Ecology & Palaeoenvironment /
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
! Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
! Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record@
! Insect Evolution@
Teaching Documents about Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
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B. Adroit et al. (2021):
of insect damage types reflect complex environmental signal in
Miocene forest biomes of Central Europe and the Mediterranean. In PDF,
Global and Planetary Change.
Note fig. 3N: Preservation of insect oviposition on Salix sp.
B. Adroit et al. (2018):
interactions patterns in three European paleoforests of the
late-Neogene—early-Quaternary. Open access,
PeerJ, 6:e5075. See also
"... our results tend to support that the hydric seasonality and the mean temperature of the coolest months could be potential factors influencing fossil plant–insect interactions".
A.A. Agrawa (2007): Macroevolution of plant defense strategies. PDF file, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.
Richard Alley, Pennsylvania State University:
Living on Earth I: Evolution & Extinction,
the National Parks. Powerpoint presentation.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Notice the animal-plant interaction on sheet 16!
Anto Anu et al. (2009): Seasonality of litter insects and relationship with rainfall in a wet evergreen forest in south Western Ghats. PDF file, Journal of Insect Science, 9. Now via Way back machine.
J. Asar et al. (2022):
diversifications of angiosperms and their insect pollinators: were they unlinked? Free access.
Trends in Plant Science, 27: 858-869.
Note figure 1: Emergence of crown angiosperms and insect pollinators.
Figure 2. Phylogeny of seed plants, depicting pollination modes of both extinct and extant lineages.
AScribe (press release), USA: 96-Million-Year-Old Fossil Pollen Sheds Light on Early Pollinators.
M.P. Ayres, T.P. Clausen, S.F. MacLean, A.M. Redman, and P.B. Reichardt (1997): Diversity of structure and antiherbivore activity in condensed tannins. PDF file, Ecology 78: 1696-1712.
L. Azevedo-Schmidt et al. (2022):
herbivory within modern forests is greater than
fossil localities. Free access,
Note figure 2: Frequency of herbivory damage in fossil and Recent assemblages.
! L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Dept. Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: History of Biotic Pollination. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
E.S. Bakker et al. (2016): Combining paleo-data and modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of megafauna extinctions on woody vegetation. PNAS, 113: 847-855.
M. Barbacka et al. (2022):
Jurassic coprolites: insights into palaeobotany and the feeding
behaviour of dinosaurs. In PDF, Papers in Palaeontology.
See also here.
P.M. Barrett (2014): Paleobiology of herbivorous dinosaurs. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.
D. Barthelt-Ludwig et al. (2004): Rätsel im Stein – Auf paläontologischer Spurensuche. PDF file, in German.
! J. Bascompte and P. Jordano (2007): Plant-animal mutualistic networks: the architecture of biodiversity. In Word doc, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. See also here (abstract).A.L. Beck and C.C. Labandeira (1998): Early Permian insect folivory on a gigantopterid-dominated riparian flora from north-central Texas. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 142: 139-173. See also here.
Roy J. Beckemeyer, Wichita: Fossil Insects. Permian fossil insects from Elmo, Kansas, and Midco, Oklahoma.
B.B. Blaimer et al. (2023):
innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Free access,
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See also here.
Note figure 1: Family-level phylogeny of Hymenoptera.
Figure 2: Timeline and evolution of parasitoidismin Hymenoptera.
! J.L. Blois et al. (2013) Climate Change and the Past, Present, and Future of Biotic Interactions. In PDF, Science 341.
Helen Briggs, BBC News Online: Oldest hamster food store found. A hoard of nuts (Miocene in age) discovered in an open-cast mine near Garzweiler (Germany).
N. Brocklehurst et al. (2020):
origin of tetrapod
herbivory: effects on local plant diversity. Free access,
Proc. R. Soc. B 287: 20200124.
"... findings suggest that plant richness was to some extent structured by vertebrate herbivory from its earliest origins more than 300 Mya. Studies of modern ecosystems suggest that this should be the case, ..."
C.M. Brown et al. (2020): Dietary palaeoecology of an Early Cretaceous armoured dinosaur (Ornithischia; Nodosauridae) based on floral analysis of stomach contents. Open access, R. Soc. Open Sci., 7: 200305.
M.C. Brundrett (2002):
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New phytologist, 154: 275-304.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. PDF file, Journal of Evolutionary Biol., 22: 446-459. See also here (abstract).
! R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Testing co-evolutionary hypotheses over geological timescales: interactions between Mesozoic non-avian dinosaurs and cycads. PDF file, Biol. Rev., 84: 73-89. See also here (abstract).
R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. Free access, Journal of Evolutionary Biol., 22: 446-459.
C. Cai et al. (2018): Beetle Pollination of Cycads in the Mesozoic. Abstract, Current Bialogy, 28: 2806-2812. See also here and there.
William Cannon, Smithsonian magazine: Stories in Stone Read From Ancient Leaves. A Smithsonian scientist studies the relationship between Eocene insects and the plants they ate.
S.C. Cappellari et al. (2013): Evolution: Pollen or Pollinators — Which Came First? Open access, Current Biology, 23.
B. Cariglino (2018): Patterns of insect-mediated damage in a Permian Glossopteris flora from Patagonia (Argentina) Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 507: 39-51. See also here.
S.W. Carmichael (2019): Did Beetles Pollinate Ancient Plants? A review. Free access, MicroscopyToday, 27: 8-11
J.A. Caruso et al. (2012): Microconchid encrusters colonizing land plants: the earliest North American record from the Early Devonian of Wyoming, USA. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 490-494.
R. Cenci and K. Adami-Rodrigues (2017):
of gall abundance as a possible episode of radiation and speciation of
galling insects, Triassic, Southern Brazil. In PDF,
Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 20: 279-286.
See also here and there.
P. Cennamo et al. (2014): Epiphytic Diatom Communities on Sub-Fossil Leaves of Posidonia oceanica Delile in the Graeco-Roman Harbor of Neapolis: A Tool to Explore the Past. In PDF, American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: 549-553.
W.G. Chaloner et al. (1991): Fossil Evidence for Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. PDF file, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 333: 177-186. See also here.
A. Channing and D.E. Wujek (2010):
of protists within decaying plants from geothermally influenced wetlands of Yellowstone
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See also here.
A. Chaudhary et al. (2018): Plant defenses against herbivorous insects: A Review. In PDF, International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6: 681-688. See also here.
L. Chen et al. (2021): Ovipositor and mouthparts in a fossil insect support a novel ecological role for early orthopterans in 300 million years old forests. In PDF, eLife.
Karen Chin (Nature 451, 1053;2008): Pest friends in the Cretaceous. Fossils preserved in amber hint at surprising links between dinosaurs and their insect contemporaries. Book review: What Bugged the Dinosaurs? Insects, Disease, and Death in the Cretaceous; by George Poinar, Jr & Roberta Poinar, Princeton University Press, 2008. 296 pp.
L. Chittka et al. (1999): Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution. In PDF.
Fred Clouter, Lower Eocene Fossils of the Isle of Sheppey: Fossil Trees & Logs. Teredo borings.
P.D. Coley (1999): Hungry herbivores seek a warmer world. PDF file.
! M.E. Collinson and J.J. Hooker (1991): Fossil Evidence of Interactions between Plants and Plant-Eating Mammals. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 333: 197-208.
P. Correia et al. (2020):
History of Herbivory on Sphenophytes: A New Calamitalean with an Insect Gall from the Upper
Pennsylvanian of Portugal and a Review of Arthropod Herbivory on an Ancient Lineage. In PDF,
Int. J. Plant Sci., 181. See also
Please take notice of fig. 3: Interpretative-view drawing of Annularia paisii sp. nov. and Paleogallus carpannularites ichnosp. nov.
Fig. 4: Reconstruction of the parasitic relationship between the insect-induced gall Paleogallus carpannularites ichnosp. nov. and its calamitalean host plant.
Paleobotanical Holdings at the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium at Cornell University, Dept. Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: History of Biotic Pollination. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Studying Evolution. Mini-essays and sub-sections concerning evolution. See: Coevolution: Plants and Pollinators.
P.R. Crane and A.B. Leslie (2013):
Events in the Evolution of Land Plants. In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution.
1. Phylogenetic framework.
2. Origin and diversification of land plants.
3. Origin and diversification of vascular plants.
4. Origin and diversification of seed plants.
5. Origin and diversification of flowering plants.
6. Innovation in the land plant body.
7. Innovation in land plant reproduction.
8. Co-evolution with animals.
9. Patterns of extinction.
See also here, and there (Google books).
E.D. Currano et al. (2021): Scars on fossil leaves: An exploration of ecological patterns in plant–insect herbivore associations during the Age of Angiosperms. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 582. See also here.
E.D. Currano (2010): Green food through time. Abstract, Palaios, 25: 547-549.
E.D. Currano et al. (2008): Sharply increased insect herbivory during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. Free access, PNAS, 105: 1960-1964.
K. De Baets and D.T.J. Littlewood (2015): The Importance of Fossils in Understanding the Evolution of Parasites and Their Vectors. Advances in Parasitology, 90: 1–51. ! See also here (in PDF).
DEEMY Characterization and DEtermination of EctoMYcorrhizae (by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Dept. Biologie I - Systematische Mykologie). DEEMY is a research database (including images) for identifying and characterizing ectomycorrhizae fungus-plant interactions.
W. de Haan (2020): Pollination: Cooperation or Arms Race? An analysis of competition in biotic pollination. In PDF, Bachelor thesis.
Q. Ding et al. (2014): Biology of a leaf miner (Coleoptera) on Liaoningocladus boii (Coniferales) from the Early Cretaceous of northeastern China and the leaf-mining biology of possible insect culprit clades. In PDF, Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 72: 281-308.
W.A. DiMichele and H.J. Falcon-Lang (2011):
"fossil forests" in growth position (T0 assemblages): origin,
taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights. PDF file,
Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168: 585-605.
Note fig. 14 (PDF page 17), Animals using hollow Sigillarian stumps as refuges from fire.
M.P. Donovan et al. (2020): Persistent biotic interactions of a Gondwanan conifer from Cretaceous Patagonia to modern Malesia. In PDF, Communications Biology, 3.
Dong Ren, National Geological Museum of China, Beijing: Flower-Associated Brachycera Flies as Fossil Evidence for Jurassic Angiosperm Origins.
A. Duhin et al. (2022): Early land plants: Plentiful but neglected nutritional resources for herbivores? Open access, Ecology and Evolution, 12.
J.A. Dunlop and R.J. Garwood (2017): Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373: 20160493.
L.A. Dyer and D.K. Letourneau (2003):
Top-down and bottom-up diversity
cascades in detrital versus living food webs.
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Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G. Edirisooriya and H.A. Dharmagunawardhane (2013): Plant Insect-Interactions in Jurassic Fossil Flora from Sri Lanka. In PDF, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3.
! The EDNA fossil insect database (named after Edna Clifford): EDNA aims to be a complete, fully interactive list of all the species of insect named from the fossil record, including site, geological age and reference for each holotype. Read the Help Searching for better search results.
! D. Edwards et al. (2020): Further evidence for fungivory in the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian) of the Welsh Borderland, UK. Open access, PalZ, 94: 603–618.
Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham,
Surrey, UK: Research activities,
Animal -plant interactions.
M. El Hedeny et al. (2020): Bivalve borings in Maastrichtian fossil Nypa fruits: Dakhla Formation, Bir Abu Minqar, South Western Desert, Egypt. In PDF, Ichnos, DOI: 10.1080/10420940.2020.1784158. See also here.
EnchantedLearning.com: DINOSAURS AND PLANTS. An easy to understand introduction about the food chain of sauropods and Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous plants.
I.V. Enushchenko and A.O. Frolov (2020): Revision of existing classification of fossil insect feeding traces and description of new ichnotaxa from Middle Jurassic sediments of Eastern Siberia (Russia). In PDF, Zootaxa, 4758: 347–359.
Neal L. Evenhuis, Department of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii: Catalogue of the fossil flies of the world (Insecta: Diptera).
Michael J. Everhart, Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University: OCEANS OF KANSAS - A Natural History of the Western Interior Sea (Indiana University Press, 2005), Shipworm borings (teredo) in wood.
C.T. Faulkner (2014): A Retrospective Examination of Paleoparasitology and its Establishment in the Journal of Parasitology. In PDF, Papers in Natural Resources, 402.
Z. Feng et al. (2023):
herbivory in fossil leaves reveals
convergent origins of nyctinasty. Open access
Current Biaology. Note also:
Urzeitlicher Blatt-Schlaf im Spiegel von Fraßspuren. In German, Bild der Wissenschaft.
Z. Feng et al. (2021): Plant–insect interactions in the early Permian Wuda Tuff Flora, North China. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 294.
Z. Feng et al. (2019): Beetle borings in wood with host response in early Permian conifers from Germany. Free access, PalZ.
Z. Feng et al. (2017): Late Permian wood-borings reveal an intricate network of ecological relationships. In PDF, Nature Communications, 8. See also here. (abstract).
L.E. Fiorelli et al. (2013): The oldest known communal latrines provide evidence of gregarism in Triassic megaherbivores. Sci Rep., 3.
F. Fraser et al. (2020): Investigating Biotic Interactions in Deep Time. Free accesss, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.
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Jörg Fröbisch and Robert R. Reisz (2009): The Late Permian herbivore Suminia and the early evolution of arboreality in terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems. Abstract, see also here (brief summary by Matt Celeskey). The earliest tree-dweller in the late Permian.
! D.J. Futuyma and A.A. Agrawal (2009): Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores. In PDF.
O.F. Gallego et al. (2011):
most ancient Platyperlidae (Insecta, Perlida= Plecoptera) from early Late Triassic deposits in southern South America.
In PDF, Ameghiniana, 48: 447-461. See also
Please take notice: Fig. 8, the reconstruction by Carsten Brauckmann and Elke Gröening. A plecopteran nymph over a Dicroidium leaf under the water surface.
R. Garrouste et al. (2016):
mimicry of plants dates back to the Permian.
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Figure 3 shows a reconstruction of Permotettigonia gallica gen. et sp. nov. on Taeniopteris sp.
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C.T. Gee (2013): Sauropod herbivory and the Mesozoic flora. Conference abstract, in PDF; Go to PDF page 22.
C.T. Gee (2011, starting on PDF page 46):
options for the sauropod dinosaurs from an integrated botanical and
paleobotanical perspective. In PDF, In: Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs:
Understanding the life of giants (ed. N. Klein, K. Remes, C.T. Gee and P. M. Sander).
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Carole T. Gee (2008): Sauropod food plants from physiological and paleobotanical perspectives. Abstract, 18th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Vienna, Austria.
C.T. Gee et al. (2003): A Miocene rodent nut cache in coastal dunes of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. In PDF, Palaeontology, 46. See also here (abstract).
J.F. Genise et al. (2020): 100 Ma sweat bee nests: Early and rapid co-diversification of crown bees and flowering plants. Open access, PLoS ONE 15: e0227789.
Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts: Insects and Terrestrial Arthropods in the Fossil Record: Are So Many Really Represented by So Few? Abstracts.
This is one of the internet´s leading websites for earth science news and information. Go to:
G. Geyer and K.-P. Kelber (1987): Flügelreste und Lebensspuren von Insekten aus dem Unteren Keuper Mainfrankens. PDF file, (in German).
E.H. Gierlowski-Kordesch and C.F. Cassle (2015): The "Spirorbis" problem revisited: Sedimentology and biology of microconchids in marine-nonmarine transitions. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.
F.L. Gill et al. (2018): Diets of giants: the nutritional value of sauropod diet during the Mesozoic. Free access, Palaeontology, 61: 647–658.
J.J. Glas et al. (2012): Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores. In PDF, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13: 17077-17103.
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M. Grünemeier (2017):
just hyphae — the amber mite Glaesacarus rhombeus as a forager on
hardened resin surfaces and a potential scavenger on trapped insects. In PDF,
Note fig. 5: Illustration depicting the possible behaviour of Glaesacarus rhombeus on the bark of Pinus succinifera with a trapped spider.
N.L. Gunter et al. (2016): If Dung Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) Arose in Association with Dinosaurs, Did They Also Suffer a Mass Co-Extinction at the K-Pg Boundary?. Open access, PLOS ONE, DOI:10.1371.
H. Hagdorn et al. (2015):
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Go to PDF page 8:
! Bite traces on plants from the germanotype Lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic).
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").
Terry Harrison (2011): Coprolites: Taphonomic and Paleoecological Implications. PDF file, Paleontology and geology of Laetoli. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
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M. Heingård et al. (2022): Preservation and Taphonomy of Fossil Insects from the Earliest Eocene of Denmark. Open access, Biology, 11.
E.A. Heise et al. (2011):
taphonomy in a tropical marine carbonate environment:
Experimental results from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. In PDF,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 312: 363-379.
See also here.
! C.M. Herrera (1985): Determinants of plant-animal coevolution: the case of mutualistic dispersal of seeds by vertebrates. PDF file, Oikos, 44.
! G. Horváth et al. (2019): How did amber get its aquatic insects? Water-seeking polarotactic insects trapped by tree resin. Free access, Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2019.1663843.
! S. Hu et al. (2008): Early steps of angiosperm-pollinator coevolution. PDF file, PNAS, 105: 40-245. See also here (abstract).
I.B. Huegele and S.R. Manchester (2020): An Early Paleocene Carpoflora from the Denver Basin of Colorado, USA, and Its Implications for Plant-Animal Interactions and Fruit Size Evolution. Free access, Int. J. Plant Sci., 181: 646–665.
D.P. Hughes et al. (2011):
Ancient death-grip leaf
scars reveal ant-fungal
parasitism. PDF file,
Biology Letters, 7: 67-70.
See also here.
J. Hummel et al. (2008):
digestibility of fern and gymnosperm foliage: implications for sauropod feeding ecology and
diet selection. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 275. See also
"Based on our experimental results, plants such as Equisetum, Araucaria, Ginkgo and Angiopteris would have formed a major part of sauropod diets, while cycads, tree ferns and podocarp conifers would have been poor sources of energy".
Y. Imada et al. (2022):
leaf mine trace fossil from East Asia provides insight into ancient nutritional
flow in a plant-herbivore interaction. Free access,
Sci. Rep., 12: 5254. See also
Note figure 4: Mining structures known so far from the Middle–Late Triassic.
International Palaeoentomological Society (IPS). The aims of the Society are to promote and advance the understanding of fossil insects and other non-marine arthropods.
! D. Jablonski (2008): Biotic interactions and macroevolution: extensions and mismatches across scales and levels. PDF file, Evolution, 62: 715-739.
! E.M. Janson et al. (2008): Phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms and adaptive evolutionary diversification. In PDF.
E.A. Jarzembowski (2012): The oldest plant-insect interaction in Croatia: Carboniferous evidence. In PDF, Geologia Croatica, 65: 387-392.
L. Kaiser et al. (2017): The Plant as a Habitat for Entomophagous Insects. In PDF, Advances in Botanical Research, 81: 179-223. See also here.
J.E. Kalyniuk et al. (2023): The Albian vegetation of central Alberta as a food source for the nodosaurid Borealopelta markmitchelli. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 611.
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M.A. Khan et al. (2014): Fossil evidence of insect folivory in the eastern Himalayan Neogene Siwalik forests. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410: 264-277. See also here (abstract).
Derek Keats, Department of Botany, University of the Western Cape, Bellville (Cape Town) South Africa:
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
K.-P. Kelber and G. Geyer (1989): Lebensspuren von Insekten an Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers. In German, PDF file. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 109: 165-174.
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Book announcement: Kelley, Patricia H.; Kowalewski, Michal; Hansen, Thor A. (eds.): Predator-Prey Interactions in the Fossil Record. Series: Topics in Geobiology, Vol. 20; 2003, 484 p.
! P.G. Kevan and H.G. Baker (1983): Insects as flower visitors and pollinators. In PDF, Annual review of entomology.
M.A. Khan et al. (2014): Fossil evidence of insect folivory in the eastern Himalayan Neogene Siwalik forests. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410: 264-277.
S. Kiel et al. (2012):
digestive systems in 23 million-year-old wood-boring bivalves. Open access,
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"... Fossilized remnants of parts of the digestive system of wood-boring pholadoidean bivalves are reported from late Oligocene–early Miocene deep-water sediments ..."
S.D. Klavins et al. (2005):
in a Middle Triassic cycad pollen cone: evidence for insect pollination in early cycads?
PDF file, Evolutionary Ecology Research, 7: 479-488.
See also here.
J. Koricheva (2002):
of sources of variation in fitness costs of plant
PDF file, Ecology 83: 176-190.
See also here.
M. Kowalewski (2002): The fossil record of predation: An overview of analytical methods. PDF file, In: Kowalewski, M., and Kelley, P.H., eds., The Fossil Record of Predation: Paleontological Society Special Papers 8: 3-42.
V. Krassilov et al. (2008): Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Early Angiosperm History. Evidence from the Cretaceous of Israel. In PDF.
V.A. Krassilov and E.V. Karasev (2008): First evidence of plant-arthropod interaction at the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Volga Basin, European Russia. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 247-252.
V.A. Krassilov and A.P. Rasnitsyn (2008): Plant-arthropod interactions in the early angiosperm history: evidence from the Cretaceous of Israel. PDF file, 222 p., (Pensoft Publishers & Brill Academic Publishers), Sofia, Moscow.
V.A. Krassilov (1981): Changes of Mesozoic vegetation and the extinction of dinosaurs. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 34: 207-224. See also here (in PDF).
M. Krings et al.(2002): Touch-sensitive glandular trichomes: a mode of defence against herbivorous arthropods in the Carboniferous. PDF file, Evolutionary Ecology Research, 4: 779-786. See also here.
A. Krüger et al. (2021):
imaging of shark egg cases
(Palaeoxyris) from Sweden with new insights into Early
Jurassic shark ecology. Open access,
GFF, 143: 229-247.
Note figure 11: Reconstruction of Palaeoxyris egg cases attached to Neocalamites (Equisitum) (sic!) stems.
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Figure 2: Important studies of plant–insect interactions from plant assemblages of the fossil record.
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Conrad C. Labandeira (2010):
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Note figure 27: Ptilodactylid (Coleoptera: Ptilodactylidae) beetle with attached pollinarium (arrow) of Annulites mexicana (Angiospermae: Orchidaceae) in Mexican amber.
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"... Long-term trends in the fossil record of plants, encompassing their interactions with herbivores and with the environment, are of the utmost relevance for predicting global change
[...] in contrast to modern ecology and unlike various other paleontological disciplines, paleobotany has a limited history of “big data” meta-analyses.
[...] Here I demonstrate the importance of analytical best practices by applying them to a recent meta-analysis of fossil angiosperms. ..."
S.R. Schachat et al. (2022):
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"... a discussion of the most appropriate uses of a theoretical ecospace for insect herbivory, with the overlapping damage type diversities of Paleozoic gymnosperms and Cenozoic angiosperms as a brief case study. ..."
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Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands:
Hans´ Paleobotany Pages.
Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Little animals in the Coal Swamp.
Sharon Y. Strauss and Rebecca E. Irwin (2004):
and evolutionary consequences of multispecies plant-animal interactions. PDF file,
Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 35: 435-66.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! E. Strickson et al. (2016): Dynamics of dental evolution in ornithopod dinosaurs. In PDF, Scientific Reports, 6. See also here (abstract).
G.W. Stull et al. (2013): The "Seeds" on Padgettia readi are Insect Galls: Reassignment of the Plant to Odontopteris, the Gall to Ovofoligallites N. Gen., and the Evolutionary Implications Thereof. In PDF, Journal of Paleontology, 87: 217-231.
J.I. Sutherland (2003): Miocene petrified wood and associated borings and termite faecal pellets from Hukatere Peninsula, Kaipara Harbour, North Auckland, New Zealand. In PDF, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 33: 395-414.
A. Swain et al. (2022):
bias and the robustness of ecological metrics for plant-damage-type association
networks. In PDF,
See also here.
"... Using proxy data of insect herbivore damage (denoted by the damage type or DT) preserved on fossil leaves, functional bipartite network representations provide insights into how plant–insect associations depend on geological time, paleogeographical space, and environmental variables such as temperature and precipitation. ..."
A. Swain et al. (2022): Understanding the ecology of host plant–insect herbivore interactions in the fossil record through bipartite networks—Corrigendum. Free access, Paleobiology, 48: 353–355.
A. Swain et al. (2021): Understanding the ecology of host plant–insect herbivore interactions in the fossil record through bipartite networks. IN PDF, Paleobiology. See also here.
Ralph E. Taggart, & A.T. Cross (1997): The relationship between land plant diversity and productivity and patterns of dinosaur herbivory. PDF file, p.403-416 in Wolberg, D.L., E. Stump, and G.D. Rosenberg (eds.), Proceedings of the Dinofest International Symposium, 1997, Arizona State University (Tempe). Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 587 pp.
! L. Tapanila and E.M. Roberts (2012): The Earliest Evidence of Holometabolan Insect Pupation in Conifer Wood. In PDF. See also here.
! T.N. Taylor and M. Krings (2005):
microorganisms and land plants: Associations and
interactions. PDF file, Symbiosis, 40: 119-135.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.
TAYLOR, EDITH L., CARLY M. HARTER, AND THOMAS N. TAYLOR: Plant-animal interactions in the Triassic of Antarctica. Abstract, 1998 Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America, 2-6 August, 1998 Baltimore.
! Thomas N. Taylor and Michael Krings (2005): Fossil microorganisms and land plants: Associations and interactions. PDF file, SYMBIOSIS, 40: 119-135.
Paul D. Taylor & Olev Vinn (2006): Convergent morphology in small spiral worm tubes ("Spirorbis") and its palaeoenvironmental implications. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 163: 225-228.
taz (a German newspaper; November 19, 2022):
„Wie ein Foto aus der Urzeit“ (in German).
Paläobotaniker interessieren sich für die urzeitliche Pflanzenwelt. Die Fossilien von Blättern und Stämmen liefern Einblicke in untergegangene Welten.
Leonard B. Thien, Hiroshi Azuma, and Shoichi Kawano: New Perspectives on the Pollination Biology of Basal Angiosperms. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences, volume 161 (2000).
Teaching Biology: Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Fossil Record. See also here.
A.S. Thorpe et al. (2011): Interactions among plants and evolution. In PDF, Journal of Ecology, 99: 729-740.
! B.H. Tiffney (2004): Vertebrate dispersal of seed plants through time. In PDF, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 35: 1-29.
! B.H. Tiffney (1988): Conceptual advances in paleobotany. In PDF, Journal of Geological Education: September 1988, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 221-226. See also here.
Bruce H. Tiffney, UC Santa Barbara: Tracking the Course of Evolution (hosted by UCMP), Plants and Their Predators Through Time. A ramble through the positive and negative (from the plant's point of view) interactions between terrestrial plants and those insects and vertebrates who feed upon them. Examine TWO GRAPHICS showing (1) a simple time line of plant predation and (2) the relationship of plant diversification and the phylogeny of vertebrate plant predators.
Bruce H. Tiffney, University of California, Santa Barbara (Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs): Dinosaurs and Plants.
Thomas van de Kamp et al. (2018):
biology preserved in mineralized fossils. Open access,
Nature Communications, 9.
Using high-throughput synchrotron X-ray microtomography 55 parasitation events by four wasp species were identified from the Paleogene of France.
C.J. van der Kooi and J. Ollerton (2020):
origins of flowering plants and pollinators. Free access,
Science, 368: 1306-1308.
See also here (in PDF).
Diego P. Vázquez et al. (2009): Uniting pattern and process in plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review. PDF file, Annals of Botany, 103: 1445-1457. See also here (abstract).
G.J. Vermeij (2016): Plant defences on land and in water: why are they so different? Open access, Annals of Botany, 117: 1099–1109.
! Y. Wang et al. (2012): Jurassic mimicry between a hangingfly and a ginkgo from China. In PDF, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 109: 20514-20519. See also here.
Y. Wang et al. (2010): Ancient pinnate leaf mimesis among lacewings. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 16212-16215.
Jun Wang et al. (2009)
Circulipuncturites discinisporis Labandeira, Wang, Zhang, Bek et Pfefferkorn
gen. et spec. nov. (formerly Discinispora) from China, an ichnotaxon of a
punch-and-sucking insect on Noeggerathialean spores.
PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 77-282.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Wang Xiaofeng et al. (2009):
The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from
Barren Mountain, Guizhou Province, China.
PDF file, from:
Jere H. Lipps and Bruno R.C. Granier (eds.) 2009, (e-book, hosted by Carnets).
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
A colony of Traumatocrinus sp. attached by root cirri to an agatized piece of driftwood!
T. Wappler et al. (2015): Plant-insect interactions from Middle Triassic (late Ladinian) of Monte Agnello (Dolomites, N-Italy) - initial pattern and response to abiotic environmental perturbations. PeerJ.
P. Ward et al. (2006): Confirmation of Romer´s Gap as a low oxygen interval constraining the timing of initial arthropod and vertebrate terrestrialization. In PDF, PNAS, see also here.
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Ancient Insect-Plant Relationship Persists through Time.
Charles E. Weber, Hendersonville NC: DID THE WOOD ROACH OR PROTOTERMITE CAUSE THE PERMIAN - TRIASSIC COAL HIATUS?
Western Washington University,
! Coevolution of Plants and Insects. Powerpoint presentation. See also here, or there.
! B.M. Wiegmann et al. (2009): Holometabolous insects (Holometabola). PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Plant defense against herbivory.
Herbivore adaptations to plant defense.
See also Wikipedia Germany (in German):
Pflanzliche Abwehr von Herbivoren.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Pflanzengalle (in German).
P. Wilf (2008): Insect-damaged fossil leaves record food web response to ancient climate change and extinction. In PDF, New Phytologist.
Peter Wilf et al. (2006): Decoupled Plant and Insect Diversity After the End-Cretaceous Extinction. PDF file, Science, 313.
Peter Wilf, Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA: Commentary and media items, and online accessable publications.
Peter Wilf, Museum of Paleontology and Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: Ancient insect-plant relationship persists through time. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Highlight, October, 2000. See also: Commentary, reporting, and interviews about Peter Wilf's research.
P. Wilf and C. C. Labandeira, Response of plant-insect associations to Paleocene-Eocene warming. From Science (1999), 284:2153-2156. You can view and print the document using Adobe Acrobat Reader.
P. Wilf et al. (2001):
herbivory, plant defense, and early Cenozoic climate change. Free access,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98: 6221-6226.
See also here.
Peter Wilf et al. (1998): Portrait of a Late Paleocene (Early Clarkforkian) Terrestrial Ecosystem: Big Multi Quarry and Associated Strata, Washakie Basin, Southwestern Wyoming. PDF file, Palaios, 13: 514-532.
D.M. Wilkinson and T.N. Sherratt (2016): Why is the world green? The interactions of top-down and bottom-up processes in terrestrial vegetation ecology. In PDF, Plant Ecology & Diversity, 9: 127-140. See also here.
Isaak S. Winkler and Charles Mitter (2008): The phylogenetic dimension of insect-plant interactions: a review of recent evidence. PDF file. See also here.
M. Zaton et al. (2015): Comment on the paper of Gierlowski-Kordesch and Cassle "The "Spirorbis" problem revisited: Sedimentology and biology of microconchids in marine–nonmarine transitions" [Earth-Science Reviews, 148 (2015): 209–227]. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews.
M. Zaton et al. (2012): Invasion of freshwater and variable marginal marine habitats by microconchid tubeworms - an evolutionary perspective. In PDF, Geobios, 45: 603-610. Microconchids commonly used terrestrial plants and bivalves as hard substrates in fresh and brackish water environments. See also here.
X. Zhao et al. (2021):
evolution of beetles regulated by the end-Permian deforestation. Free access,
eLife. See also
"... Our results suggest that xylophagous (feeding on or in wood) beetles probably played a key and underappreciated role in the Permian carbon cycle ..."
! T. Züst and A.A. Agrawal (2017): Trade-Offs Between Plant Growth and Defense Against Insect Herbivory: An Emerging Mechanistic Synthesis. Abstract, Annual Review of Plant Biology, 68: 513-534. See also here (in PDF).
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