Ecology & Palaeoenvironment /
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
! Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
! Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record@
! Insect Evolution@
Teaching Documents about Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
! Sina Adl et al. (2010): Reconstructing the soil food web of a 100 million-year-old forest: The case of the mid-Cretaceous fossils in the amber of Charentes (SW France). PDF file, Soil Biology & Biochemistry.
B. Adroit et al. (2018):
interactions patterns in three European paleoforests of the
late-Neogene—early-Quaternary. Open access,
PeerJ, 6:e5075. See also
"... our results tend to support that the hydric seasonality and the mean temperature of the coolest months could be potential factors influencing fossil plant–insect interactions".
A.A. Agrawa (2007): Macroevolution of plant defense strategies. PDF file, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.
Richard Alley, Pennsylvania State University: Living on Earth I: Evolution & Extinction, Geology of the National Parks. Powerpoint presentation. See the animal/plant interaction on sheet 16!
Anto Anu et al. (2009): Seasonality of litter insects and relationship with rainfall in a wet evergreen forest in south Western Ghats. PDF file, Journal of Insect Science, 9. Now via Way back machine.
AScribe (press release), USA: 96-Million-Year-Old Fossil Pollen Sheds Light on Early Pollinators.
M.P. Ayres, T.P. Clausen, S.F. MacLean, A.M. Redman, and P.B. Reichardt (1997): Diversity of structure and antiherbivore activity in condensed tannins. PDF file, Ecology 78: 1696-1712.
! L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Dept. Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: History of Biotic Pollination. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
E.S. Bakker et al. (2016): Combining paleo-data and modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of megafauna extinctions on woody vegetation. PNAS, 113: 847-855.
P.M. Barrett (2014): Paleobiology of herbivorous dinosaurs. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.
D. Barthelt-Ludwig et al. (2004): Rätsel im Stein – Auf paläontologischer Spurensuche. PDF file, in German.
! J. Bascompte and P. Jordano (2007): Plant-animal mutualistic networks: the architecture of biodiversity. In Word doc, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. See also here (abstract).A.L. Beck and C.C. Labandeira (1998): Early Permian insect folivory on a gigantopterid-dominated riparian flora from north-central Texas. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 142: 139-173. See also here.
Roy J. Beckemeyer, Wichita: Fossil Insects. Permian fossil insects from Elmo, Kansas, and Midco, Oklahoma.
! J.L. Blois et al. (2013) Climate Change and the Past, Present, and Future of Biotic Interactions. In PDF, Science 341.
Helen Briggs, BBC News Online: Oldest hamster food store found. A hoard of nuts (Miocene in age) discovered in an open-cast mine near Garzweiler (Germany).
N. Brocklehurst et al. (2020):
origin of tetrapod
herbivory: effects on local plant diversity. Free access,
Proc. R. Soc. B 287: 20200124.
"... findings suggest that plant richness was to some extent structured by vertebrate herbivory from its earliest origins more than 300 Mya. Studies of modern ecosystems suggest that this should be the case, ..."
C.M. Brown et al. (2020): Dietary palaeoecology of an Early Cretaceous armoured dinosaur (Ornithischia; Nodosauridae) based on floral analysis of stomach contents. Open access, R. Soc. Open Sci., 7: 200305.
! Mark C. Brundrett (2002): Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. PDF file, New Phytologist, 154: 275-304.
R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. PDF file, Journal of Evolutionary Biol., 22: 446-459. See also here (abstract).
! R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Testing co-evolutionary hypotheses over geological timescales: interactions between Mesozoic non-avian dinosaurs and cycads. PDF file, Biol. Rev., 84: 73-89. See also here (abstract).
R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. PDF file.
C. Cai et al. (2018): Beetle Pollination of Cycads in the Mesozoic. Abstract, Current Bialogy, 28: 2806-2812. See also here and there.
William Cannon, Smithsonian magazine: Stories in Stone Read From Ancient Leaves. A Smithsonian scientist studies the relationship between Eocene insects and the plants they ate.
S.C. Cappellari et al. (2013): Evolution: Pollen or Pollinators — Which Came First? Open access, Current Biology, 23.
B. Cariglino (2018): Patterns of insect-mediated damage in a Permian Glossopteris flora from Patagonia (Argentina) Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 507: 39-51. See also here.
S.W. Carmichael (2019): Did Beetles Pollinate Ancient Plants? A review. Free access, MicroscopyToday, 27: 8-11
J.A. Caruso et al. (2012): Microconchid encrusters colonizing land plants: the earliest North American record from the Early Devonian of Wyoming, USA. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 490-494.
R. Cenci and K. Adami-Rodrigues (2017):
of gall abundance as a possible episode of radiation and speciation of
galling insects, Triassic, Southern Brazil. In PDF,
Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 20: 279-286.
See also here and there.
P. Cennamo et al. (2014): Epiphytic Diatom Communities on Sub-Fossil Leaves of Posidonia oceanica Delile in the Graeco-Roman Harbor of Neapolis: A Tool to Explore the Past. In PDF, American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: 549-553.
W.G. Chaloner et al. (1991): Fossil Evidence for Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. PDF file, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 333: 177-186. See also here.
A. Chaudhary et al. (2018): Plant defenses against herbivorous insects: A Review. In PDF, International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6: 681-688. See also here.
Karen Chin (Nature 451, 1053;2008): Pest friends in the Cretaceous. Fossils preserved in amber hint at surprising links between dinosaurs and their insect contemporaries. Book review: What Bugged the Dinosaurs? Insects, Disease, and Death in the Cretaceous; by George Poinar, Jr & Roberta Poinar, Princeton University Press, 2008. 296 pp.
L. Chittka et al. (1999): Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution. In PDF.
Fred Clouter, Lower Eocene Fossils of the Isle of Sheppey: Fossil Trees & Logs. Teredo borings.
P.D. Coley (1999): Hungry herbivores seek a warmer world. PDF file.
! M.E. Collinson and J.J. Hooker (1991): Fossil Evidence of Interactions between Plants and Plant-Eating Mammals. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 333: 197-208.
P. Correia et al. (2020):
History of Herbivory on Sphenophytes: A New Calamitalean with an Insect Gall from the Upper
Pennsylvanian of Portugal and a Review of Arthropod Herbivory on an Ancient Lineage. In PDF,
Int. J. Plant Sci., 181. See also
Please take notice of fig. 3: Interpretative-view drawing of Annularia paisii sp. nov. and Paleogallus carpannularites ichnosp. nov.
Fig. 4: Reconstruction of the parasitic relationship between the insect-induced gall Paleogallus carpannularites ichnosp. nov. and its calamitalean host plant.
Paleobotanical Holdings at the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium at Cornell University, Dept. Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: History of Biotic Pollination. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Studying Evolution. Mini-essays and sub-sections concerning evolution. See: Coevolution: Plants and Pollinators.
P.R. Crane and A.B. Leslie (2013):
Events in the Evolution of Land Plants. In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution.
1. Phylogenetic framework.
2. Origin and diversification of land plants.
3. Origin and diversification of vascular plants.
4. Origin and diversification of seed plants.
5. Origin and diversification of flowering plants.
6. Innovation in the land plant body.
7. Innovation in land plant reproduction.
8. Co-evolution with animals.
9. Patterns of extinction.
See also here, and there (Google books).
E.D. Currano (2010): Green food through time. Abstract, Palaios, 25: 547-549.
E.D. Currano et al. (2008): Sharply increased insect herbivory during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. Free access, PNAS, 105: 1960-1964.
K. De Baets and D.T.J. Littlewood (2015): The Importance of Fossils in Understanding the Evolution of Parasites and Their Vectors. Advances in Parasitology, 90: 1–51. ! See also here (in PDF).
DEEMY Characterization and DEtermination of EctoMYcorrhizae (by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Dept. Biologie I - Systematische Mykologie). DEEMY is a research database (including images) for identifying and characterizing ectomycorrhizae fungus-plant interactions.
W. de Haan (2020): Pollination: Cooperation or Arms Race? An analysis of competition in biotic pollination. In PDF, Bachelor thesis.
Q. Ding et al. (2014): Biology of a leaf miner (Coleoptera) on Liaoningocladus boii (Coniferales) from the Early Cretaceous of northeastern China and the leaf-mining biology of possible insect culprit clades. In PDF, Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 72: 281-308.
M.P. Donovan et al. (2020): Persistent biotic interactions of a Gondwanan conifer from Cretaceous Patagonia to modern Malesia. In PDF, Communications Biology, 3.
Dong Ren, National Geological Museum of China, Beijing: Flower-Associated Brachycera Flies as Fossil Evidence for Jurassic Angiosperm Origins.
J.A. Dunlop and R.J. Garwood (2017): Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373: 20160493.
L.A. Dyer and D.K. Letourneau (2003):
Top-down and bottom-up diversity
cascades in detrital versus living food webs.
PDF file, Ecology Letters 6:60-68.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G. Edirisooriya and H.A. Dharmagunawardhane (2013): Plant Insect-Interactions in Jurassic Fossil Flora from Sri Lanka. In PDF, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3.
! The EDNA fossil insect database (named after Edna Clifford): EDNA aims to be a complete, fully interactive list of all the species of insect named from the fossil record, including site, geological age and reference for each holotype. Read the Help Searching for better search results.
! D. Edwards et al. (2020): Further evidence for fungivory in the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian) of the Welsh Borderland, UK. Open access, PalZ, 94: 603–618.
Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham,
Surrey, UK: Research activities,
Animal -plant interactions.
EnchantedLearning.com: DINOSAURS AND PLANTS. An easy to understand introduction about the food chain of sauropods and Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous plants.
Neal L. Evenhuis, Department of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii: Catalogue of the fossil flies of the world (Insecta: Diptera).
Michael J. Everhart, Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University: OCEANS OF KANSAS - A Natural History of the Western Interior Sea (Indiana University Press, 2005), Shipworm borings (teredo) in wood.
C.T. Faulkner (2014): A Retrospective Examination of Paleoparasitology and its Establishment in the Journal of Parasitology. In PDF, Papers in Natural Resources, 402.
Z. Feng et al. (2019): Beetle borings in wood with host response in early Permian conifers from Germany. Free access, PalZ.
Z. Feng et al. (2017): Late Permian wood-borings reveal an intricate network of ecological relationships. In PDF, Nature Communications, 8. See also here. (abstract).
Z. Feng et al. (2014): Evidence for insect-mediated skeletonization on an extant fern family from the Upper Triassic of China. In PDF, Geology. See also here (Abstract).
L.E. Fiorelli et al. (2013): The oldest known communal latrines provide evidence of gregarism in Triassic megaherbivores. Sci Rep., 3.
F. Fraser et al. (2020): Investigating Biotic Interactions in Deep Time. Free accesss, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.
N.C. Fraser et al. (1996): A Triassic lagerstätte from eastern North America. PDF file, Nature.
Jörg Fröbisch and Robert R. Reisz (2009): The Late Permian herbivore Suminia and the early evolution of arboreality in terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems. Abstract, see also here (brief summary by Matt Celeskey). The earliest tree-dweller in the late Permian.
! D.J. Futuyma and A.A. Agrawal (2009): Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores. In PDF.
O.F. Gallego et al. (2011):
most ancient Platyperlidae (Insecta, Perlida= Plecoptera) from early Late Triassic deposits in southern South America.
In PDF, Ameghiniana, 48: 447-461. See also
Please take notice: Fig. 8, the reconstruction by Carsten Brauckmann and Elke Gröening. A plecopteran nymph over a Dicroidium leaf under the water surface.
R. Garrouste et al. (2016):
mimicry of plants dates back to the Permian.
Nat. Commun., 7: 13735.
Figure 3 shows a reconstruction of Permotettigonia gallica gen. et sp. nov. on Taeniopteris sp.
Robert A. Gastaldo et al. (2005): Taphonomic Trends of Macrofloral Assemblages Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary, Karoo Basin, South Africa. PDF file, Palaios. See also here ("Tales of Extinction and Recovery", Smithsonian).
! C.T. Gee (2013): Sauropod herbivory and the Mesozoic flora. Abstract, in PDF; Go to PDF page 21.
C.T. Gee (2011, starting on PDF page 46):
options for the sauropod dinosaurs from an integrated botanical and
paleobotanical perspective. In PDF, In: Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs:
Understanding the life of giants (ed. N. Klein, K. Remes, C.T. Gee and P. M. Sander).
Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
See also here . Provided by Google books.
Carole T. Gee (2008): Sauropod food plants from physiological and paleobotanical perspectives. Abstract, 18th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Vienna, Austria.
C.T. Gee et al. (2003): A Miocene rodent nut cache in coastal dunes of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. In PDF, Palaeontology, 46. See also here (abstract).
J.F. Genise et al. (2020): 100 Ma sweat bee nests: Early and rapid co-diversification of crown bees and flowering plants. Open access, PLoS ONE 15: e0227789.
Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts: Insects and Terrestrial Arthropods in the Fossil Record: Are So Many Really Represented by So Few? Abstracts.
This is one of the internet´s leading websites for earth science news and information. Go to:
G. Geyer and K.-P. Kelber (1987): Flügelreste und Lebensspuren von Insekten aus dem Unteren Keuper Mainfrankens. PDF file, (in German).
E.H. Gierlowski-Kordesch and C.F. Cassle (2015): The "Spirorbis" problem revisited: Sedimentology and biology of microconchids in marine-nonmarine transitions. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.
F.L. Gill et al. (2018): Diets of giants: the nutritional value of sauropod diet during the Mesozoic. Free access, Palaeontology, 61: 647–658.
J.J. Glas et al. (2012): Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores. In PDF, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13: 17077-17103.
R. Gorelick (2001): Did insect pollination cause increased seed plant diversity? PDF file, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74: 407-427.
L. Grauvogel-Stamm & K.-P. Kelber (1996): Plant-insect interactions and coevolution during the Triassic in Western Europe.- PDF file, 30 MB! Paleontologica Lombardia, N. S. 5: 5-23, 31 fig.; Milano. Abstract available here.
M. Grünemeier (2017):
just hyphae — the amber mite Glaesacarus rhombeus as a forager on
hardened resin surfaces and a potential scavenger on trapped insects. In PDF,
Note fig. 5: Illustration depicting the possible behaviour of Glaesacarus rhombeus on the bark of Pinus succinifera with a trapped spider.
N.L. Gunter et al. (2016): If Dung Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) Arose in Association with Dinosaurs, Did They Also Suffer a Mass Co-Extinction at the K-Pg Boundary?. Open access, PLOS ONE, DOI:10.1371.
H. Hagdorn et al. (2015):
Fossile Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper. - p. 359-385, PDF file, in German.
Go to PDF page 8:
! Bite traces on plants from the germanotype Lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic).
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").
Terry Harrison (2011): Coprolites: Taphonomic and Paleoecological Implications. PDF file, Paleontology and geology of Laetoli. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
C. Hartkopf-Fröder et al. (2011): Mid-Cretaceous charred fossil flowers reveal direct observation of arthropod feeding strategies. In PDF, Biol. Lett. See also here and there.
S.T. Hasiotis et al.: Research Update on Hymenopteran Nests and Cocoons, Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona.
! E.A. Heise et al. (2011): Wood taphonomy in a tropical marine carbonate environment: Experimental results from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 312: 363–379. See also here, and there.
! C.M. Herrera (1985): Determinants of plant-animal coevolution: the case of mutualistic dispersal of seeds by vertebrates. PDF file, Oikos, 44.
! G. Horváth et al. (2019): How did amber get its aquatic insects? Water-seeking polarotactic insects trapped by tree resin. Free access, Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2019.1663843.
! S. Hu et al. (2008): Early steps of angiosperm-pollinator coevolution. PDF file, PNAS, 105: 40-245. See also here (abstract).
D.P. Hughes et al. (2011): Ancient death-grip leaf scars reveal ant-fungal parasitism. PDF file, Biology Letters, 7: 67-70.
J. Hummel et al. (2008):
digestibility of fern and gymnosperm foliage: implications for sauropod feeding ecology and
diet selection. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 275. See also
"Based on our experimental results, plants such as Equisetum, Araucaria, Ginkgo and Angiopteris would have formed a major part of sauropod diets, while cycads, tree ferns and podocarp conifers would have been poor sources of energy".
International Palaeoentomological Society (IPS). The aims of the Society are to promote and advance the understanding of fossil insects and other non-marine arthropods.
! D. Jablonski (2008): Biotic interactions and macroevolution: extensions and mismatches across scales and levels. PDF file, Evolution, 62: 715-739.
! E.M. Janson et al. (2008): Phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms and adaptive evolutionary diversification. In PDF.
E.A. Jarzembowski (2012): The oldest plant-insect interaction in Croatia: Carboniferous evidence. In PDF, Geologia Croatica, 65: 387-392.
L. Kaiser et al. (2017): The Plant as a Habitat for Entomophagous Insects. In PDF, Advances in Botanical Research, 81: 179-223. See also here.
O. Katz (2020): Silicon and Plant–Animal Interactions: Towards an Evolutionary Framework. Open access, Plants, 9. See also here (in PDF).
M.A. Khan et al. (2014): Fossil evidence of insect folivory in the eastern Himalayan Neogene Siwalik forests. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410: 264-277. See also here (abstract).
Derek Keats, Department of Botany, University of the Western Cape, Bellville (Cape Town) South Africa:
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
K.-P. Kelber and G. Geyer (1989): Lebensspuren von Insekten an Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers. In German, PDF file. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 109: 165-174.
K.-P. Kelber (1987): Spirorbidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) auf Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers - Ein Beitrag zur Phyto-Taphonomie. PDF file (in German), N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 175: 261-294.
Book announcement: Kelley, Patricia H.; Kowalewski, Michal; Hansen, Thor A. (eds.): Predator-Prey Interactions in the Fossil Record. Series: Topics in Geobiology, Vol. 20; 2003, 484 p.
! P.G. Kevan and H.G. Baker (1983): Insects as flower visitors and pollinators. In PDF, Annual review of entomology.
M.A. Khan et al. (2014): Fossil evidence of insect folivory in the eastern Himalayan Neogene Siwalik forests. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410: 264-277.
S. Kiel et al. (2012): Fossilized digestive systems in 23 million-year-old wood-boring bivalves. In PDF, Journal of Molluscan Studies, 78: 349–356.
S.D. Klavins et al. (2005): Coprolites in a Middle Triassic cycad pollen cone: evidence for insect pollination in early cycads? PDF file, Evolutionary Ecology Research, 7: 479-488.
J. Koricheva (2002): Meta-analysis of sources of variation in fitness costs of plant antiherbivore defenses. PDF file, Ecology 83: 176-190.
M. Kowalewski (2002): The fossil record of predation: An overview of analytical methods. PDF file, In: Kowalewski, M., and Kelley, P.H., eds., The Fossil Record of Predation: Paleontological Society Special Papers 8: 3-42.
V. Krassilov et al. (2008): Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Early Angiosperm History. Evidence from the Cretaceous of Israel. In PDF.
V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2008): First evidence of plant-arthropod interaction at the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Volga Basin, European Russia. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 247-252.
V.A. Krassilov and A.P. Rasnitsyn (2008): Plant-arthropod interactions in the early angiosperm history: evidence from the Cretaceous of Israel. PDF file, 222 p., (Pensoft Publishers & Brill Academic Publishers), Sofia, Moscow.
V.A. Krassilov (1981): Changes of Mesozoic vegetation and the extinction of dinosaurs. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 34: 207-224. See also here (in PDF).
K. Kumar et al. (2011):
Teredolites longissimus and Teredinid Body Fossils from the Early Eocene of
India—Taphonomic and Palaeoenvironmental Implications. Abstract, Ichnos 18. See also
"... The wood substrate (Aglaia, Meliaceae) was transported to the marine realm from its natural habitat of inland moist tropical forest by a river or stream. Postinfestation, it was buried in a near-shore lagoon or a tidal flat area, ..."
M. Krings et al.(2002): Touch-sensitive glandular trichomes: a mode of defence against herbivorous arthropods in the Carboniferous. PDF file, Evolutionary Ecology Research, 4: 779-786.
M. Laaß et al. (2020): First evidence of arthropod herbivory in calamitalean stems from the Pennsylvanian of Germany. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 90. See also here.
C.C. Labandeira et al. (2018):
of Arthropod Herbivory in Late Triassic South Africa: The Molteno Biota, Aasvoëlberg 411 Site
and Developmental Biology of a Gall. Abstract,
with an extended citation list.
Pages 623-719. In: L.H. Tanner (ed.):
The Late Triassic World.
"... Aas411 was one of the most herbivorized of Molteno´s 106 sites, consisting of 20,358 plant specimens represented by 111 plant form-taxa that includes 14 whole-plant taxa (WPT); the insect damage consists of 11 functional feeding groups (FFGs), 44 damage types (DTs) and 1127 herbivorized specimens. ..."
! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): Floral Assemblages and Patterns of Insect Herbivory during the Permian to Triassic of Northeastern Italy. PLoS ONE. 11. See also here (in PDF).
C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016):
evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also
(in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.
! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2014): Middle Devonian liverwort herbivory and antiherbivore defence. Free access, New Phytologist, 202: 247–258.
C.C. Labandeira and R. Prevec (2014): Plant paleopathology and the roles of pathogens and insects. Abstract, International Journal of Paleopathology, 4: 1-16. For PDF version click: View/Open - Smithsonian
! C.C. Labandeira (2013): Deep-time patterns of tissue consumption by terrestrial arthropod herbivores. Abstract.
! C.C. Labandeira and E.D. Currano (2013): The Fossil Record of Plant-Insect Dynamics. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 41: 287-311.
Conrad C. Labandeira (2010):
Pollination of Mid Mesozoic Seed Plants and the Early History of Long-proboscid Insects.
In PDF, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97: 469-513.
See also here and there.
! C.C. Labandeira (2007): Assessing the fossil record of plant-insect associations: ichnodata versus body-fossil data. SEPM Special Publication No. 88. See also here (in PDF).
Conrad C. Labandeira et al. (2007): Pollination drops, pollen, and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. PDF file, Taxon, 56: 663-695.
! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2007): Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types on Compressed Plant Fossils. In PDF, Version 3.0. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. See also here.
! C.C. Labandeira (2006): Silurian to Triassic plant and insect clades and their associations: new data, a review, and interpretations. In PDF, Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 64: 53-94.
! Conrad C. Labandeira (2006): The Four Phases of Plant-Arthropod Associations in Deep Time. PDF file, Geologica Acta, 4: 409-438.
C.C. Labandeira (2005): Invasion of the continents: cyanobacterial crusts to tree-inhabiting arthropods. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20.! C.C. Labandeira (2002): The history of associations between plants and animals. PDF file, in: Herrera, CM., Pellmyr, O. (eds.). Plant-Animal Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach. London, Blackwell, 26-74, 248-261. See also here (Google books).
! Conrad C. Labandeira (1998):
Associatons from the Fossil Record.
PDF file, Geotimes. With instructive illustrations.
See also here.
Conrad C. Labandeira, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Enhanced: How Old Is the Flower and the Fly? Including an extensive annotated link directory. Science 1998; 280: 57-59.
! Conrad C. Labandeira (1998): EARLY HISTORY OF ARTHROPOD AND VASCULAR PLANT ASSOCIATIONS. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 26: 329-377.
C.C. Labandeira et al. (1994): Ninety-seven million years of angiosperm-insect association: paleobiological insights into the meaning of coevolution. In PDF, PNAS.
! C.C. Labandeira and J.J. Sepkoski (1993): Insect diversity in the fossil record. PDF file, Science.
! Conrad C. Labandeira et al., Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History: Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types on Compressed Plant Fossils (PDF file). See also here.
Conrad C. Labandeira and Gunter J. Eble, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology, Washington, DC: THE FOSSIL RECORD OF INSECT DIVERSITY AND DISPARITY (PDF file).
M.B. Lara et al. (2017): Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of an Upper Triassic deposit in southwestern Gondwana (Argentina) based on an insect fauna, plant assemblage, and their interactions. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 476: 163–180. See also here.
M. Laass and N. Hauschke (2019):
evidence of borings in calamitean stems and other
plant-arthropod interactions from the late Pennsylvanian of the
Saale Basin. In PDF, ICCI 2019 Abstract + Field;
Hallesches Jahrbuch für Geowissenschaften, Beiheft 46. See also here and there.
Joachim Laukenmann, Die Zeit: Saurier - Theorie der Giganten (in German). The sauropod gigantism.
T.L.F. Leung (2015): Fossils of parasites: what can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of parasitism? In PDF, Biol. Rev. See also here (abstract).
S. Lev-Yadun (2016): Plants are not sitting ducks waiting for herbivores to eat them. In PDF, Plant Signaling & Behavior, 11. See also here.T. Littlewood and K. De Baets (eds., 2015): Fossil Parasites.
Ronald J. Litwin, Robert E. Weems, and Thomas R. Holtz, Jr., U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Eastern Publications Group Web Team: Dinosaurs: Facts and Fiction, What did dinosaurs eat? Easy to understand contribution.
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X. Liu et al. (2018):
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Current Biology, 28: 1475-1481.
Note figure 3: Reconstruction of two larvae resting on liverworts.
V.S.P. Loinaze et al. (2019): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here and there.
Spencer G. Lucas et al. Re-evaluation of alleged bees´ nests from the Upper Triassic of Arizona.
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A.C. Mancuso and C.A. Marsicano (2008): Paleoenvironments and taphonomy of a Triassic lacustrine system (Los Rastros Formation, central-western Argentina). In PDF, Palaios, 23: 535–547. See also here.
Adriana C. Mancuso et al. (2007): The Triassic insect fauna from the Los Rastros Formation (Bermejo Basin), La Rioja Province (Argentina): its context, taphonomy and paleobiology. Paleobiological reconstruction in fig. 6.
N.P. Maslova et al. (2016): Phytopathology in fossil plants: New data, questions of classification. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, 50: 202–208.
Duane D. McKenna et al. (2009): Temporal lags and overlap in the diversification of weevils and flowering plants. PDF file, PNAS, 106: 7083-7088. See also here (abstract).
S. McLoughlin and B. Bomfleur (2016): Biotic interactions in an exceptionally well preserved osmundaceous fern rhizome from the Early Jurassic of Sweden. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
! S. McLoughlin and C. Strullu-Derrien (2015): Biota and palaeoenvironment of a high middle-latitude Late Triassic peat-forming ecosystem from Hopen, Svalbard archipelago. In PDF.
S. McLoughlin et al. (2013): The record of Australian Jurassic plant-arthropod interactions. Abstract, Gondwana Research. See also here (in PDF).
John M. Miller, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of the South Pacific (USP): Origin of Angiosperms. Go to: Insect-Plant Mutualisms.
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A.L. Möller et al. (2017): High richness of insect herbivory from the early Miocene Hindon Maar crater, Otago, New Zealand. Free access, PeerJ, DOI 10.7717/peerj.2985.
Sebastian Molnar, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Evolution and the Origins of Life. A directory of introductions concerning evolution, with a bias to Plant Biology and Evolution. Excellent examples about how evolution works can be seen from the plant world. Go to: Plant Insect Resistance.
Marcus Moretti, Yale Daily News (March 02, 2011): Dinosaurs hardened pinecones, study says. See also here and there (in German).
Alan V. & Anne Morgan, Department of Earth Sciences and Quaternary Sciences Institute, University of Waterloo, Ontario: The Use of Fossil Coleoptera.
Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Publications. Pdf files, free download.
Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow: Palaeoentomology in Russia. Go to: ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE TERRESTRIAL INSECTS (by V.V. Zherikhin).
G.E. Mustoe (2007): Coevolution of cycads and dinosaurs. Cycad Newsletter.
Nalini M. Nadkarni, Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA: Plant-Animal Interactions. Bibliographic citations on plant-animal interactions.
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A. Nel et al. (2014): Exceptionally preserved insect fossils in the Late Jurassic lagoon of Orbagnoux (Rhone Valley, France). Open access, PeerJ.
Dan Nickrent, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale: The Parasitic Plant Connection. A repository of information on parasitic plants.
T. Nyman et al. (2012): Climate-driven diversity dynamics in plants and plant-feeding insects. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 14: 1-10. See also here.
J. Ollerton and E. Coulthard (2009): Evolution of Animal Pollination. In PDF, Science, 326. See also here.
F. Parisi et al.(2018): Linking deadwood traits with saproxylic invertebrates and fungi in European forests - a review. Free access, iForest 11: 423-436.
M.R. Pearson et al. (2013): Reconstructing the diversity of early terrestrial herbivorous tetrapods. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 372: 2-49.
! E. Peñalvera et al. (2012): Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 8623-8628. See also here.
D.M. Percy et al. (2004): Plant-insect interactions: double-dating associated insect and plant lineages reveals asynchronous radiations. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 120-127.V.S. Perez Loinaze et al. (2018): Palaeobotany and palynology of coprolites from the Late Triassic Chañares Formation of Argentina: implications for vegetation provinces and the diet of dicynodonts. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 502. See also here.
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V. Perrichot and V. Girard (2009): A unique piece of amber and the complexity of ancient forest ecosystems. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 137-139.
(in German, sponsored by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung):
Schnappschuss aus der Urzeit Insektenbestäubung doch keine Erfindung der Blütenpflanzen?
S. Pincebourde et al. (2016): Plant-Insect Interactions in a Changing World. In PDF.
G. Poinar (2019):
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Note figure 22: The platypodine, Palaeotylus femoralis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) covered with mycelium, conidiophores and conidia of the ambrosia fungus, Paleoambrosia entomophila (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae) in Burmese amber.
Note figure 27: Ptilodactylid (Coleoptera: Ptilodactylidae) beetle with attached pollinarium (arrow) of Annulites mexicana (Angiospermae: Orchidaceae) in Mexican amber.
George Poinar and Greg Poinar (2018):
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Historical Biology. See also:
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Alberto Prado (2011): The Cycad Herbivores. PDF file, Bulletin de la Société d´entomologie du Québec.
Vandana Prasad, Caroline A.E. Strömberg, Habib Alimohammadian, and Ashok Sahni: Dinosaur Coprolites and the Early Evolution of Grasses and Grazers. Abstract, Science, November 18, 2005: 1177-1180. Silica particles from grass in fossil dung from Cretaceous sauropods suggest that grasses evolved earlier than had been thought, providing food for dinosaurs and early mammals. See also here (S. Perkins, Sciencenews), and there. (by Andreas Jahn, Die Zeit, November 11, 2005; in German).
R. Prevec et al. (2009): Portrait of a Gondwanan ecosystem: A new late Permian fossil locality from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 454-493. See also here, or there (PDF files).
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A. Radwanski (2009): "Phoenix szaferi" (palm fruitbodies) reinterpreted as traces of wood-boring teredinid bivalves from the Lower Oligocene (Rupelian) of the Tatra Mountains, Poland. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica, 49: 279-286.
J. Rajchel and A. Uchman (1998): Insect borings in Oligocene wood, Kliwa Sandstone, Outer Carpathians, Poland. Abstract, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 68: 219-224. See also here (in PDF).
Robert Randell, British Chalk Fossils: Driftwood with Teredo borings.
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Authored by the The Rhynie Chert Research Group, University of Aberdeen, with contributions and support by the Palaeobotanical Research Group, University of Münster, Germany, the Centre for Palynology, University of Sheffield, The Natural History Museum, London, and The Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems, The Rhynie Chert. A resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of this unique geological deposit (including a glossary and bibliography pages). Go to: Evidence for Plant/Animal Interactions.
E.M. Roberts et al. (2016): Oligocene Termite Nests with In Situ Fungus Gardens from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, Support a Paleogene African Origin for Insect Agriculture. PLoS ONE, 11.
E.A. Robinson et al. (2012): A meta-analytical review of the effects of elevated CO2 on plant-arthropod interactions highlights the importance of interacting environmental and biological variables. In PDF, New Phytologist, 194: 321-336. See also here (abstract).
J.M. Robledo et al. (2015): Phytophagy on fossil ferns from Argentina (Palo Pintado Formation, late Miocene): a review of their fossil record and ichnotaxonomy. In PDF, Rev. bras. paleontol., 18: 225-238. See also here.F. Ronquist and J. Liljeblad (2001): Evolution of the gall wasp–host plant association: In PDF, Evolution, 55: 2503–2522.
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R. Rößler et al. (2012):
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The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
S. Salzman et al. (2020):
ancient push-pull pollination mechanism in cycads. In PDF,
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Note fig. 4: Time line and plant behaviors responsible for push-pull pollination.
P.M. Sander et al. (2011):
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P.M. Sander et al. (2010):
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E.B. Santos Filho et al. (2017): Evidence of plant–insect interaction in the Early Cretaceous Flora from the Crato Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil. Abstract, Historical Biology. See also here and there (in PDF).
S.R. Schachat et al. (2020): Sampling fossil floras for the study of insect herbivory: how many leaves is enough? In PDF, Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Fossil Record, 23: 15-32. See also here.S.R. Schachat et al. (2018): The importance of sampling standardization for comparisons of insect herbivory in deep time: a case study from the late Palaeozoic. In PDF, R. Soc. open sci.
S.R. Schachat et al. (2014): Plant-Insect Interactions from Early Permian (Kungurian) Colwell Creek Pond, North-Central Texas: The Early Spread of Herbivory in Riparian Environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 175.
H. Martin Schaefer et al. (2004): How plant-animal interactions signal new insights in communication. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 19.
D.W. Schemske et al. (2009): Is There a Latitudinal Gradient in the Importance of Biotic Interactions? In PDF, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.,40: 245-269.
Claudia Schülke, FAZ, Germany: Palmenhaus, Lebende und versteinerte Pflanzen aus der Zeit der Saurier. In German.
A.C. Scott et al.(2004): Evidence of plant-insect interactions in the Upper Triassic Molteno Formation of South Africa. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 161: 401-410. See also here.
Scott et al. (1994): The fossil record of leaves with galls. PDF file, In: Michele A.J. Williams (ed.): Plant Galls.
! A.C. Scott et al. (1992): Interaction and coevolution of plants and arthropods during the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B. See also here.
D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): Madygen, Triassic Lagerstätte number one, before and after Sharov. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 113-124. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
S.M. Slater et al. (2018): Dinosaur-plant interactions within a Middle Jurassic ecosystem—palynology of the Burniston Bay dinosaur footprint locality, Yorkshire, UK. Free access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 98: 139–151.
B.J. Slater (2014): Cryptic diversity of a Glossopteris forest: the Permian Prince Charles Mountains Floras, Antarctica. In PDF, thesis, submitted to the University of Birmingham.
B.J. Slater et al. (2012): Animal-plant interactions in a Middle Permian permineralised peat of the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 363-364: 109-126.
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ancient Insect-Plant Relationship Persists through Time.
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M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2015): Evidence for insect and annelid activity across the Triassic-Jurassic transition of east Greenland. Palaios, 30: 597-607.
P. Steuer (2010): Limitation of body mass of herbivores - Allometry of food quality and of digestive aspects. In PDF, Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany.
Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands:
Hans´ Paleobotany Pages.
Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Little animals in the Coal Swamp.
Sharon Y. Strauss and Rebecca E. Irwin (2004):
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This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
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C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2012): Arthropod interactions with bennettitalean roots in a Triassic permineralized peat from Hopen, Svalbard Archipelago (Arctic). In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 348-349: 45-58.
G.W. Stull et al. (2013): The "Seeds" on Padgettia readi are Insect Galls: Reassignment of the Plant to Odontopteris, the Gall to Ovofoligallites N. Gen., and the Evolutionary Implications Thereof. In PDF, Journal of Paleontology, 87: 217-231.
J.I. Sutherland (2003): Miocene petrified wood and associated borings and termite faecal pellets from Hukatere Peninsula, Kaipara Harbour, North Auckland, New Zealand. In PDF, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 33: 395-414.
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! Thomas N. Taylor and Michael Krings (2005): Fossil microorganisms and land plants: Associations and interactions. PDF file, Symbiosis, 40: 119-135.
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Paul D. Taylor & Olev Vinn (2006): Convergent morphology in small spiral worm tubes ("Spirorbis") and its palaeoenvironmental implications. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 163: 225-228.
Leonard B. Thien, Hiroshi Azuma, and Shoichi Kawano: New Perspectives on the Pollination Biology of Basal Angiosperms. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences, volume 161 (2000).
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A.S. Thorpe et al. (2011): Interactions among plants and evolution. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 99: 729-740.
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Bruce H. Tiffney, UC Santa Barbara: Tracking the Course of Evolution (hosted by UCMP), Plants and Their Predators Through Time. A ramble through the positive and negative (from the plant's point of view) interactions between terrestrial plants and those insects and vertebrates who feed upon them. Examine TWO GRAPHICS showing (1) a simple time line of plant predation and (2) the relationship of plant diversification and the phylogeny of vertebrate plant predators.
Bruce H. Tiffney, University of California, Santa Barbara (Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs): Dinosaurs and Plants.
Thomas van de Kamp et al. (2018):
biology preserved in mineralized fossils. Open access,
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Using high-throughput synchrotron X-ray microtomography 55 parasitation events by four wasp species were identified from the Paleogene of France.
C.J. van der Kooi and J. Ollerton (2020):
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See also here (in PDF).
Diego P. Vázquez et al. (2009): Uniting pattern and process in plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review. PDF file, Annals of Botany, 103: 1445-1457. See also here (abstract).
G.J. Vermeij (2016): Plant defences on land and in water: why are they so different? In PDF, Annals of Botany, 117: 1099–1109. See also here.
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Y. Wang et al. (2010): Ancient pinnate leaf mimesis among lacewings. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 16212-16215.
Jun Wang et al. (2009)
Circulipuncturites discinisporis Labandeira, Wang, Zhang, Bek et Pfefferkorn
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Wang Xiaofeng et al. (2009):
The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from
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National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Ancient Insect-Plant Relationship Persists through Time.
Charles E. Weber, Hendersonville NC: DID THE WOOD ROACH OR PROTOTERMITE CAUSE THE PERMIAN - TRIASSIC COAL HIATUS?
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Peter Wilf, Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA: Commentary and media items, and online accessable publications.
Peter Wilf, Museum of Paleontology and Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: Ancient insect-plant relationship persists through time. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Highlight, October, 2000. See also: Commentary, reporting, and interviews about Peter Wilf's research.
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Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Plant defense against herbivory.
Herbivore adaptations to plant defense.
See also Wikipedia Germany (in German):
Pflanzliche Abwehr von Herbivoren.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Pflanzengalle (in German).
Isaak S. Winkler and Charles Mitter (2008): The phylogenetic dimension of insect-plant interactions: a review of recent evidence. PDF file. See also here.
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