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Teaching Documents about Palaeobotany
Palaeobotanical Maps
Teaching Documents about Palynology and Palynofacies
What is Palaeontology or Palaeobiology?
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology
Teaching Documents about Ichnology
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy
Teaching Documents about Plant Anatomy
Teaching Documents about Wood Anatomy and Tree-Ring Research
Teaching Documents about Botany
Teaching Documents about Biology
Teaching Documents about Evolution
Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction
Teaching Documents about Classification and Nomenclature
Teaching Documents about Cladistics and Phylogeny
Teaching Documents about Palaeogeography
Teaching Documents about Palaeoclimate
Teaching Documents about Stratigraphy and Historical Geology
Teaching Documents about Geochronological Methods
Introductions to Statistics
Meta Indexes of Online Education
Virtual Field Trips
! Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment@
! Wildfire and Present Day Fire Ecology@
Playa Lakes@
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction@
Focused on Palaeoclimate@
! Stomatal Density@
Tree-Ring Research (Dendrochronology)@
Plant Photographs@
Picture Search@
! Trees@

Teaching Documents about Ecology

! Lorna Ash & Brett Poulin, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Introductory Biology. Go to: The Carbon Cycle, The Nitrogen Cycle. Online and downloadable flash movies. Excellent!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Teresa Audesirk et al. (2008), Biology: Life on Earth: Population Growth and Regulation. In PDF.

! J.B. Bennington et al. (2009): Critical issues of scale in paleoecology. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 1-4.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

! Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley: The world's biomes. This is an introduction to the major biomes on Earth.

! BioDeepTime:
This project seeks to address one of the central challenges in biodiversity science by compiling and harmonizing ecological time series from modern and fossil sources to investigate how biological dynamics and drivers vary across timescales ranging from months to millions of years. Note likewise here.
Please take notice:
! J. Smith et al. (2023): BioDeepTime: A database of biodiversity time series for modern and fossil assemblages. Open access, Global Ecol Biogeogr.
Note table 1: Approximate temporal grain (the amount of time represented in a sample) for time series, number of time series and number of samples from source databases included in BioDeepTime.
"... The BioDeepTime database enables integrated biodiversity analyses across a far greater range of temporal scales than has previously been possible. It can be used to provide critical insights into how natural systems will respond to ongoing and future environmental changes as well as new opportunities for theoretical insights into the temporal scaling of biodiversity dynamics ..."

Paul Billiet, The Open Door Web Site: Ecology. Powerpoint presentation.
See also here.
! Die Ökologie.
Lecture notes, in German.

H.J.B. Birks, Department of Biological Sciences and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Norway:
ECOLOGY, Communities and Ecosystems. Lecture note, Powerpoint presentation.
! See also here.

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Ecological Concepts. Lecture notes and Power Point presentations.
See especially: Wetland Plants and Ecology. In PDF.

British Ecological Society. Their mission is to generate, communicate and promote ecological knowledge and solutions. Go to: Learning resources.

! Derek Briggs and Peter Crowther (eds.), Earth Pages, Blackwell Publishing: Paleobiology: A Synthesis (PDF files). Series of concise articles from over 150 leading authorities from around the world. Navigate from the content file. There are no restrictions on downloading this material. Excellent! Worth checking out:
Part 4. Palaeoecology, Pages 305-414.
Go to:
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Sallie Chisholm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT Open Courseware): Fundamentals of Ecology Slides and handouts (PDF files). Excellent!

Citable reviews in the life sciences (Wiley). Go to:

! F.L. Condamine et al. (2013): Macroevolutionary perspectives to environmental change. In PDF, Ecology letters.

! Edward DeLong and Penny Chisholm (2009): Ecology I: The Earth System. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Go to Lecture notes (in PDF).

Kevin J. Devito, University of Alberta: Wetland Ecology and Management. Lecture notes and readings for anyone interested in water management issues.

S. Díaz and Y. Malhi (2022): Biodiversity: Concepts, patterns, trends, and perspectives. Free access, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 47: 31-63.

G.P. Dietl and K.W. Flessa (2011): Conservation paleobiology: putting the dead to work. In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26.
See likewise here.
"... Conservation paleobiology is a relatively new, synthetic field of research that applies the theories and analytical tools of paleontology to the solution of problems concerning the conservation of biodiversity ..."

! W.A. DiMichele and R.A. Gastaldo (2008): Plant Paleoecology in Deep Time. PDF file, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 95: 144-198. See also here (abstract).

Steven Goldsmith, Austin College, Sherman, TX:
Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. and Systematics. For a fundamental understanding of the conceptual framework that biologists use to make sense of the complexity and diversity of organisms. Note e.g.:
Phylogeny. Powerpoint presentation.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:

! D.A. Fordham et al. (2020): Using paleo-archives to safeguard biodiversity under climate change. In PDF, Science, 369.
See likewise here.
"... Fordham et al. review when and where rapid climate transitions can be found in the paleoclimate record
[...] They also highlight how recent developments at the intersection of paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and macroecology can provide opportunities to anticipate and manage the responses of species and ecosystems to changing climates in the Anthropocene ..."

Gujarat Technological University Library, Chandkheda, Ahmedabad, India:
Environments and Life. Powerpoint presentation.

Scott A. Heckathorn, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA:
Biodiversity lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See especially:
An Introduction to Ecology and The Biosphere.
Community Ecology.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Steven Goldsmith, Austin College, Sherman, TX:
Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. and Systematics. For a fundamental understanding of the conceptual framework that biologists use to make sense of the complexity and diversity of organisms. Note e.g.:
! Biomes. Powerpoint presentation.

Google directory:
! Science > Biology > Ecology.
Science > Biology > Ecology > Education.
Link directories, with ratings (Google page rank).
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! S.F. Greb et al. (2022): Prehistoric Wetlands. PDF file, p. 23-32. In: T. Mehner and K. Tockner (eds.): Encyclopedia of Inland Waters.
! Note figure 3: Wetlands through time (data are based on flora and fauna). Highlights in the evolution of wetlands.

! David R. Greenwood, Environmental Science Program, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada: Fossil plants as environmental indicators. Lecture note, PDF file (3.6 MB). Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J. Huang et al. (2021): The oxygen cycle and a habitable Earth. In PDF, Science China Earth Sciences, 64: 511–528. See also here.
! Note figure 1: The status of the oxygen cycle in Earth system science and its relationship with other biogeochemical cycles.
! Figure 2: The evolution of atmospheric O2 and maximum organismal sizes through geological time.
! Figure 3: Sketch of the modern geologic oxygen cycle showing the principal sources and sinks.
! Figure 4: Reconstructed O2 content during the Phanerozoic Eon.
! Figure 5: Global oxygen cycle in the modern Earth system.

Dafeng Hui, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Life & Physical Sciences, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN:
Biol 4120 Principles of Ecology. Go to: Recap: Ecological Succession. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations.

D. Jablonski and S.M. Edie (2023): Perfect storms shape biodiversity in time and space. Free access, Evolutionary Journal of the Linnean Society, 2.
"... Many of the most dramatic patterns in biological diversity are created by “Perfect Storms” —rare combinations of mutually reinforcing factors that push origination, extinction, or diversity accommodation to extremes. These patterns include the strongest diversification events [...] This approach necessarily weighs contributing factors, identifying their often non-linear and time-dependent interactions ..."

! J.B.C. Jackson and D.H. Erwin (2006): What can we learn about ecology and evolution from the fossil record? PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
See also here.

Kania´s Science Page, Lake Central High School, St. John, IN:
Biology Page. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See for instance:
Ecology Introduction.

Gregory A. Keoleian, School of Natural Resources and Environment, Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan: Ecological Processes: The Planet´s Life Support System. Powerpoint presentation.

! Kerry S. Kilburn, Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University: Principles of Ecology, Notes and Links.
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C. King (2022):
Exploring Geoscience across the globe. In PDF (42 MB), Excellent!
Provided by The International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO). Chapters that may be of interest:
Chapter 3.2 (starting on pdf-page 30): e.g. Relative dating, Absolute dating.
Chapter (starting on pdf-page 56): e.g. Sedimentary processes.
Chapter 4.3 (starting on pdf-page 115): e.g. Atmospheric change.
Chapter 4.4.1 (starting on pdf-page 122): e.g. Evolution.

Dana Krempels, Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL: Evolution and Biodiversity. Lecture Notes.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Kylen Lee, EconGuru Textbooks (?): Fundamentals of Ecology. A brief investigation into the economy of nature.

University of London External System, London, UK (This is is a division of the University of London that grants external degrees: Study in Economics, Management, Finance and Social Sciences (EMFSS), Biogeography. Go to: Chapter 3: Patterns in space. This PDF file reviews the various approaches that have been used to characterise the spatial patterns of plants and animals on the terrestrial land surface.

J. Louys (2012; ed.): Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation. In PDF, Springer Earth System Sciences, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-25038-5_3, See also here. Note especially:
! Starting on PDF page 1: Chapter 1 Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation: An Introduction (by J. Louys).
! Starting on PDF page 23: Chapter 3 Ecology Needs a Paleontological Perspective (by J.Louys, D.M. Wilkinson, and L.C. Bishop).
! Starting on PDF page 39: Chapter 4 Reconciling Scale in Paleontological and Neontological Data: Dimensions of Time, Space, and Taxonomy (by J.B. Bennington and M.F.J. Aronson).

Maps101: Terrestrial biomes. PDF file.

! Department of Geology, University of Maryland:
A Brief History of Life on Earth.
Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation. From: Barbara W. Murck and Brian J. Skinner, chapter 15: "Geology Today: Understanding Our Planet: Physical Geology Today".

Brian C. McCarthy, Dept. Env. & Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Plant Community Ecology. Lecture notes.

K. McGarigal (2001): Landscape Ecology. In PDF.

J.L. McGuire et al. (2023): The past as a lens for biodiversity conservation on a dynamically changing planet. Free access, PNAS, 120.

Jacqueline S. McLaughlin and Stam M. Zervanos, Pennsylvania State University: Biodiversity of World Biomes. Powerpoint presentation.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Alan Molumby, University of Illinois at Chicago: Biology of Populations and Communities. Lecture notes. Go to: Ecosystems And Global Ecology. Powerpoint presentation.

National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), Warrenton, VA.
Recommended Resources.
NABT has created a searchable table of online Peer-Recommended Resources. You can filter by category and audience to get just what you need when you need it. Note escecially:
! Evolution.
! Ecology/Environment.
! General Biology.

Dennis W. Nyberg, University of Illinois at Chicago: Biology of Populations and Communities. Lecture notes. Navigate from EXAM 1, 2, or 3 Material (chiefly PDF files). Go to: Ecological Restoration.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! The Paleobiology Database (PBDB).
PBDB is a public database of paleontological data that anyone can use, maintained by an international non-governmental group of paleontologists. The Paleobiology Database has been supported by many grants over the years, mostly from the National Science Foundation. You may navigate from the
Paleobiology Database Guest Menu or check out the
Frequently Asked Questions. Please also note the detailed and excellent tutorial:
! M.D. Uhen et al. (2023): Paleobiology Database User Guide Version 1.0 Free access, PaleoBios, 40: 1-56. See also here (in PDF).

Philadelphia University Jordan, Amman: Ecology, what is it?, Ecology, and Ecosystems. Powerpoint presentations. See also here, scroll down to: "Ecology Powerpoints".

Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to:
The Universe, Earth, Natural Spheres, and Gaia,
Introduction to the Biosphere,
Introduction to the Atmosphere, and
Introduction to the Hydrosphere.
Easy to understand information. study tools:
! Search for Ecology.

! Peter H. Raven and Paul H. Zedler: Chapter 31: The Dynamics of Communities and Ecosystems and Chapter 32: Global Ecology (PDF files). Chapters thoroughly updated for the seventh edition of "Biology of Plants", Peter H. Raven et al. (2005).
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Román-Palacios et al. (2022): The origins of global biodiversity on land, sea and freshwater. In PDF, Ecology letters, 25: 1376-1386.
See also here.
"... Most plant and animal species are terrestrial, although these habitats cover only ~28% of Earth's surface.
[...] Freshwater habitats have relatively high richness and exceptional phylogenetic diversity given their tiny area (2%). ..."
[...] most marine species are descended from marine ancestors and most terrestrial species from freshwater ancestors. ..."

P.D. Roopnarine (2009): Ecological modeling of paleocommunity food webs.
In: Conservation Paleobiology: Using the Past to Manage for the Future, Paleontological Society Short Course, October 17th, 2009. The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 15, Gregory P. Dietl and Karl W. Flessa (eds.).

George Sly, Union High School, Dugger, Indiana (Classrooms of the 21th Century):
Teaching Tropical Rainforest Biology.
Archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware.
Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT. No registration required. Go to:
John Southard: Special Topics in Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences: The Environment of the Earth´s Surface. PDF files.
The course combines aspects of geology, climatology, hydrology, and soil science to present a coherent introduction to the surface of the Earth.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine. NASA's astrobiology home page. For instance: Life in Extreme Environments.

Larry T. Spencer, Plymouth State College, Plymouth, NH: History of Ecology. Including an annotated bibliography.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! W. Steffen et al, (2020): The emergence and evolution of Earth System Science. In PDF, Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 1: 54–63.
See also here. "... ESS [Earth System Science] has produced new concepts and frameworks central to the global-change discourse, including the Anthropocene, tipping elements and planetary boundaries. Moving forward, the grand challenge for ESS is to achieve a deep integration of biophysical processes and human dynamics to build a truly unified understanding of the Earth System ..."

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE). This is a project of the Education and Human Resources Committee of the Ecological Society of America. See also:
TIEE TEACHING ISSUES AND EXPERIMENTS IN ECOLOGY. A peer reviewed publication of ecological educational materials by the Ecological Society of America.

Bill Tietjen, Bellarmine College: Ecology Biology 408. Go to: Ecology Labs. Lecture notes and links to related materials.

Tinu Thakore´s Site, Herricks High School, New Hyde Park, NY: Living Environment Course Resources. Powerpoint and PDF files, e.g.
What is Science.

! Topics For Seminar.
Topics For Seminar PPT's contents and Seminar Reports are collected from various public domains available free on the internet.
! Biology Topics for Presentation & Research.
100+ Interesting Biology Presentation Topics with PPT. TutorVista provides online tutoring to students across the world. Go to:

School of Integrative Biology, School of Molecular & Cellular Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign: Life Sciences.
Courses with web-based info (lecture notes, exams, quizzes, links, lab exercises): life sciences, biophysics, cell and structural biology, cell and structural biology, ecology, ethology and evolution, entomology, microbiology, molecular and integrative physiology, plant biology.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Amy Wesselman, Owen County High School, East Owenton, KY: Terrestrial Ecology Notes. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: High School Earth Science.
Contributed by John Benner et al. Worth checking out:
<Ecosystems and Human Populations.

! Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection: Ecology. Contributed by Eric Guinther et al.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Ecology.
! Category:Ecology.
! Category:Ecology terminology.

D.M. Wilkinson (2012): Paleontology and Ecology: Their Common Origins and Later Split. In PDF.
In: J. Louys (ed.): Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation.
See also here (in PDF, slow download, 277 pages) and there.

Mark W. Williams, Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder: GAIA lecture notes. Powerpoint presentation.
See also here and there.

James D. Wright, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ:
Environments and Life. Powerpont presentation.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

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