Ecology & Palaeoenvironment /
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
! Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
! Web Sites about Evolution@
Teaching Documents about Ecology@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
Teaching Documents about Biology@
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Environment@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Botany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
! Sina Adl et al. (2010): Reconstructing the soil food web of a 100 million-year-old forest: The case of the mid-Cretaceous fossils in the amber of Charentes (SW France). PDF file, Soil Biology & Biochemistry.
A.A. Agrawa (2007): Macroevolution of plant defense strategies. PDF file, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.
Richard Alley, Pennsylvania State University: Living on Earth I: Evolution & Extinction, Geology of the National Parks. Powerpoint presentation. See the animal/plant interaction on sheet 16!
Anto Anu et al. (2009): Seasonality of litter insects and relationship with rainfall in a wet evergreen forest in south Western Ghats. PDF file, Journal of Insect Science, 9. Now via Way back machine.
AScribe (press release), USA: 96-Million-Year-Old Fossil Pollen Sheds Light on Early Pollinators.
M.P. Ayres, T.P. Clausen, S.F. MacLean, A.M. Redman, and P.B. Reichardt (1997): Diversity of structure and antiherbivore activity in condensed tannins. PDF file, Ecology 78: 1696-1712.
! L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Dept. Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: History of Biotic Pollination. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
E.S. Bakker et al. (2016): Combining paleo-data and modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of megafauna extinctions on woody vegetation. PNAS, 113: 847-855.
P.M. Barrett (2014): Paleobiology of herbivorous dinosaurs. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.
! J. Bascompte and P. Jordano (2007): Plant-animal mutualistic networks: the architecture of biodiversity. In Word doc, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. See also here (abstract).
R.W. Baxendale (1979): Plant-bearing coprolites from North-American Pennsylvanian coal balls. PDF file.
Roy J. Beckemeyer, Wichita: Fossil Insects. Permian fossil insects from Elmo, Kansas, and Midco, Oklahoma.
! J.L. Blois et al. (2013) Climate Change and the Past, Present, and Future of Biotic Interactions. In PDF, Science 341.
Helen Briggs, BBC News Online: Oldest hamster food store found. A hoard of nuts (Miocene in age) discovered in an open-cast mine near Garzweiler (Germany).
! Mark C. Brundrett (2002): Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. PDF file, New Phytologist, 154: 275-304.
R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. PDF file, Journal of Evolutionary Biol., 22: 446-459. See also here (abstract).
! R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Testing co-evolutionary hypotheses over geological timescales: interactions between Mesozoic non-avian dinosaurs and cycads. PDF file, Biol. Rev., 84: 73-89.
R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. PDF file.
William Cannon, Smithsonian magazine: Stories in Stone Read From Ancient Leaves. A Smithsonian scientist studies the relationship between Eocene insects and the plants they ate.
J.A. Caruso et al. (2012): Microconchid encrusters colonizing land plants: the earliest North American record from the Early Devonian of Wyoming, USA. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 490-494.
P. Cennamo et al. (2014): Epiphytic Diatom Communities on Sub-Fossil Leaves of Posidonia oceanica Delile in the Graeco-Roman Harbor of Neapolis: A Tool to Explore the Past. In PDF, American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: 549-553.
W.G. Chaloner et al. (1991): Fossil Evidence for Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. PDF file, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 333: 177-186. See also here.
Karen Chin (Nature 451, 1053;2008): Pest friends in the Cretaceous. Fossils preserved in amber hint at surprising links between dinosaurs and their insect contemporaries. Book review: What Bugged the Dinosaurs? Insects, Disease, and Death in the Cretaceous; by George Poinar, Jr & Roberta Poinar, Princeton University Press, 2008. 296 pp.
L. Chittka et al. (1999): Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution. In PDF.
Fred Clouter, Lower Eocene Fossils of the Isle of Sheppey: Fossil Trees & Logs. Teredo borings.
P.D. Coley (1999): Hungry herbivores seek a warmer world. PDF file.
! M.E. Collinson and J.J. Hooker (1991): Fossil Evidence of Interactions between Plants and Plant-Eating Mammals. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 333: 197-208.
Paleobotanical Holdings at the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium at Cornell University, Dept. Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: History of Biotic Pollination. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Studying Evolution. Mini-essays and sub-sections concerning evolution. See: Coevolution: Plants and Pollinators.
P.R. Crane and A.B. Leslie (2013):
Events in the Evolution of Land Plants. In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution.
1. Phylogenetic framework.
2. Origin and diversification of land plants.
3. Origin and diversification of vascular plants.
4. Origin and diversification of seed plants.
5. Origin and diversification of flowering plants.
6. Innovation in the land plant body.
7. Innovation in land plant reproduction.
8. Co-evolution with animals.
9. Patterns of extinction.
See also here, and there (Google books).
! E.D. Currano (2010): Green food through time PDF file, Palaios, 25: 547-549.
DEEMY Characterization and DEtermination of EctoMYcorrhizae (by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Dept. Biologie I - Systematische Mykologie). DEEMY is a research database (including images) for identifying and characterizing ectomycorrhizae fungus-plant interactions.
Q. Ding et al. (2014): Biology of a leaf miner (Coleoptera) on Liaoningocladus boii (Coniferales) from the Early Cretaceous of northeastern China and the leaf-mining biology of possible insect culprit clades. In PDF, Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 72: 281-308.
Dong Ren, National Geological Museum of China, Beijing: Flower-Associated Brachycera Flies as Fossil Evidence for Jurassic Angiosperm Origins.
L.A. Dyer and D.K. Letourneau (2003): Top-down and bottom-up diversity cascades in detrital versus living food webs. PDF file, Ecology Letters 6:60-68.
G. Edirisooriya and H.A. Dharmagunawardhane (2013): Plant Insect-Interactions in Jurassic Fossil Flora from Sri Lanka. In PDF, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3.
! The EDNA fossil insect database (named after Edna Clifford): EDNA aims to be a complete, fully interactive list of all the species of insect named from the fossil record, including site, geological age and reference for each holotype. Read the Help Searching for better search results.
Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham,
Surrey, UK: Research activities,
Animal -plant interactions.
EnchantedLearning.com: DINOSAURS AND PLANTS. An easy to understand introduction about the food chain of sauropods and Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous plants.
Neal L. Evenhuis, Department of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii: Catalogue of the fossil flies of the world (Insecta: Diptera).
Michael J. Everhart, Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University: OCEANS OF KANSAS - A Natural History of the Western Interior Sea (Indiana University Press, 2005), Shipworm borings (teredo) in wood.
C.T. Faulkner (2014): A Retrospective Examination of Paleoparasitology and its Establishment in the Journal of Parasitology. In PDF, Papers in Natural Resources, 402.
L.E. Fiorelli et al. (2013): The oldest known communal latrines provide evidence of gregarism in Triassic megaherbivores. Sci Rep., 3.
T.L. Fletcher and S.W. Salisbury (2014): Probable oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida) tunnels and faecal pellets in silicified conifer wood from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian) portion of the Winton Formation, central-western Queensland, Australia. In PDF, Alcheringa 38.
N.C. Fraser et al. (1996): A Triassic lagerstätte from eastern North America. PDF file, Nature.
Jörg Fröbisch and Robert R. Reisz (2009): The Late Permian herbivore Suminia and the early evolution of arboreality in terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems. Abstract, see also here (brief summary by Matt Celeskey). The earliest tree-dweller in the late Permian.
! D.J. Futuyma and A.A. Agrawal (2009): Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores. In PDF.
Robert A. Gastaldo et al. (2005): Taphonomic Trends of Macrofloral Assemblages Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary, Karoo Basin, South Africa. PDF file, Palaios. See also here ("Tales of Extinction and Recovery", Smithsonian).
! C.T. Gee (2013): Sauropod herbivory and the Mesozoic flora. Abstract, in PDF; Go to PDF page 21.
C.T. Gee (2011): Dietary options for the sauropod dinosaurs from an integrated botanical and paleobotanical perspective. In PDF, In: Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: Understanding the life of giants (ed. N. Klein, K. Remes, C.T. Gee and P. M. Sander). Indiana University Press, Bloomington. See also here . Provided by Google books.
Carole T. Gee (2008): Sauropod food plants from physiological and paleobotanical perspectives. Abstract, 18th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Vienna, Austria.
C.T. Gee et al. (2003): A Miocene rodent nut cache in coastal dunes of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. In PDF, Palaeontology, 46. See also here (abstract).
Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts: Insects and Terrestrial Arthropods in the Fossil Record: Are So Many Really Represented by So Few? Abstracts.
Geological Survey of Canada: Earth Sciences Sector > Geological Survey of Canada > Past lives: Fossil termite excrement. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
This is one of the internet´s leading websites for earth science news and information. Go to:
G. Geyer and K.-P. Kelber (1987): Flügelreste und Lebensspuren von Insekten aus dem Unteren Keuper Mainfrankens. PDF file, (in German).
E.H. Gierlowski-Kordesch and C.F. Cassle (2015): The "Spirorbis" problem revisited: Sedimentology and biology of microconchids in marine-nonmarine transitions. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.
J.J. Glas et al. (2012): Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores. In PDF, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13: 17077-17103.
R. Gorelick (2001): Did insect pollination cause increased seed plant diversity? PDF file, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74: 407-427.
L. Grauvogel-Stamm & K.-P. Kelber (1996): Plant-insect interactions and coevolution during the Triassic in Western Europe.- PDF file, 30 MB! Paleontologica Lombardia, N. S. 5: 5-23, 31 fig.; Milano. Abstract available here.
H. Hagdorn et al. (2015):
Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper.-
p. 359-385. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper -
Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches
Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart). Go to PDF page 8:
! Bite traces on plants from the germanotype Lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic).
Terry Harrison (2011): Coprolites: Taphonomic and Paleoecological Implications. PDF file, Paleontology and geology of Laetoli. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
C. Hartkopf-Fröder et al. (2011): Mid-Cretaceous charred fossil flowers reveal direct observation of arthropod feeding strategies. In PDF, Biol. Lett. See also here.
S.T. Hasiotis et al.: Research Update on Hymenopteran Nests and Cocoons, Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona.
! C.M. Herrera (1985): Determinants of plant-animal coevolution: the case of mutualistic dispersal of seeds by vertebrates. PDF file, Oikos, 44.
! S. Hu et al. (2008): Early steps of angiosperm-pollinator coevolution. PDF file, PNAS, 105: 40-245. See also here (abstract).
D.P. Hughes et al. (2011): Ancient death-grip leaf scars reveal ant-fungal parasitism. PDF file, Biology Letters, 7: 67-70.
J. Hummel et al. (2008):
digestibility of fern and gymnosperm foliage: implications for sauropod feeding ecology and
diet selection. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 275. See also
"Based on our experimental results, plants such as Equisetum, Araucaria, Ginkgo and Angiopteris would have formed a major part of sauropod diets, while cycads, tree ferns and podocarp conifers would have been poor sources of energy".
International Palaeoentomological Society (IPS). The aims of the Society are to promote and advance the understanding of fossil insects and other non-marine arthropods.
! D. Jablonski (2008): Biotic interactions and macroevolution: extensions and mismatches across scales and levels. PDF file, Evolution, 62: 715-739.
! E.M. Janson et al. (2008): Phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms and adaptive evolutionary diversification. In PDF.
E.A. Jarzembowski (2012): The oldest plant-insect interaction in Croatia: Carboniferous evidence. In PDF, Geologia Croatica, 65: 387-392.
M.A. Khan et al. (2014): Fossil evidence of insect folivory in the eastern Himalayan Neogene Siwalik forests. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410: 264-277. See also here (abstract).
Derek Keats, Department of Botany, University of the Western Cape, Bellville (Cape Town) South Africa: Herbivory.
K.-P. Kelber and G. Geyer (1989): Lebensspuren von Insekten an Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers. In German, PDF file. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 109: 165-174.
K.-P. Kelber (1987): Spirorbidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) auf Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers - Ein Beitrag zur Phyto-Taphonomie. PDF file (in German), N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 175: 261-294.
Book announcement: Kelley, Patricia H.; Kowalewski, Michal; Hansen, Thor A. (eds.): Predator-Prey Interactions in the Fossil Record. Series: Topics in Geobiology, Vol. 20; 2003, 484 p.
D.W. Kellogg and E.L. Taylor (2004): Evidence of oribatid mite detritivory in Antarctica during the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In PDF, J. Paleont., 78: 1146-1153.
! P.G. Kevan and H.G. Baker (1983): Insects as flower visitors and pollinators. In PDF, Annual review of entomology.
M.A. Khan et al. (2014): Fossil evidence of insect folivory in the eastern Himalayan Neogene Siwalik forests. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410: 264-277.
S. Kiel et al. (2012): Fossilized digestive systems in 23 million-year-old wood-boring bivalves. In PDF.
S.D. Klavins et al. (2005): Coprolites in a Middle Triassic cycad pollen cone: evidence for insect pollination in early cycads? PDF file, Evolutionary Ecology Research, 7: 479-488.
J. Koricheva (2002): Meta-analysis of sources of variation in fitness costs of plant antiherbivore defenses. PDF file, Ecology 83: 176-190.
M. Kowalewski (2002): The fossil record of predation: An overview of analytical methods. PDF file, In: Kowalewski, M., and Kelley, P.H., eds., The Fossil Record of Predation: Paleontological Society Special Papers 8: 3-42.
V. Krassilov et al. (2008): Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Early Angiosperm History. Evidence from the Cretaceous of Israel. In PDF.
V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2008): First evidence of plant-arthropod interaction at the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Volga Basin, European Russia. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 247-252.
V.A. Krassilov and A.P. Rasnitsyn (2008): Plant-arthropod interactions in the early angiosperm history: evidence from the Cretaceous of Israel. PDF file, 222 p., (Pensoft Publishers & Brill Academic Publishers), Sofia, Moscow.
M. Krings et al.(2002): Touch-sensitive glandular trichomes: a mode of defence against herbivorous arthropods in the Carboniferous. PDF file, Evolutionary Ecology Research, 4: 779-786.
E. Kustatscher et al. (2013): Early Cretaceous araucarian driftwood from hemipelagic sediments of the Puez area, South Tyrol, Italy. In PDF, Cretaceous Research, 41: 270-276. See also here (abstract).
! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): Floral Assemblages and Patterns of Insect Herbivory during the Permian to Triassic of Northeastern Italy. PLoS ONE. 11. See also here (in PDF).
C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016):
evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also
(in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.
C.C. Labandeira and R. Prevec (2014): Plant paleopathology and the roles of pathogens and insects. Abstract, International Journal of Paleopathology, 4: 1-16. For PDF version click: View/Open - Smithsonian
! C.C. Labandeira (2013): Deep-time patterns of tissue consumption by terrestrial arthropod herbivores. Abstract.
! C.C. Labandeira and E.D. Currano (2013): The Fossil Record of Plant-Insect Dynamics. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 41: 287-311.
Conrad C. Labandeira (2010):
Pollination of Mid Mesozoic Seed Plants and the Early History of Long-proboscid Insects.
In PDF, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97: 469-513.
See also here and there.
! C.C. Labandeira (2007): Assessing the fossil record of plant-insect associations: ichnodata versus body-fossil data. In PDF, SEPM Special Publication No. 88.
! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2007): Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types on Compressed Plant Fossils. In PDf (Version 3.0).
Conrad C. Labandeira et al. (2007): Pollination drops, pollen, and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. PDF file, Taxon, 56: 663-695.
! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2007): Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types on Compressed Plant Fossils. In PDf, (Version 3.0), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
! C. Labandeira (2007): The origin of herbivory on land: Initial patterns of plant tissue consumption by arthropods. PDF file, Insect Science, 14: 259-275.
! Conrad C. Labandeira (2006): The Four Phases of Plant-Arthropod Associations in Deep Time. PDF file, Geologica Acta, 4: 409-438.
C.C. Labandeira (2005): Invasion of the continents: cyanobacterial crusts to tree-inhabiting arthropods. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20.
! Conrad C. Labandeira (1998): Plant-Insect Associatons from the Fossil Record. PDF file, Geotimes. With instructive illustrations.
Conrad C. Labandeira, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Enhanced: How Old Is the Flower and the Fly? Including an extensive annotated link directory. Science 1998; 280: 57-59.
! Conrad C. Labandeira (1998): EARLY HISTORY OF ARTHROPOD AND VASCULAR PLANT ASSOCIATIONS. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 26: 329-377.
C.C. Labandeira et al. (1994): Ninety-seven million years of angiosperm-insect association: paleobiological insights into the meaning of coevolution. In PDF, PNAS.
! C.C. Labandeira and J.J. Sepkoski (1993): Insect diversity in the fossil record. PDF file, Science.
! Conrad C. Labandeira et al., Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History: Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types on Compressed Plant Fossils (PDF file). See also here.
! Conrad C. Labandeira and Gunter J. Eble, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology, Washington, DC: THE FOSSIL RECORD OF INSECT DIVERSITY AND DISPARITY (PDF file).
Joachim Laukenmann, Die Zeit: Saurier - Theorie der Giganten (in German). The sauropod gigantism.
T.L.F. Leung (2015): Fossils of parasites: what can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of parasitism? In PDF, Biol. Rev. See also here (abstract).
Ronald J. Litwin, Robert E. Weems, and Thomas R. Holtz, Jr., U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Eastern Publications Group Web Team: Dinosaurs: Facts and Fiction, What did dinosaurs eat? Easy to understand contribution.
Spencer G. Lucas et al. Re-evaluation of alleged bees´ nests from the Upper Triassic of Arizona.
Adriana C. Mancuso et al. (2007): The Triassic insect fauna from the Los Rastros Formation (Bermejo Basin), La Rioja Province (Argentina): its context, taphonomy and paleobiology. Paleobiological reconstruction in fig. 6.
Duane D. McKenna et al. (2009): Temporal lags and overlap in the diversification of weevils and flowering plants. PDF file, PNAS, 106: 7083-7088. See also here (abstract).
S. McLoughlin and B. Bomfleur (2016): Biotic interactions in an exceptionally well preserved osmundaceous fern rhizome from the Early Jurassic of Sweden. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
! S. McLoughlin and C. Strullu-Derrien (2015): Biota and palaeoenvironment of a high middle-latitude Late Triassic peat-forming ecosystem from Hopen, Svalbard archipelago. In PDF.
S. McLoughlin et al. (2013): The record of Australian Jurassic plant-arthropod interactions. Abstract, Gondwana Research. See also here (in PDF).
John M. Miller, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of the South Pacific (USP): Origin of Angiosperms. Go to: Insect-Plant Mutualisms.
! B. Misof et al. (2014): Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution. In PDF, Science.
Sebastian Molnar, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Evolution and the Origins of Life. A directory of introductions concerning evolution, with a bias to Plant Biology and Evolution. Excellent examples about how evolution works can be seen from the plant world. Go to: Plant Insect Resistance.
Marcus Moretti, Yale Daily News (March 02, 2011): Dinosaurs hardened pinecones, study says. See also here and there (in German).
Alan V. & Anne Morgan, Department of Earth Sciences and Quaternary Sciences Institute, University of Waterloo, Ontario: The Use of Fossil Coleoptera.
Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Publications. Pdf files, free download.
Laboratory of Arthropods, Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow: Palaeoentomology in Russia. Go to: ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE TERRESTRIAL INSECTS (by V.V. Zherikhin).
G.E. Mustoe (2007): Coevolution of cycads and dinosaurs. Cycad Newsletter.
Nalini M. Nadkarni, Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA: Plant-Animal Interactions. Bibliographic citations on plant-animal interactions.
Dan Nickrent, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale: The Parasitic Plant Connection. A repository of information on parasitic plants.
T. Nyman et al. (2012): Climate-driven diversity dynamics in plants and plant-feeding insects. In PDF, Ecology Letters, 14: 1-10. See also here.
J. Ollerton and E. Coulthard (2009): Evolution of Animal Pollination. In PDF, Science, 326. See also here.
M.R. Pearson et al. (2013): Reconstructing the diversity of early terrestrial herbivorous tetrapods. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 372: 2-49.
! E. Peñalvera et al. (2012): Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 8623-8628. See also here.
D.M. Percy et al. (2004): Plant-insect interactions: double-dating associated insect and plant lineages reveals asynchronous radiations. PDF file, Syst. Biol., 53: 120-127.
V. Perrichot and V. Girard (2009): A unique piece of amber and the complexity of ancient forest ecosystems. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 137-139.
G. Poinar et al. (2016): Fossil species of Boehmerieae Gaudich. (Urticaceae) in Dominican and Mexican amber: A new genus (Ekrixanthera) and two new species with anemophilous pollination by explosive pollen release, and possible lepidopteran herbivory. In PDF, Botany.
! C. Pott et al. (2012): Trichomes on the leaves of Anomozamites villosus sp. nov. (Bennettitales) from the Daohugou beds (Middle Jurassic), Inner Mongolia, China: Mechanical defence against herbivorous arthropods. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 169: 48-60.
Alberto Prado (2011): The Cycad Herbivores. PDF file, Bulletin de la Société d´entomologie du Québec.
Vandana Prasad, Caroline A.E. Strömberg, Habib Alimohammadian, and Ashok Sahni: Dinosaur Coprolites and the Early Evolution of Grasses and Grazers. Abstract, Science, November 18, 2005: 1177-1180. Silica particles from grass in fossil dung from Cretaceous sauropods suggest that grasses evolved earlier than had been thought, providing food for dinosaurs and early mammals. See also here (S. Perkins, Sciencenews), and there. (by Andreas Jahn, Die Zeit, November 11, 2005; in German).
R. Prevec et al. (2009): Portrait of a Gondwanan ecosystem: A new late Permian fossil locality from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 454-493. See also here, or there (PDF files).
A. Radwanski (2009): "Phoenix szaferi" (palm fruitbodies) reinterpreted as traces of wood-boring teredinid bivalves from the Lower Oligocene (Rupelian) of the Tatra Mountains, Poland. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica, 49: 279-286.
Robert Randell, British Chalk Fossils: Driftwood with Teredo borings.
! D. Ren et al. (2009). A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies. In PDF, Science, 326: 840-847. See also here and there.
Authored by the The Rhynie Chert Research Group, University of Aberdeen, with contributions and support by the Palaeobotanical Research Group, University of Münster, Germany, the Centre for Palynology, University of Sheffield, The Natural History Museum, London, and The Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems, The Rhynie Chert. A resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of this unique geological deposit (including a glossary and bibliography pages). Go to: Evidence for Plant/Animal Interactions.
E.M. Roberts et al. (2016): Oligocene Termite Nests with In Situ Fungus Gardens from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, Support a Paleogene African Origin for Insect Agriculture. PLoS ONE, 11.
E.A. Robinson et al. (2012): A meta-analytical review of the effects of elevated CO2 on plant-arthropod interactions highlights the importance of interacting environmental and biological variables. In PDF, New Phytologist, 194: 321-336. See also here (abstract).
R. Rößler et al. (2014): Fraßgalerien von Mikroarthropoden in Koniferenhölzern des frühen Perms von Crock, Thüringen. PDF file, in German. Veröff. Museum für Naturkunde Chemnitz, 37.
R. Rößler et al. (2012): The largest calamite and its growth architecture - Arthropitys bistriata from the Early Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 185: 64-78.
P.M. Sander et al. (2011):
of the sauropod dinosaurs:
the evolution of gigantism. In PDF,
Biol. Rev., 86: 117-155. Worth checking out:
"Dentition and digestive system" (PDF page 129).
See also here.
S.R. Schachat et al. (2014): Plant-Insect Interactions from Early Permian (Kungurian) Colwell Creek Pond, North-Central Texas: The Early Spread of Herbivory in Riparian Environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 175.
H. Martin Schaefer et al. (2004): How plant-animal interactions signal new insights in communication. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 19.
D.W. Schemske et al. (2009): Is There a Latitudinal Gradient in the Importance of Biotic Interactions? In PDF, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.,40: 245-269.
Claudia Schülke, FAZ, Germany: Palmenhaus, Lebende und versteinerte Pflanzen aus der Zeit der Saurier. In German.
Scott et al. (1994): The fossil record of leaves with galls. PDF file, In: Michele A.J. Williams (ed.): Plant Galls.
A.C. Scott et al.(2004): Evidence of plant-insect interactions in the Upper Triassic Molteno Formation of South Africa. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 161: 401-410. See also here.
D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): Madygen, Triassic Lagerstätte number one, before and after Sharov. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 113-124. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B.J. Slater (2014): Cryptic diversity of a Glossopteris forest: the Permian Prince Charles Mountains Floras, Antarctica. In PDF, thesis, submitted to the University of Birmingham.
B.J. Slater et al. (2012): Animal-plant interactions in a Middle Permian permineralised peat of the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 363-364: 109-126.
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ancient Insect-Plant Relationship Persists through Time.
! N. Stamp (2003): Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses. PDF file, Quarterly Review of Biology 78: 23-55.
M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2015): Evidence for insect and annelid activity across the Triassic-Jurassic transition of east Greenland. Palaios, 30: 597-607.
P. Steuer (2010): Limitation of body mass of herbivores - Allometry of food quality and of digestive aspects. In PDF, Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany.
Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands:
Hans´ Paleobotany Pages.
Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Little animals in the Coal Swamp.
Sharon Y. Strauss and Rebecca E. Irwin (2004):
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This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! E. Strickson et al. (2016): Dynamics of dental evolution in ornithopod dinosaurs. In PDF, Scientific Reports, 6. See also here (abstract).
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Ralph E. Taggart, & A.T. Cross (1997): The relationship between land plant diversity and productivity and patterns of dinosaur herbivory. PDF file, p.403-416 in Wolberg, D.L., E. Stump, and G.D. Rosenberg (eds.), Proceedings of the Dinofest International Symposium, 1997, Arizona State University (Tempe). Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 587 pp.
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Paul D. Taylor & Olev Vinn (2006): Convergent morphology in small spiral worm tubes ("Spirorbis") and its palaeoenvironmental implications. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 163: 225-228.
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Bruce H. Tiffney, UC Santa Barbara: Tracking the Course of Evolution (hosted by UCMP), Plants and Their Predators Through Time. A ramble through the positive and negative (from the plant's point of view) interactions between terrestrial plants and those insects and vertebrates who feed upon them. Examine TWO GRAPHICS showing (1) a simple time line of plant predation and (2) the relationship of plant diversification and the phylogeny of vertebrate plant predators.
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Jun Wang et al. (2009)
Circulipuncturites discinisporis Labandeira, Wang, Zhang, Bek et Pfefferkorn
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Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Wang Xiaofeng et al. (2009):
The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from
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A colony of Traumatocrinus sp. attached by root cirri to an agatized piece of
PDF file, from:
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Charles E. Weber, Hendersonville NC: DID THE WOOD ROACH OR PROTOTERMITE CAUSE THE PERMIAN - TRIASSIC COAL HIATUS?
Western Washington University,
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Peter Wilf, Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA: Commentary and media items, and online accessable publications.
Peter Wilf, Museum of Paleontology and Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: Ancient insect-plant relationship persists through time. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Highlight, October, 2000. See also: Commentary, reporting, and interviews about Peter Wilf's research.
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Peter Wilf et al. (1998): Portrait of a Late Paleocene (Early Clarkforkian) Terrestrial Ecosystem: Big Multi Quarry and Associated Strata, Washakie Basin, Southwestern Wyoming. PDF file, Palaios, 13: 514-532.
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Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Plant defense against herbivory.
Herbivore adaptations to plant defense.
See also Wikipedia Germany (in German):
Pflanzliche Abwehr von Herbivoren.
Isaak S. Winkler and Charles Mitter (2008): The phylogenetic dimension of insect-plant interactions: a review of recent evidence. PDF file.
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M. Zaton et al. (2012):
of freshwater and variable marginal marine habitats by microconchid
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Geobios, 45: 603-610.
commonly used terrestrial plants and bivalves as hard
substrates in fresh and brackish water environments. See also
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