. Free access, arXiv.
! Note figure 1: Comprehensive array of experimental and computational techniques, along with conceptual bridges, which are primarily utilised in OoL studies.
"... We review the common tools and techniques that have been used significantly in OoL [origin(s) of life] studies in recent years.
[...] it spans broadly — from analytical chemistry to mathematical models — and highlights areas of future work ..."

! Stanley M. Awramik, Department of Earth Science, University of California Santa Barbara:
The Record of Life on the Early Earth. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

F.J. Ayala, Walter M. Fitch, and Michael T. Clegg (eds.; 2000): Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins. Online book, National Academy of Sciences (2000).
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here

A.D. Barnosky et al. (2017): Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems. Abstract, Science, 355.

! R.B.J. Benson et al. (2021): Biodiversity across space and time in the fossil record. Free access, Current Biology, 31: R1225-R1236.
Note figure 3: Distribution of geographic and environmental sampling in the marine and terrestrial fossil records.
"... it will be impossible to directly estimate total global biodiversity from fossil data, principally because the fossil record is not complete enough
[...] the fossil record provides the only dataset that might allow us to put constraints on this important question, using information from exceptional, well-sampled but spatially and temporally restricted windows. These windows provide the best information on local, regional and environmental diversity levels, and how they vary in space ..." (?):
BIOLOGY STUDY RESOURCES. Biology lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations, e.g.:
The History of Life on Earth.

! D.J. Bottjer (2016): Paleoecology: past, present, and future. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.). See also here (Google books).

! Nicholas H. Barton (Edinburgh University), Derek E.G. Briggs (Yale University), Jonathan A. Eisen (University of California, Davis), David B. Goldstein (Duke University Medical Center), and Nipam H. Patel (University of California, Berkeley): Evolution (by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press). This textbook is designed to serve as the primary text for undergraduate courses in evolution. It differs from currently available alternatives in containing more molecular biology than is traditionally the case. Go to: Table of Contents: Some figures and tables free of charge! See: Evolution Figures: Chapter 4.

BBC Earth timeline.

! J.B. Bennington et al. (2009): Critical issues of scale in paleoecology. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 1-4.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

Michael J. Benton (2010): The origins of modern biodiversity on land. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B.

M.J. Benton and D.A.T. Harper: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. Go to:
! Companion Website: Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. On this website you can download the figures in jpeg format at standard resolution (96 dpi) for viewing on screen and at a higher resolution (300 dpi) for downloading. They can also be downloaded as a Powerpoint file for each chapter.
! See also here (in PDF).
For better navigation note the table of contents (in PDF).

! M.J. Benton and B.C. Emerson (2007): How did life become so diverse? The dynamics of diversification according to the fossil record and molecular phylogenetics. Open access, Palaeontology, 50: 23-40.
Note text figure 1: Patterns of diversification of: A, families of marine invertebrates; B, species of vascular land plants; C, families of non-marine tetrapods; and D, families of insects.

! University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley (with support provided by the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute): Understanding Evolution. Understanding Evolution is a non-commercial, education website, teaching the science and history of evolutionary biology. Go to: History of life on Earth. Topics are "From soup to cells - The origin of life", "Evolution and the fossil record", "Deep Time" (an interactive timeline), etc.

! Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California, Berkeley (sponsored in part by Shell Offshore Inc.): Learning from the Fossil Record. This is a hypertext version of a book originally published by the Paleontological Society.

University of California, Berkeley: Biology 1B - Lecture 24: Taphonomy & Paleontology. Videos, Youtube. See also here.

University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley: Explorations Through Time. A series of interactive modules (curriculum and classroom resources) that explore the history of life on Earth, while focusing on the processes of science. Each module contains suggested lesson plans and an extensive teacher’s guide.

Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, CA: Frequently asked questions (FAQ). Questions about paleontology. See also here.

! BioDeepTime:
This project seeks to address one of the central challenges in biodiversity science by compiling and harmonizing ecological time series from modern and fossil sources to investigate how biological dynamics and drivers vary across timescales ranging from months to millions of years. Note likewise here.
Please take notice:
! J. Smith et al. (2023): BioDeepTime: A database of biodiversity time series for modern and fossil assemblages. Open access, Global Ecol Biogeogr.
Note table 1: Approximate temporal grain (the amount of time represented in a sample) for time series, number of time series and number of samples from source databases included in BioDeepTime.
"... The BioDeepTime database enables integrated biodiversity analyses across a far greater range of temporal scales than has previously been possible. It can be used to provide critical insights into how natural systems will respond to ongoing and future environmental changes as well as new opportunities for theoretical insights into the temporal scaling of biodiversity dynamics ..."

Biology-Nation. This website provides resources for anyone with an interest in biology. (see also Whois Record). Many links lead to Wikipedia. Go to: Introduction to Paleontology.

Biology Online. Biology Online aims to educate and promote awareness of all things biology, offering free and easy access to information in the biological sciences. Go to:
The Origins of Life. See also:
Biology Articles > Paleobiology.

H. John B. Birks (2011): Stay or Go? A Q-Time Perspective. Powerpoint presentation.

BookRags, a research location for students of any age: Paleontology.

! D.J. Bottjer (2016): Paleoecology: Past, Present and Future. Book announcement (Wiley).
! See also here (in PDF).

M.C. Boulter, Palaeobiology Research Unit, University of East London, Romford Road, London: The Inevitability of Publishing Electronically About Palaeontology. The PaleoNet Forum: An Irregular Electronic Journal April, 1996: Volume 2, Issue 4.

C. Kevin Boyce (2010): The evolution of plant development in a paleontological context. PDF file, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13: 102-107.

! M. Brasier et al. (2006): A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life. In PDF, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol Sci., 361: 887–902. See also here.

Brent H. Breithaupt, University of Wyoming Laramie:
An Introduction,from Tapping Educational Resources.
See especially: Museums: The Underutilized Resource.

Brent H. Breithaupt (1992): The use of fossils in interpreting past environments. PDF file, Pages 147–158, in: Tested studies for laboratory teaching, Volume 13 (C. A. Goldman, Editor). Proceedings of the 13th Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Excellent! Snapshot now taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Worth checking out:
Part 1. Major Events in the History of Life, Pages 1-92.
Part 2. The Evolutionary Process and the Fossil Record, Pages 93-210.
Part 3. Taphonomy, Pages 211-304.
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Part 5. Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy, Pages 415-490.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol:
Your Planet Earth.
A library of talks on earth sciences and evolutionary topics that may be of interest to earth sciences and education professionals as a basis for engagement and outreach shows in schools. Go to:
The History of Life. Powerpoint Presentation.
Geological Time. Powerpoint Presentations.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The palaeofiles. Articles here have all been prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol: Failures, frauds, fakes, and fixes in palaeontology.
This website is about the frauds and errors that have been made by palaeontologists through the years, the implications the mistakes have had on the science of palaeontology, and how these frauds and errors are being uncovered and fixed.
Some reconstruction images here.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

MSc Palaeobiology Students, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, (the author´s name appears on the title page for each section): Fossil Lagerstätten. A catalogue of sites of exceptional fossil preservation.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada:
ERSC 1F90. Links to Powerpoint Presentations. Go to:
Fossils and mass extinctions.

! J.J. Brocks et al. (2023): Lost world of complex life and the late rise of the eukaryotic crown. In PDF, Nature, See also here.
Note figure 1: Geological time chart comparing the molecular fossil, microfossil and phylogenetic records of early eukaryote evolution.

Graham E. Budd (2008): The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B, 363, 1425-1434.

Andrew M. Bush University of Connecticut, and Gwen M. Daley, Winthrop University (website hosted by the Paleontological Society, Boulder): Comparative Paleoecology of Fossils and Fossil Assemblages. In PDF, lecture notes, snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. PS Centennial Short Course. See also here.

! The Science Education Resource Center (SERC), Carleton College, Northfield, MN: On the Cutting Edge, Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty (supported by the National Science Foundation): Teaching Paleontology in the 21st Century. Links to a collection of activities and assignments, internet and computer resources. "A consortium of Lebanese universities that have collected some of the best content sites of the web" (but no information available who is behind this websites):
Themes. A structured link directory. Go to:
What can fossils tell us? Information provided by:
See also:
Fossils And Fossilisation.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. "A consortium of Lebanese universities that have collected some of the best content sites of the web" (but no information available who is behind this websites):
Science > Paleontology / Paleozoology. Go to:
Frequently Asked Questions about Paleontology.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Miguel Chavez: The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive. Access to many articles and books, e.g. via Library, and Books. Excellent!

Rick Cheel, Brock University, Canada:
Fossils. Lecture note, Powerpoint presentation.

! Chris (?), Peripatus Home Page, New Zealand: Paleontology Page. This page offers a broad range of selected topics from the whole field of paleontology. Go to: What are Lagerstätten? or Major Events in the History of Life.

Citizendium. This is an open wiki project. Go to: Fossilization.

R.M. Clary and J.H. Wandersee (2008): Earth Science Teachers´ Perceptions of an Autonomous Fieldwork Assignment in a Nationwide Online Paleontology Course. In PDF, Journal of Geoscience Education, 56: 149-155.

T. Clements et al. (2022): The perception of palaeontology in commercial off-the-shelf video games and an assessment of their potential as educational tools. Free access, Geosci. Commun., 5: 289–306.
"... commercial off-the-shelf video games are not primarily designed to be educational tools, and the proliferation of some common tropes can disseminate harmful and/or unethical (mis)information regarding palaeontology.
[...] We highlight the most common palaeontological tropes ..."

J.J. Collins and K. Lindstrom, University of California Museum of Paleontology: Getting Into the Fossil Record. Easy to understand websites.

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources (CGER) 1995 (page images at NAP): Effects of Past Global Change on Life.

! Richard Cowen (web pages were first created by D.J. Eernisse for Biology 404: Evolution at CSUF): History of Life (4th Edition, 2005), Web Links by Chapter.

J. Cracraft (1981): Pattern and process in paleobiology: the role of cladistic analysis in systematic paleontology. In PDF, [Paleobiology.

! J.A. Cunningham et al. (2014): A virtual world of paleontology. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 347-357. See also here.
"... in recent years the discipline has been revolutionized by the emergence of powerful methods for the digital visualization and analysis of fossil material. This has included improvements in both computer technology and its availability, and in tomographic techniques, which have made it possible to image a series of 2D sections or slices through a fossil and to use these to make a 3D reconstruction of the specimen".

A. Currie (2019): Paleobiology and philosophy. Free access, Biology & Philosophy, 34.

Owen Kent Davis, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona Tucson: Life on Earth. In this course, you will learn about biological systems, from molecular to global. Navigate from the Lecture Topics.

Deer Creek High School, Edmond, USA:
12.1 The Fossil Record Permineralization, part 3. Lecture notes, Powerpoint preservation.

Senatskommission für Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG):
Dynamische Erde – Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften. 10.2 – Herkunft und Entwicklung des Lebens. In German.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Senatskommission für Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG):
Dynamische Erde – Zukunftsaufgaben der Geowissenschaften. 10.5 – Extreme und unbekannte Habitate. In German.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Melanie DeVore, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA:
! The Evolution of Plants. Powerpoint presentation, slow download, 90 MB!
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
Provided by D. Freile, New Jersey City University: Historical Geology.
Powerpoint presentations, still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! G.P. Dietl et al. (2015): Conservation paleobiology: leveraging knowledge of the past to inform conservation and restoration. In PDF, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 43: 79-103.
See likewise here.

G.P. Dietl and K.W. Flessa (2011): Conservation paleobiology: putting the dead to work. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26.
See likewise here.
"... Conservation paleobiology is a relatively new, synthetic field of research that applies the theories and analytical tools of paleontology to the solution of problems concerning the conservation of biodiversity ..."

! The Digital Encyclopedia of Ancient Life (DAoAL). Managed by the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York.
The original goal of the DAoAL project was to provide free resources to help individuals identify and better understand fossil species from particular regions and time intervals.

E.M. Dillon et al. (2023): Challenges and directions in analytical paleobiology. Open access, Paleobiology, 49: 377–393.
"... Over the last 50 years, access to new data and analytical tools has expanded the study of analytical paleobiology
[...] Recent progress has been accelerated by a collective push toward more collaborative, interdisciplinary, and open science ..."

Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia:
Early Earth and the Origins of Life.
Powerpoint presentation.

! P.C.J. Donoghue and M.J. Benton (2007): Rocks and clocks: calibrating the Tree of Life using fossils and molecules. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
See also here.
! Note figure 2: Concordance of palaeontological data, phylogenetic hypotheses, macroevolutionary events and molecular clock.

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay: Power Point and Photographic Slides. Go to: Geologic Time and Earth History . Powerpoint presentation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Earth Science Teachers´ Association (ESTA).
The aim of the Association is to advance education by encouraging and supporting the teaching of Earth sciences at all levels, whether as a single subject such as Geology, or as part of Science or Geography or other courses. See for instance:
Resources. A wide range of resources available to help support the teaching of Earth Sciences.

James R. Ebert, Earth Sciences Department SUNY College at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY:
Principles of Paleoecology. Powerpoint presentation.

EarthComm (developed by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and supported by the National Science Foundation and donors of the American Geological Institute Foundation). Actually a link directory. Go to: Changing Life (now via wayback archive).

Earth Learning Idea (James Devon, London). Free PDF downloads for Earth-related teaching ideas. Go to:
Evolution of Life.

D.D. Edwards, Department of Biology, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN:
Dinosaur Paleobiology. Powerpoint presentation.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

C. Faist, Geohorizon: Geochronologie (in German). All in a nutshell about Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.

! M.J. Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona: On-Line Biology Book. Introductory biology lecture notes.
Now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Lynn S. Fichter, Department of Geology and Environmental Science, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA:
Part Two - The Evolution of Life And Its Impact on the Evolution of the Earth. Power Point Presentations.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Karl W. Flessa, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleontology. Lecture notes. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Explained in a nutshell.

! S.G.A. Flantua et al. (2023): A guide to the processing and standardization of global palaeoecological data for large-scale syntheses using fossil pollen. Open access, Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 32: 1377-1394.
Note figure 1: Essential data processing components needed to create a standardized, harmonized, palaeoecological dataset compilation before macro-scale data analysis.
Figure 3: Summary figure of FOSSILPOL workflow providing an overview of the inputs, main workflow steps and outputs.
"... With our FOSSILPOL workflow and R-package, we provide a protocol for optimal handling of large compilations of fossil pollen datasets and workflow reproducibility ..."

J.T. Flannery-Sutherland et al. (2022): fossilbrush: An R package for automated detection and resolution of anomalies in palaeontological occurrence data. Open access, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 13: 2404-2418.
Go to: fossilbrush: Automated Cleaning of Fossil Occurrence Data. See also here.
! Access to the Paleobiology Database.

Florissant Fossil Beds, National Monument Colorado. Beneath a grassy mountain valley in central Colorado lies one of the richest and most diverse fossil deposits in the world. See especially:
! Curriculum Materials. A variety of lesson plans developed to help students gain an understanding of geology and paleontology at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. Most of the activities in PDF.

! D.A. Fordham et al. (2020): Using paleo-archives to safeguard biodiversity under climate change. In PDF, Science, 369.
See likewise here.
"... Fordham et al. review when and where rapid climate transitions can be found in the paleoclimate record
[...] They also highlight how recent developments at the intersection of paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and macroecology can provide opportunities to anticipate and manage the responses of species and ecosystems to changing climates in the Anthropocene ..."

! F. Forrest (2009): Calibrating the Tree of Life: fossils, molecules and evolutionary timescales. Free access, Annals of Botany, 104: 789–794.
"... New methods have now been proposed to resolve potential sources of error associated with the calibration of phylogenetic trees, particularly those involving use of the fossil record.
[...] ! "...the fossil record remains the most reliable source of information for the calibration of phylogenetic trees, although associated assumptions and potential bias must be taken into account. ..."

D. Fox (2008): Dig Deeper. See also here.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Historical Geology. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture.
! See for instance: The Mesozoic. Powerpoint presentation.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University: Historical Geology. Go to: Fossilisation. Powerpoint presentation.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University:
Historical Geology. An investigative course of geological and biological aspects of Earth History as developed through the use of fossil evidence and the principles of stratigraphy, geochronology, and the geology of structures. PowerPoint slides for lecture, e.g.:

T. Fujikawa et al. (2024): Comparative analysis of reconstructed ancestral proteins with their extant counterparts suggests primitive life had an alkaline habitat. Open access, Scientific Reports, 14. 398.
Note figure 4: Candidate habitats for primitive life and their estimated pH values.
"... To understand the origin and early evolution of life it is crucial to establish characteristics of the primordial environment
[...] Our results indicate that the reconstructed ancestral proteins are more akin to those of extant alkaliphilic bacteria, which display greater stability under alkaline conditions. These findings suggest that the common ancestors of bacterial and archaeal species thrived in an alkaline environment ..."

! J.C. Gall (2009): Terre et Vie: des histoires imbriquées (in French, with an abridged English version p. 106). PDF file, Comptes Rendus Palevol, 8: 105-117. (obviously an anonymus (?) web portal). Go to:
Historical Geology. Course Study Materials for Historical Geology. See e.g.:
Chapter 14 -- Mesozoic Earth History. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation. Paleogeography starts from PowerPoint slide 16.

! The Geological Society of London:
Lyell Meeting 2018: Mass extinctions – understanding the world’s worst crises. Keynote speakers M. Benton and S. Lindström. It's probably better to start the YouTube video lectures from here. See also there. See especially: ! Recovery of life from the greatest mass extinction of all time.

! The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF):
GBIF is an international network and data infrastructure funded by the world's governments and aimed at providing anyone, anywhere, open access to data about all types of life on Earth. Excellent!

Stephen Jay Gould Archive (sponsored by Art Science Research Laboratory): Cyber Library, Harvard Course:
! B16: History of Earth and Life. A kittenish website. Difficult to set a link, click "Stephen Jay Gould" on the right hand side. Go to:
! Lab 1: The Invertebrate Phyla,
! Lab 2: The Fossil Record,
! Lab 3: Communities through Time, and
! Lab 4: Variation and Evolution (PDF files). See also:
B16: History of Earth and Life, Source Books.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.F. Greb et al. (2022): Prehistoric Wetlands. PDF file, p. 23-32. In: T. Mehner and K. Tockner (eds.): Encyclopedia of Inland Waters.
! Note figure 3: Wetlands through time (data are based on flora and fauna). Highlights in the evolution of wetlands.

! P.J. Harries (ed., 2003): High-Resolution Approaches in Stratigraphic Paleontology. In PDF. Topics in Geobiology, 21.
See likewise here, and there.
This volume delves into a spectrum of theoretical as well as applied aspects of high-resolution stratigraphic approaches in paleontology. It explores how increasingly detailed knowledge of the fossil record can enhance our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth. Please take notice of the
! Table of contents (13 chapters).

! Daniel Hauptvogel, Virginia Sisson et al. (2023), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Houston:
The Story of Earth: An Observational Guide 2e . Second edition (Pressbooks), Open access. You can download a printable PDF version.
Navigate from the content menue page. Note especially:
! Chapter 6: Fossil Preservation.

Henry County Schools, McDonough, GA:
Life and Geologic Time. Reconstructions of Paleo-Landscapes.
Powerpoint presentation.

! hhmi BioInteractive (The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)).
BioInteractive is a leading provider of free classroom resources and professional development for high school and undergraduate biology educators.
! EarthViewer. This interactive module allows to explore the science of Earth's deep history, from its formation 4.5 billion years ago to modern times. Excellent!

J. Hill, UK: Geology Rocks. A geological meta directory, including tutorials and photographs. Go to: Geology Tutorials. Tutorials and essays ranging from the most basic of geological concepts to postgraduate degree level on all aspects of Earth sciences; palaeontology, sedimentology, igneous and metamorphic petrology and geophysics. The difficulty of the topic is indicated by the number of volcanoes next to the title. See also: Palaeontology Tutorials.

Trevor Hodkinson, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin: Global Change & Evolution. In PDF. Lecture notes.
Recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B. Holgado and M. Suñer (2018): Palaeodiversity and evolution in the Mesozoic world. In PDF, Journal of Iberian Geology, 44: 1–5. See also here.

Thomas R. Holtz, Department of Geology, University of Maryland: Principles of Paleontology. Lecture notes. Navigate from here.

Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum (named for now retired Dr. Ken Hooper, a Carleton University micropaleontologist) Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). The principle objective of this museum is to provide a state-of-the-art summary of items of geological interest, emphasizing areas currently being studied by students and research faculty.
For some special topics you may navigate from here or from there (The archives).
See especially:
! Classification Systems - What´s in a Name?
! Terrestrialization - Who, Why, How, and When.

M.J. Hopkins et al. (2018): The inseparability of sampling and time and its influence on attempts to unify the molecular and fossil records. Free access, Paleobiology, 44: 561–574.
"... Although neither the molecular record nor the fossil record are perfect, the two records bear independent limitations, and what is missing from one is often available in the other. We must deal with the different and sometimes complex relationships between time and sampling to take full advantage of the complementary nature of the two records. ..."

John Horgan, Scientific American: Life, Life Everywhere.

D.M. Hoskins (1999): (illustrations drafted by A.E. Van Olden and J.G. Kuchinski): Common Fossils of Pennsylvania. In PDF, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th ser., Educational Series 2. Education 2001, Leaving the Water. A link directory.

! J. Huang et al. (2021): The oxygen cycle and a habitable Earth. In PDF, Science China Earth Sciences, 64: 511–528. See also here.
! Note figure 1: The status of the oxygen cycle in Earth system science and its relationship with other biogeochemical cycles.
! Figure 2: The evolution of atmospheric O2 and maximum organismal sizes through geological time.
! Figure 3: Sketch of the modern geologic oxygen cycle showing the principal sources and sinks.
! Figure 4: Reconstructed O2 content during the Phanerozoic Eon.
! Figure 5: Global oxygen cycle in the modern Earth system.

Gene Hunt, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution (website hosted by the Paleontological Society, Boulder): Evolutionary Patterns in Fossil Lineages. In PDF, lecture notes, PS Centennial Short Course.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here. (a non-profit making, private website, serving the international academic community):
Open Education Directory.
Open Courseware. Annotated links to publicily-available courseware. See especially to:
Health and Life Sciences,
Earth Sciences.

! Harald Immel, Institut für Paläontologie und Historische Geologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München (Paläontologische Gesellschaft): Literaturempfehlungen zur "Allgemeinen Paläontologie". Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine (version 2009). See also: Literaturempfehlungen zur "Historischen Geologie". Textbook recommendations, in German.

International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO).
The aims of the International Geoscience Education Organisation are to promote geoscience education internationally at all levels.

Kania´s Science Page, Lake Central High School, St. John, IN:
Biology Page. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See for instance:
The History of Life.

D.C. Kendrick, Hobart & Wm Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY:
! Fossils and Their Preservation. See also here.

Kent Geologists´ Group: What Are Microfossils?

S.M. Kidwell (2013): Time-averaging and fidelity of modern death assemblages: building a taphonomic foundation for conservation palaeobiology. Free access, Palaeontology, 56: 487–522.

N.M. Koch and L.A. Parry (2020): Death is on our side: paleontological data drastically modify phylogenetic hypotheses. Open access, Systematic Biology, 69: 1052–1067.

! A.H. Knoll and M.A. Nowak (2017): The timetable of evolution. Free access, Science Advances, 3.
Note fig. 1: The evolutionary timetable, showing the course of evolution as inferred from fossils, environmental proxies, and high-resolution geochronology.

! A.H. Knoll (2013): Systems Paleobiology. In PDF, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 125. About paleobiology and its important role in understanding how the Earth system works.

! A.H. Knoll, Harvard University: Lecture Systems Paleobiology. Videos, Youtube. From Kongsberg Seminar 2012.
See also
Systems paleobiology. Abstract, Geological Society of America Bulletin. See also here (in PDF).

M. Koopman and E. Hoffmann, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI: Temporal Sequences. Powerpoint presentation.

Glen J. Kuban: FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions). Nine articles from an introduction to fossil collecting, e.g. What is a fossil?

H. Richard Lane, Amoco Corporation, Houston, Texas: Paleontology in the 21st Century or Which Way Ought Paleontology Proceed from Here? From PALAIOS, Volume 12.2, April 1997 (via wayback).

Cyril Langlois, ENS de Lyon:
Évolution et crises biologiques. PDF file. Lecture notes, in French.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

J. Laurie et al. (2009): Living Australia (in PDF). Earth history in Australia.

! Michel Laurin (2012): Recent progress in paleontological methods for dating the Tree of Life. In PDF, Frontiers in Genetics, 3.

! K. Lepot (2020): Signatures of early microbial life from the Archean (4 to 2.5 Ga) eon. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 209. See also here.

Reinhold Leinfelder (2009): Palaeontologia Quo Vadis? - Zur Situation und Zukunft der palãontologischen Forschung. PDF file (in German), Berliner paläobiologische Abhandlungen, 10: 229-243.

! T.J. Lepore et al. (2023): The impact of field experiences in paleontology on high school learners. In PDF, Journal of Geoscience Education. DOI: 10.1080/10899995.2023.2175525.
See also here.

Stephen A. Leslie, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock: Paleobiology. Paleobiology lecture notes in brief.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Harold L. Levin, Washington University:
The Earth Through Time, Seventh Edition (provided by Wiley, Higher Education). This textbook provides rich, authoritative coverage of the history of the Earth, offering the most comprehensive history in the discipline today. Some sample chapters: Chapter 1,
! Introduction to Earth History (PDF file). Including geohistorical reflections about Abraham Gottlob Werner, James Hutton, William Smith, Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart, etc.

! Harold L. Levin (2013): The Earth Through Time, 8th Edition, The Student Companion Site. This Web site gives you access to the rich tools and resources. See especially:
Chapter Tutorials.
Web Links.
You can also navigate from here (chapter headings visible).

Sonjia Leyva, College of Natural & Social Sciences, Department of Geosciences and Environment, California State University, Los Angeles:
The Geophile Pages. These pages are designed to help everyone explore the wonders of geology and oceanography. Go to:
Lessons. Lectures presented in classes. You can also navigate from ! here. See for example:
Earth History. Powerpoint presentation.

David Liddell, Department of Geology, Utah State University, Logan: PALEONTOLOGY, and PALEOECOLOGY. Lecture notes in brief.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Jere H. Lipps, University of California, Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, CA: The Decline of Reason? About science and anti-science. See also:
The Future of Paleontology — The Next 10 Years. Palaeontologia Electronica 10, 1; 2007.

Ronald J. Litwin, Robert E. Weems, and Thomas R. Holtz, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver (Maintained by Eastern Publications Group Web Team): Dinosaurs: Facts and Fiction.

! R. Lockwood et al. (2018): Utilizing the Paleobiology Database to Provide Educational Opportunities for Undergraduates. In PDF.
See likewise here. Worth checking out: Chapter 2, starting on PDF page 4,
"How to Use the Paleobiology Database".

J. Louys (2012; ed.): Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation. In PDF, Springer Earth System Sciences, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-25038-5_3, See also here. Note especially:
! Starting on PDF page 1: Chapter 1 Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation: An Introduction (by J. Louys).
! Starting on PDF page 23: Chapter 3 Ecology Needs a Paleontological Perspective (by J.Louys, D.M. Wilkinson, and L.C. Bishop).
! Starting on PDF page 39: Chapter 4 Reconciling Scale in Paleontological and Neontological Data: Dimensions of Time, Space, and Taxonomy (by J.B. Bennington and M.F.J. Aronson).

S. Lucas and A. Hunt (2023): There was no Mesozoic marine revolution. In PDF, Proceedings, 87.
See also here.

L.A. Lukes et al. (2019): Leveraging a large database to increase access to undergraduate research experiences. In PDF, Scholarship and Practice of Undergraduate Research.
"... This article provides a case study of how one such large database, the Paleobiology Database (PBDB), has been leveraged in two ways to support the engagement of students in undergraduate research experiences ..."

H. Mallison (2012): Digitizing Methods for Paleontology: Applications, Benefits and Limitations. In PDF, in: A.M.T. Elewa (ed.), Computational Paleontology, pp 7–43.
See also here.

! Department of Geology, University of Maryland:
A Brief History of Life on Earth.
Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation. From: Barbara W. Murck and Brian J. Skinner, chapter 15: "Geology Today: Understanding Our Planet: Physical Geology Today".

! C.V. McLelland (2008): Nature of Science and the Scientific Method. PDF file, The Geological Society of America.
This article promotes understanding of the nature of science and how the scientific method is used to advance science, focusing in particular on the Earth sciences. It also includes talking points for those who would like help explaining the nature of science to others who have developed misconceptions.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Norman MacLeod, Natural History Museum, London: PalaeoMath. Aspects of quantitative analysis in paleontological contexts. Each essay (from the Palaeontological Association Newsletter since 2004) is written for the novice data analyst, especially those who always wanted to gain knowledge of this subject, but never had the opportunity to do so and haven´t managed to make much progress through self-education. Including some MS Excel spreadsheets providing examples and data.

P.D. Mannion et al. (2014): The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 42–50. See also here.

A.J. McGowan (2011): Biodiversity: more than just how many species. In PDF, Palaeontology Online. See also here.

J.L. McGuire et al. (2023): The past as a lens for biodiversity conservation on a dynamically changing planet. Free access, PNAS, 120.

L. Miao et al. (2024): 1.63-billion-year-old multicellular eukaryotes from the Chuanlinggou Formation in North China Science Advances, 10. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.adk3208. See also here.
! Note figure 8: Overview of early evolution of the Eukarya along with fossil records.
"... we report cellularly preserved multicellular microfossils (Qingshania magnifica) from the ~1635-million-year-old Chuanlinggou Formation, North China. The fossils consist of large uniseriate, unbranched filaments with cell diameters up to 190 micrometers; spheroidal structures, possibly spores, occur within some cells ..."

The University of Michigan: Global Change, Physical Processes:
Global Change 1 Fall 2011 Schedule . Go to:
! The Fossil Record of Lineages and Ecosystems.

D.W. Mogk and C. Goodwin (2012): Learning in the field: Synthesis of research on thinking and learning in the geosciences. In PDF, Geological Society of America Special Papers, 486: 131-163. See also here.

H. Moshinsky (2021): The Future of Fossils: The Evolution of Paleontological Research in the Modern Age. Free access, Thesis, Western Oregon University

! A.D. Muscente et al. (2017): Exceptionally preserved fossil assemblages through geologic time and space. Abstract, Gondwana Research, 48: 164-188. See also here (in PDF).

The Natural History Museum London: Paleobase. An illustrated, relational database of invertebrate fossils for education and research.

S.J. Nelson (1965): Field Methods in Palaeontology. In PDF, Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 13. See also here.

! Karl J. Niklas (2016): Plant Evolution: An Introduction to the History of Life. Book announcement.
Worth checking out: ! Introduction.
See also here (Google books).

! E.G. Nisbet and N.H. Sleep (2001): The habitat and nature of early life. PDF file, Nature, 409.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

W.R. Norris, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM:
The Challenges of Life on Land. Lecture notes, powerpoint presentation. See also here (in PDF).

John Nudds and Paul Selden (2008): Fossils explained 56, Fossil Lagerstätten. PDF file, Geology Today, Vol. 24.

Dennis O´Neil, Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marcos, California: Record of Time.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
An introduction to the nature of fossils and paleoanthropological dating methods.

The Open University , UK (the world´s first successful distance teaching university): The Open University provides high-quality university education to all. Go to: LearningSpace, Life in the Palaeozoic.

! Wolfgang Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: The Evolution of the Atmosphere of our Planet Earth. In PDF. About the the origin of earth and the early atmosphere, the role of biosphere and the carbon-cycle and the atmospheric evolution through time.

W. Oschmann (2006): Evolution und Sterben der Dinosaurier. In PDF, Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 93, 345, 117-143. PDF file, in German.

W. Oschmann et al. (2000): Evolution des Systems Erde: Geobiologische und paläobiologische Prozesse als Antrieb. In German. Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
See also here.

W. Oschmann, Department of Geoscience, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Paläontologie - Eine Zeitreise. Phasen der Evolution des Systems Erde: Es gibt keinen Stillstand (in German).

! W. Oschmann et al.: "PALÄONTOLOGIE IM 21. JAHRHUNDERT": Evolution des Systems Erde: Geobiologische und paläobiologische Prozesse als Antrieb. Palaeontology explained in a nutshell (in German).
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
See also here.

Wolfgang Oschmann, Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut, Frankfurt a.M.: Phasen der Evolution des Systems Erde: Es gibt keinen Stillstand (in German).

! Oxford Bibliographies.
Oxford Bibliographies offers exclusive, authoritative research guides. Combining the best features of an annotated bibliography and a high-level encyclopedia, this cutting-edge resource directs researchers to the best available scholarship across a wide variety of subjects. Go to:
Fossils (by Kevin Boyce).
Paleontology (by René Bobe).
Paleoecology (by Alistair Seddon).

Mass Extinction (by Paul B. Wignall).

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA:
Fossils. Easy to understand lecture notes.
See especially: Fossils. Powerpoint presentation.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

The Palaeontological Association:
! Careers in Palaeontology and Postgraduate Opportunities.
! Current PhD projects in Palaeontology.

Paläontologische Gesellschaft: Was ist eigentlich Paläontologie? What is palaeontology (in German).

The Paläontologische Gesellschaft, Germany: Paläontologie in Schlagworten (in German).
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Palaeontologia Electronica: Fossil Calibration Database (project developed by the Working Group "Synthesizing and Databasing Fossil Calibrations: Divergence Dating and Beyond").
The mission of the Fossil Calibration Database is to provide vetted fossil calibration points that can be used for divergence dating by molecular systematists. The curated collection of well-justified calibrations also promote best practices for justifying fossil calibrations and citing calibrations properly. Raising the Standard in Fossil Calibration! See also:
D.T. Ksepka et al. (2015): The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Resource for Divergence Dating. Abstract, Systematic Biology.

! The Paleobiology Database (PBDB).
PBDB is a public database of paleontological data that anyone can use, maintained by an international non-governmental group of paleontologists. The Paleobiology Database has been supported by many grants over the years, mostly from the National Science Foundation. You may navigate from the
Paleobiology Database Guest Menu or check out the
Frequently Asked Questions. Please also note the detailed and excellent tutorial:
! M.D. Uhen et al. (2023): Paleobiology Database User Guide Version 1.0 Free access, PaleoBios, 40: 1-56. See also here (in PDF).

! The Paleontological Society: Educational Resources.

The Paleontological Society: Future Research Directions in Paleontology. The report of the NSF-funded workshop on Future Research Directions in Paleontology has been published, discussed at the GSA meeting in Denver.

! Paleontology in the 21st Century (An International Senckenberg Conference and Workshop): Reports and Recommendations. In early September 1997, 108 paleontologists and allied individuals from 30 countries met at Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt, Germany. The purpose of the Senckenberg workshop was to initiate and nurture a dialogue concerning the future of palaeontology.
Website now saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Paleontological Research Institution (PRI), Ithaca, NY: (PRI was founded by Gilbert Dennison Harris, 1865-1952):
The Paleontological Research Institution pursues and integrates education and research, and interprets the history and systems of the Earth and its life. Go to:
Conservation Paleobiology. Opportunities for the Earth Sciences. In PDF, Report of an NSF-Funded Workshop, 2011. Table of contents on PDF page 04. Worth checking out:
PDF page 09: "Major Science Themes in Conservation Paleobiology".
PDF page 17: "Frontiers in Conservation Paleobiology".
PDF page 19: "Emerging Opportunities for the Earth Sciences" (i.e. Analysis and Modeling of the Near-time Fossil Record, Scaling and Other Issues for Merging Neo- and Paleobiological Data, etc.).

Jeanne Paquette, Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Note here and there. See especially:
Paleogeography of the Late Paleozoic World
Paleogeography and life of the Late Paleozoic World. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations.

! J.F. Parham et al. (2012): Best Practices for Justifying Fossil Calibrations. In PDF, Syst Biol., 61: 346-359. See also here

Stephen B. Parsons, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA: Historical Geology, Laboratory Solution Sets. Go to:
Life of the Late Paleozoic Era. Powerpoint presentation.

Patzkowsky Paleoecology Lab: Ten Must read Books for Paleontology Graduate Students.

! J.G. Pausas and J.E. Keeley (2009): A burning story: the role of fire in the history of life. PDF file, BioScience, 59: 593-601.

Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University:
Geologic Time Scale. Powerpoint presentation.

College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University.
! The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! K.J. Peterson et al. (2007): Molecular palaeobiology. Free access, Palaeontology, 50: 775-809.

PLOS (The Public Library of Science), San Francisco, California, USA. A nonprofit organization to accelerate progress in science.
! How to Choose the Journal That’s Right for Your Study.
! How to Write a Great Title.
! How to Write an Abstract.
! How to Write Your Methods.
! How to Write Discussions and Conclusions.
! How to Edit Your Work.
! 10 Tips for Getting Started as a Peer Reviewer.
! How to Read a Manuscript as a Peer Reviewer
! How to Write a Peer Review.

! D.R. Prothero (2013): Bringing fossils to life: An introduction to paleobiology. Some chapters, provided by Google books. Look here for the table of contents.
Don´t miss the book review by Catherine Badgley
and by David Penney, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58 (in PDF).
A further chapter is also available online:
The Truth About Transitional Fossils.

! William K. Purves, David Sadava, Gordon H. Orians, and H. Craig Heller Life, The Science of Biology (Seventh Edition). The Companion Site. Interactive summaries, the glossary, animated tutorials and lots of flahcards (review figures). Go to: Chapter 22: The History of Life in Earth. study tools:
! Search for Palaeontology.

I.A. Rahman et al. (2012): Virtual Fossils: a New Resource for Science Communication in Paleontology. In PDF, Evolution: Education and Outreach, 5: 635–641.

Hugh Rance, City University of New York: The Present is the Key to the Past.
An electronic, college level, introductory historical geology textbook. See likewise here.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Michael Rasser, Austrian Palaeontological Society: Introduction to Palaeontology. In German. See especially:
! Die Palâoökologie.

Regressive Palaeontology (a weekly discussion group covering a broad range of palaeontological topics), Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: Paper(s) Discussed. A link list.

M. Romano (2015): Reviewing the term uniformitarianism in modern Earth sciences. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 148: 65–76.
See likewise here.

P.D. Roopnarine (2009): Ecological modeling of paleocommunity food webs.
In: Conservation Paleobiology: Using the Past to Manage for the Future, Paleontological Society Short Course, October 17th, 2009. The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 15, Gregory P. Dietl and Karl W. Flessa (eds.).

Valentí Rull (2010): Ecology and Palaeoecology: Two Approaches, One Objective. PDF file, The Open Ecology Journal, 3: 1-5.

M.J.S. Rudwick (2018): Functional Morphology in Paleobiology: Origins of the Method of ‘Paradigms’. Open access, Journal of the History of Biology, 51: 135–178.

M.J.S. Rudwick (2018): The Fate of the Method of ‘Paradigms’ in Paleobiology. Open access, Journal of the History of Biology, 51: 479–533.

J. Rust (2007): Die Bedeutung von Fossilien für phylogenetische Rekonstruktionen. In German (PDF file). Go to PDF page 75. In: Species, Phylogeny and Evolution, Phylogenetisches Symposium Göttingen.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H.M. Sachs et al. (1977): Paleoecological transfer functions. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 5. See also here (abstract).

J.D. Schiffbauer and M. LaFlamme (2012): Lagerstätten through time: A collection of exceptional preservational pathway from the terminal Neoproterozoic through today. In PDF, Palaios.
See also here.

Sabine Schmidt, Gravity Research Group, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany: Die Erde (in German).
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Geology, Evolution upset: Oxygen-making microbes came last, not first.

Scholastic Science World: Fossils. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations.

R.B. Schultz, Department of Geography and Geosciences, Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, IL: Geologic Time and Earth History. Powerpoint presentation.

! M.H. Schweitzer (2023): Paleontology in the 21st Century. Free access, Biology, 12, 487. https://

Michon Scott: Strange Science. Curious missteps in biology and paleontology are featured here. This Web site also provides a timeline of events, gives biographies of a few of the people who have gotten us where we are today, and show a bibliography you can use to learn more. Visit the Goof Gallery.

Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Paleoenvironment of Utah: Fading the Mists of Time. Powerpoint presentation.

! A.W.R. Seddon et al. (2014): Looking forward through the past: identification of 50 priority research questions in palaeoecology. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 102: 256-267. See also here.

! A. Seilacher et al. (1985): Sedimentological, ecological and temporal patterns of fossil Lagerstätten. In PDF, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, Biological sciences, 311: 5-23.
! See also here.

! P.A. Selden (2016): Land Animals, Origins of. In PDF. In: Kliman, R. M. (ed.): Encyclopedia of evolutionary biology. Volume 2: 288-295. Oxford, Academic Press.
About the colonization of the land habitat from the sea by plants and animals.

D. Sepkoski (2009): The Emergence of Paleobiology. In PDF, In: Sepkoski, D. and Ruse, M. (eds.): The Paleobiological Revolution: Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleontology (University of Chicago Press).
See also here (Google books).

D. Sepkoski and M. Ruse (2009): Introduction: Paleontology at the High Table. In PDF, starting on PDF-page 14. In: Sepkoski, D. and Ruse, M. (eds.): The Paleobiological Revolution: Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleontology (University of Chicago Press). See also here.

Hartmut Seyfried & Reinhold Leinfelder: Meeresspiegelschwankungen - Ursachen, Folgen, Wechselwirkungen (in German).

J.O. Shaw et al. (2021): Disentangling ecological and taphonomic signals in ancient food webs. Free access, Paleobiology, 47: 85–401.

Roy Shepherd, Discovery Fossils, UK: What is a fossil? Easy to understand introduction.

D. Silvestro et al. (2016): Fossil biogeography: a new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from palaeontological data. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B, 371. See also here.

South Carolina Geological Survey.
Education and Outreach. Downloadable Earth Science Education presentations, posters, and handouts. Go to:
Geologic Time and Earth’s Biological History. Powerpoint presentation. Also available in PDF. NASA's astrobiology home page. For instance: Life in Extreme Environments.

Nancy E. Spaulding & Samuel N. Namowitz (McDougal Littell): Exploring Earth. The investigations and visualizations on this site were designed to accompany Earth Science, a high school textbook. The Web site was developed by TERC, a non-profit educational research and development firm in collaboration with McDougal Littell. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation. Go to: Studying the Past, and Views od Earth´s Past.

Alycia L. Stigall, Department of Geological Sciences and OHIO Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies (website hosted by the Paleontological Society, Boulder): Tracking Species in Space and Time: Assessing the relationships between paleobiogeography, paleoecology, and macroevolution. In PDF, lecture notes, PS Centennial Short Course. See also here.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

V. Storch et al. (2001): Entfaltung der Organismen in der Erdgeschichte. PDF file, In German. In: Evolutionsbiologie, pp 61–181. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
See likewise here.

! STRATA (provided by SEPM, the Society for Sedimentary Geology).
This open access site is dedicated to helping people understand sedimentary geology, from the basics to the detailed. Excellent! Go to:
! Sedimentology and stratigraphy of Rocks and Sediments.
Don't miss the webpage ! Carbonate Thin Sections.
Very useful: Carbonate and Petrology Links, and helpful links.

Paul K. Strother, Palaeobotany Laboratory, Weston Observatory, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Boston College, Weston, Massachusetts:
Origin and Evolution of Life on Planet Earth.
This is an introductory science course using the scientific study of the origins of life as a central point from which to examine science as a process. The interdisciplinary curriculum touches on biology, biochemistry, geology, palaeontology and a bit of physics and astronomy.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Roger Summons and Tanja Bosak, MIT Opencourseware, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Geobiology. An introduction about the parallel evolution of life and the environment. Life processes are influenced by chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and the solid earth. In turn, life can influence chemical and physical processes on our planet. This course explores the concept of life as a geological agent and examines the interaction between biology and the earth system during the roughly 4 billion years since life first appeared. Go to:
Lecture Notes. See especially: Theories Pertaining to the Origin of Life. In PDF.

M. Tamborini (2022): A Plea for a New Synthesis: From Twentieth-Century Paleobiology to Twenty-First-Century Paleontology and Back Again. Free access, Biology, 11:

! Teaching Paleontology in the 21st Century. On the Cutting Edge - Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty. Browse Paleontology Courses.

! R.C. Terry (2009): Palaeoecology: Methods. Abstract. See also here (in PDF), and there.

J.C. Thackray et al. (1990): History of Palaeontology. (in PDF). In: D.E.G. Briggs and P.R. Crowther: Palaeobiology, a Synthesis.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Ellen Thomas, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University: Macroevolution. Lecture notes. Please, navigate from here. Worth checking out: Assignment: Plants (via wayback).

Greg Thorn, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, Canada:
! Evolution of Plants . Lecture notes, e.g.:
Evolution of the Angiosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

Bruce H. Tiffney, UC Santa Barbara: What is Science? Tracking the course of evolution.

Kenneth J. Tobin, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas:
EPSC 1370 - Survey of Earth Science Lecture. Go to: Overview of Earth’s History.
Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

Sean Tvelia, Suffolk County Community College, Selden, NY: This Old Earth. Go to: Paleontology (in PDF).

U.S. Geological Survey:
USGS frequently asked questions, Popular FAQs. See especially:

G.J. Vermeij (2015): Paleophysiology: From Fossils to the Future. Trends in ecology & evolution.

J.W.F. Waldron et al. (2016): Building an Outdoor Classroom for Field Geology: The Geoscience Garden. In PDF, Journal of Geoscience Education, 64: 215-230.
See also here.

Helmut Weissert Geologie, ETH Zürich: Evolution der Biosphäre. Bilder aus der Erdgeschichte. PDF file, in German.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Roger M. Wells Jr. et al., Department of Geology, SUNY Cortland, Cortland, NY:
The Invertebrate Paleontology Tutorial Web Site. Lecture notes.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada: Lecture Resources. Go to:
Fossils and their preservation.

! Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: High School Earth Science.
Contributed by John Benner et al. Worth checking out:
Evidence About Earth´s Past.
Earth´s History.

Wikibooks, an open content textbooks collection that anyone can edit:
History and Origin of Life.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
List of years in paleontology. These entries cover events related to the study of paleontology which occurred in the listed year. Go to:
! 2017 in paleontology. Excellent!

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Category:Paleontology.
Paläontologie (in German).
Paläobiologie (in German).
! Kategorie:Paläontologie (in German).
Category:History of paleontology.
Category:Paleontology timelines.
Kategorie:Geschichte der Paläontologie (in German).
Origin of life.
History of paleontology. See especially: Paleobotany and the origin of the word paleontology.
Kategorie:Paläobotanik in German).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Paleontological sites.
List of fossil sites.
! Lagerstätte.
Category:Crato Formation.
Rhynie chert.
Joggins Formation.
Mazon Creek fossil beds.
Green River Formation.
London Clay.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (in German):
Kategorie:Fossillagerstätte in Deutschland.
Grube Messel.
Fossillagerstätte Rott.
Fossillagerstätte Geiseltal.

Wikiversity: This is a Wikimedia Foundation project devoted to learning resources, learning projects, and research for use in all levels, types, and styles of education from pre-school to university. Go to:
Paleontology/External Resources.
Courses and Degrees.
! Paleontology resources.

! Wikiversity: This is a Wikimedia Foundation project devoted to learning resources, learning projects, and research for use in all levels, types, and styles of education from pre-school to university. Go to:
! Paleontology resources. Lecture notes.
Go to: Learning Projects Undergraduate.
! Lesson 1: Introduction to Palaeontology.
! Lesson 2: Evolution of the Universe down to biological evolution.
! Lesson 3: Life structures and anatomy.
! Lesson 4: The planet Earth, its physical environment and resources.

D.M. Wilkinson (2012): Paleontology and Ecology: Their Common Origins and Later Split. In PDF.
In: J. Louys (ed.): Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation.
See also here (in PDF, slow download, 277 pages) and there.

O. Wings et al. (2022): Paleontology-themed comics and graphic novels, their potential for scientific outreach, and the bilingual graphic novel EUROPASAURUS – Life on Jurassic Islands. In PDF, Geosci. Commun., 6: 45–74.
See also here, and there.
"... an overview of influential comics and graphic novels on paleontological themes from the last twelve decades ..."

Ewan Wolff, Montana State University Geoscience Education Web Development Team: Advances in Paleontology.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History:
! Earth Timeline. Powerpoint presentation.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, CT: Image Gallery. This gallery presents images of fossils from the research collections in the Division of Invertebrate Paleontology. You may also navigate from a list of Lagerstätten (Mistaken Point, Elmo, Burgess Shale, Florissant, Solnhofen, Mazon Creek, etc).

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated June 05, 2024

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