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Wetland Plant Communities
Playa Lakes
Riparian Habitats
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Plant Roots
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
! Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
! Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record@
! Insect Evolution@
Teaching Documents about Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@

Fossil Animal Plant Interaction

! S. Adl et al. (2010): Reconstructing the soil food web of a 100 million-year-old forest: The case of the mid-Cretaceous fossils in the amber of Charentes (SW France). PDF file, Soil Biology & Biochemistry. See also here.

B. Adroit et al. (2021): Patterns of insect damage types reflect complex environmental signal in Miocene forest biomes of Central Europe and the Mediterranean. In PDF, Global and Planetary Change.
Note fig. 3N: Preservation of insect oviposition on Salix sp.

B. Adroit et al. (2018): Plant-insect interactions patterns in three European paleoforests of the late-Neogene—early-Quaternary. Open access, PeerJ, 6:e5075. See also here (in PDF).
"... our results tend to support that the hydric seasonality and the mean temperature of the coolest months could be potential factors influencing fossil plant–insect interactions".

A.A. Agrawa (2007): Macroevolution of plant defense strategies. PDF file, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

Richard Alley, Pennsylvania State University: Living on Earth I: Evolution & Extinction, Geology of the National Parks. Powerpoint presentation.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Notice the animal-plant interaction on sheet 16!

Anto Anu et al. (2009): Seasonality of litter insects and relationship with rainfall in a wet evergreen forest in south Western Ghats. PDF file, Journal of Insect Science, 9. Now via Way back machine.

! J. Asar et al. (2022): Early diversifications of angiosperms and their insect pollinators: were they unlinked? Free access. Trends in Plant Science, 27: 858-869. See also here.
Note figure 1: Emergence of crown angiosperms and insect pollinators.
Figure 2. Phylogeny of seed plants, depicting pollination modes of both extinct and extant lineages.

AScribe (press release), USA: 96-Million-Year-Old Fossil Pollen Sheds Light on Early Pollinators.

M.P. Ayres, T.P. Clausen, S.F. MacLean, A.M. Redman, and P.B. Reichardt (1997): Diversity of structure and antiherbivore activity in condensed tannins. PDF file, Ecology 78: 1696-1712.

L. Azevedo-Schmidt et al. (2022): Insect herbivory within modern forests is greater than fossil localities. Free access, PNAS, 119.
Note figure 2: Frequency of herbivory damage in fossil and Recent assemblages.

! L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Dept. Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: History of Biotic Pollination. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

E.S. Bakker et al. (2016): Combining paleo-data and modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of megafauna extinctions on woody vegetation. PNAS, 113: 847-855.

M. Barbacka et al. (2022): Early Jurassic coprolites: insights into palaeobotany and the feeding behaviour of dinosaurs. In PDF, Papers in Palaeontology.
See also here.

! N. Barling (2018): The Fidelity of Preservation of Insects from the Crato Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of Brazil. In PDF, Thesis, University of Portsmouth.
See also here.
"... The Nova Olinda Member fossil insects have a broad range of preservational fidelities.
[...] At their highest-fidelity, they are complete, fully-articulated, high-relief specimens with submicron-scale replication of both external and internal morphology. Cuticular structures (setae, scales, ommatidia, etc.) are sometimes replicated to the submicron-scale
[...] The remaining tissues are obliterated by pseudomorphed pseudoframboids (or pseudoframboid-like aggregates), which also protected the carcass from compaction ..."

P.M. Barrett (2014): Paleobiology of herbivorous dinosaurs. Abstract, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.

D. Barthelt-Ludwig et al. (2004): Rätsel im Stein – Auf paläontologischer Spurensuche. PDF file, in German.

! J. Bascompte and P. Jordano (2007): Plant-animal mutualistic networks: the architecture of biodiversity. In Word doc, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. See also here (abstract).

A.L. Beck and C.C. Labandeira (1998): Early Permian insect folivory on a gigantopterid-dominated riparian flora from north-central Texas. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 142: 139-173. See also here.

Roy J. Beckemeyer, Wichita: Fossil Insects. Permian fossil insects from Elmo, Kansas, and Midco, Oklahoma.

B.B. Blaimer et al. (2023): Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Free access, Nature Communications, 14.
See also here.
Note figure 1: Family-level phylogeny of Hymenoptera.
Figure 2: Timeline and evolution of parasitoidismin Hymenoptera.

! J.L. Blois et al. (2013): Climate Change and the Past, Present, and Future of Biotic Interactions. In PDF, Science 341.
See also here.

J.C. Blong (2023): Sequential biomolecular, macrofossil, and microfossil extraction from coprolites for reconstructing past behavior and environments. Free access, Front. Ecol. Evol., 11:1131294. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1131294.

Helen Briggs, BBC News Online: Oldest hamster food store found. A hoard of nuts (Miocene in age) discovered in an open-cast mine near Garzweiler (Germany).

! N. Brocklehurst et al. (2020): The origin of tetrapod herbivory: effects on local plant diversity. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B 287: 20200124.
"... findings suggest that plant richness was to some extent structured by vertebrate herbivory from its earliest origins more than 300 Mya. Studies of modern ecosystems suggest that this should be the case, ..."

C.M. Brown et al. (2020): Dietary palaeoecology of an Early Cretaceous armoured dinosaur (Ornithischia; Nodosauridae) based on floral analysis of stomach contents. Open access, R. Soc. Open Sci., 7: 200305.

M.C. Brundrett (2002): Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. In PDF, New phytologist, 154: 275-304.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. PDF file, Journal of Evolutionary Biol., 22: 446-459. See also here (abstract).

! R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Testing co-evolutionary hypotheses over geological timescales: interactions between Mesozoic non-avian dinosaurs and cycads. PDF file, Biol. Rev., 84: 73-89. See also here (abstract).

R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. Free access, Journal of Evolutionary Biol., 22: 446-459.

C. Cai et al. (2018): Beetle Pollination of Cycads in the Mesozoic. Abstract, Current Bialogy, 28: 2806-2812. See also here and there.

William Cannon, Smithsonian magazine: Stories in Stone Read From Ancient Leaves. A Smithsonian scientist studies the relationship between Eocene insects and the plants they ate.

S.C. Cappellari et al. (2013): Evolution: Pollen or Pollinators — Which Came First? Open access, Current Biology, 23.

B. Cariglino (2018): Patterns of insect-mediated damage in a Permian Glossopteris flora from Patagonia (Argentina) Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 507: 39-51. See also here.

S.W. Carmichael (2019): Did Beetles Pollinate Ancient Plants? A review. Free access, MicroscopyToday, 27: 8-11

J.A. Caruso and A.M.F. Tomescu (2012): Microconchid encrusters colonizing land plants: the earliest North American record from the Early Devonian of Wyoming, USA. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 490-494.
see also here.
About plant decay rates.
"... The Beartooth Butte Formation provides the first record of plant colonization by microconchids in North America and, along with only one other Early Devonian record from Germany, the oldest evidence for microconchids colonizing plant substrates ..."

! R. Cenci and K. Adami-Rodrigues (2017): Record of gall abundance as a possible episode of radiation and speciation of galling insects, Triassic, Southern Brazil. In PDF, Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 20: 279-286.
See also here and there.

P. Cennamo et al. (2014): Epiphytic Diatom Communities on Sub-Fossil Leaves of Posidonia oceanica Delile in the Graeco-Roman Harbor of Neapolis: A Tool to Explore the Past. In PDF, American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: 549-553.

W.G. Chaloner et al. (1991): Fossil Evidence for Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. Open access, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 333: 177-186.

A. Channing and D.E. Wujek (2010): Preservation of protists within decaying plants from geothermally influenced wetlands of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, United States. PDF file, Palaios, 25: 347-355.
See also here.

A. Chaudhary et al. (2018): Plant defenses against herbivorous insects: A Review. In PDF, International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6: 681-688. See also here.

L. Chen et al. (2021): Ovipositor and mouthparts in a fossil insect support a novel ecological role for early orthopterans in 300 million years old forests. In PDF, eLife.

Karen Chin (Nature 451, 1053;2008): Pest friends in the Cretaceous. Fossils preserved in amber hint at surprising links between dinosaurs and their insect contemporaries. Book review: What Bugged the Dinosaurs? Insects, Disease, and Death in the Cretaceous; by George Poinar, Jr & Roberta Poinar, Princeton University Press, 2008. 296 pp.

L. Chittka et al. (1999): Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution. In PDF.

Fred Clouter, Lower Eocene Fossils of the Isle of Sheppey: Fossil Trees & Logs. Teredo borings.

P.D. Coley (1999): Hungry herbivores seek a warmer world. PDF file.

! M.E. Collinson and J.J. Hooker (1991): Fossil Evidence of Interactions between Plants and Plant-Eating Mammals. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 333: 197-208.

! P. Correia et al. (2020): The History of Herbivory on Sphenophytes: A New Calamitalean with an Insect Gall from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Portugal and a Review of Arthropod Herbivory on an Ancient Lineage. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 181. See also here.
Please take notice of fig. 3: Interpretative-view drawing of Annularia paisii sp. nov. and Paleogallus carpannularites ichnosp. nov.
Fig. 4: Reconstruction of the parasitic relationship between the insect-induced gall Paleogallus carpannularites ichnosp. nov. and its calamitalean host plant.

Paleobotanical Holdings at the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium at Cornell University, Dept. Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: History of Biotic Pollination. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Richard Cowen, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis: Studying Evolution. Mini-essays and sub-sections concerning evolution. See: Coevolution: Plants and Pollinators.

! P.R. Crane and A.B. Leslie (2013): Major Events in the Evolution of Land Plants. In PDF. The Princeton Guide to Evolution.
1. Phylogenetic framework.
2. Origin and diversification of land plants.
3. Origin and diversification of vascular plants.
4. Origin and diversification of seed plants.
5. Origin and diversification of flowering plants.
6. Innovation in the land plant body.
7. Innovation in land plant reproduction.
8. Co-evolution with animals.
9. Patterns of extinction.
See also here, and there (Google books).

E.D. Currano et al. (2021): Scars on fossil leaves: An exploration of ecological patterns in plant–insect herbivore associations during the Age of Angiosperms. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 582. See also here.

E.D. Currano (2010): Green food through time. Abstract, Palaios, 25: 547-549.

E.D. Currano et al. (2008): Sharply increased insect herbivory during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. Free access, PNAS, 105: 1960-1964.

K. De Baets et al. (2021): The fossil record of parasitism: Its extent and taphonomic constraints. In PDF, The Evolution and Fossil Record of Parasitism, pp. 1-50. See also here.

K. De Baets and D.T.J. Littlewood (2015): The Importance of Fossils in Understanding the Evolution of Parasites and Their Vectors. Advances in Parasitology, 90: 1–51. ! See also here (in PDF).

DEEMY Characterization and DEtermination of EctoMYcorrhizae (by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Dept. Biologie I - Systematische Mykologie). DEEMY is a research database (including images) for identifying and characterizing ectomycorrhizae fungus-plant interactions.

W. de Haan (2020): Pollination: Cooperation or Arms Race? An analysis of competition in biotic pollination. In PDF, Bachelor thesis.

P.J. de Schutter et al. (2023): An exceptional concentration of marine fossils associated with wood-fall in the Terhagen Member (Boom Formation; Schelle, Belgium), Rupelian of the southern North Sea Basin. Free access, Geologica Belgica, 26.
"... A large fragment of driftwood was discovered in the marine Terhagen Member (Boom Formation, NP23) at Schelle (Belgium), representing the first well-documented case of wood-fall in the Rupelian of the North Sea Basin ..."

Q. Ding et al. (2014): Biology of a leaf miner (Coleoptera) on Liaoningocladus boii (Coniferales) from the Early Cretaceous of northeastern China and the leaf-mining biology of possible insect culprit clades. In PDF, Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 72: 281-308.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2023): A paleontological perspective on ecosystem assembly rules in the terrestrial Paleozoic. Free access, Evolving Earth.
Note figure 1: Early Devonian (Emsian) flora from Gaspé, Canada.
Figure 2C: Edaphosaurus feeding on Supaia plants on stream bank, with background vegetation dominated by conifers. Early Permian (Wolfcampian/Asselian), New Mexico.

! W.A. DiMichele and H.J. Falcon-Lang (2011): Pennsylvanian "fossil forests" in growth position (T0 assemblages): origin, taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168: 585-605. See also here.
Note fig. 14 (PDF page 17), Animals using hollow Sigillarian stumps as refuges from fire.

M.P. Donovan et al. (2023): Insect herbivore and fungal communities on Agathis (Araucariaceae) from the latest Cretaceous to Recent. In PDF, PhytoKeys 226: 109–158.
See also here.

M.P. Donovan et al. (2020): Persistent biotic interactions of a Gondwanan conifer from Cretaceous Patagonia to modern Malesia. In PDF, Communications Biology, 3.

T.B. Dos Santos et al. (2024): Plant interactions with arthropods and pathogens at Sanzenbacher Ranch, early Permian of Texas, and implications for herbivory evolution in Southwestern Euramerica. Free access, Front. Ecol. Evol., Sec. Biogeography and Macroecology, 12.

A. Duhin et al. (2022): Early land plants: Plentiful but neglected nutritional resources for herbivores? Open access, Ecology and Evolution, 12.

J.A. Dunlop and R.J. Garwood (2017): Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373: 20160493.

L.A. Dyer and D.K. Letourneau (2003): Top-down and bottom-up diversity cascades in detrital versus living food webs. PDF file, Ecology Letters 6:60-68.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G. Edirisooriya and H.A. Dharmagunawardhane (2013): Plant Insect-Interactions in Jurassic Fossil Flora from Sri Lanka. In PDF, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3.

! The EDNA fossil insect database (named after Edna Clifford): EDNA aims to be a complete, fully interactive list of all the species of insect named from the fossil record, including site, geological age and reference for each holotype. Read the Help Searching for better search results.

! D. Edwards et al. (2020): Further evidence for fungivory in the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian) of the Welsh Borderland, UK. Open access, PalZ, 94: 603–618.

Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK: Research activities,
Animal -plant interactions.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. El Hedeny et al. (2020): Bivalve borings in Maastrichtian fossil Nypa fruits: Dakhla Formation, Bir Abu Minqar, South Western Desert, Egypt. In PDF, Ichnos, DOI: 10.1080/10420940.2020.1784158. See also here. DINOSAURS AND PLANTS. An easy to understand introduction about the food chain of sauropods and Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous plants.

M.-J. Endara et al. (2023): The Evolutionary Ecology of Plant Chemical Defenses: From Molecules to Communities. Open access, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 54: 107-127.
"... we summarize current trends in the study of plant–herbivore interactions and how they shape the evolution of plant chemical defenses, host choice, and community composition and diversity
[...] On an evolutionary timescale, host choice by herbivores is largely determined by plant defenses rather than host phylogeny, leading to evolutionary tracking by herbivores rather than cocladogenesis ..."

I.V. Enushchenko and A.O. Frolov (2020): Revision of existing classification of fossil insect feeding traces and description of new ichnotaxa from Middle Jurassic sediments of Eastern Siberia (Russia). In PDF, Zootaxa, 4758: 347–359.

Neal L. Evenhuis, Department of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii: Catalogue of the fossil flies of the world (Insecta: Diptera).

Michael J. Everhart, Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University: OCEANS OF KANSAS - A Natural History of the Western Interior Sea (Indiana University Press, 2005), Shipworm borings (teredo) in wood.

C.T. Faulkner (2014): A Retrospective Examination of Paleoparasitology and its Establishment in the Journal of Parasitology. In PDF, Papers in Natural Resources, 402.

Z. Feng et al. (2023): Specialized herbivory in fossil leaves reveals convergent origins of nyctinasty. Open access Current Biaology. Note also:
Urzeitlicher Blatt-Schlaf im Spiegel von Fraßspuren. In German, Bild der Wissenschaft.

Z. Feng et al. (2021): Plant–insect interactions in the early Permian Wuda Tuff Flora, North China. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 294.

Z. Feng et al. (2019): Beetle borings in wood with host response in early Permian conifers from Germany. Free access, PalZ.

Z. Feng et al. (2017): Late Permian wood-borings reveal an intricate network of ecological relationships. In PDF, Nature Communications, 8. See also here. (abstract).

L.E. Fiorelli et al. (2013): The oldest known communal latrines provide evidence of gregarism in Triassic megaherbivores. Sci Rep., 3.

D. Frame and G. Gottsberger (2023): Diverse sexual strategies in fossil gymnosperms: pollination in the Bennettitales revisited. In PDF, Phyton, 62–63: 127–137. See also here.
"... Our review grounded in modern concepts of floral biology and plant-animal interactions leads to new interpretations of existing data
[...] Pollination was similar to an angiosperm cantharophilous syndrome, complete with pollination chamber, except that bisexual bennetittalean flowers were protandrous rather than protogynous
[...] Beetles in the pollination chamber mated and females oviposited in the androecium ..."

F. Fraser et al. (2020): Investigating Biotic Interactions in Deep Time. Free accesss, Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

N.C. Fraser et al. (1996): A Triassic lagerstätte from eastern North America. PDF file, Nature, 380: 615–619. See also here.

Jörg Fröbisch and Robert R. Reisz (2009): The Late Permian herbivore Suminia and the early evolution of arboreality in terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems. Abstract, see also here (brief summary by Matt Celeskey). The earliest tree-dweller in the late Permian.

! D.J. Futuyma and A.A. Agrawal (2009): Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores. In PDF.

O.F. Gallego et al. (2011): The most ancient Platyperlidae (Insecta, Perlida= Plecoptera) from early Late Triassic deposits in southern South America. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 48: 447-461. See also here (abstract).
Please take notice: Fig. 8, the reconstruction by Carsten Brauckmann and Elke Gröening. A plecopteran nymph over a Dicroidium leaf under the water surface.

R. Garrouste et al. (2016): Insect mimicry of plants dates back to the Permian. Nat. Commun., 7: 13735.
Figure 3 shows a reconstruction of Permotettigonia gallica gen. et sp. nov. on Taeniopteris sp.

! Robert A. Gastaldo et al. (2005): Taphonomic Trends of Macrofloral Assemblages Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary, Karoo Basin, South Africa. PDF file, Palaios. See also here.

C.T. Gee (2013): Sauropod herbivory and the Mesozoic flora. Conference abstract, in PDF; Go to PDF page 22.

C.T. Gee (2011, starting on PDF page 46): Dietary options for the sauropod dinosaurs from an integrated botanical and paleobotanical perspective. In PDF, In: Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: Understanding the life of giants (ed. N. Klein, K. Remes, C.T. Gee and P. M. Sander). Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
See also here . Provided by Google books.

Carole T. Gee (2008): Sauropod food plants from physiological and paleobotanical perspectives. Abstract, 18th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Vienna, Austria.

C.T. Gee et al. (2003): A Miocene rodent nut cache in coastal dunes of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. In PDF, Palaeontology, 46. See also here (abstract).

J.F. Genise et al. (2020): 100 Ma sweat bee nests: Early and rapid co-diversification of crown bees and flowering plants. Open access, PLoS ONE 15: e0227789. This is one of the internet´s leading websites for earth science news and information. Go to:
Peanut Wood.

G. Geyer and K.-P. Kelber (1987): Flügelreste und Lebensspuren von Insekten aus dem Unteren Keuper Mainfrankens. PDF file, (in German).

E.H. Gierlowski-Kordesch and C.F. Cassle (2015): The "Spirorbis" problem revisited: Sedimentology and biology of microconchids in marine-nonmarine transitions. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.

F.L. Gill et al. (2018): Diets of giants: the nutritional value of sauropod diet during the Mesozoic. Free access, Palaeontology, 61: 647–658.

J.J. Glas et al. (2012): Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores. In PDF, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13: 17077-17103.

R. Gorelick (2001): Did insect pollination cause increased seed plant diversity? PDF file, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74: 407-427.

L. Grauvogel-Stamm & K.-P. Kelber (1996): Plant-insect interactions and coevolution during the Triassic in Western Europe.- PDF file, 30 MB! Paleontologica Lombardia, N. S. 5: 5-23, 31 fig.; Milano. Abstract available here.

M. Grünemeier (2017): Not just hyphae — the amber mite Glaesacarus rhombeus as a forager on hardened resin surfaces and a potential scavenger on trapped insects. In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 10.
Note fig. 5: Illustration depicting the possible behaviour of Glaesacarus rhombeus on the bark of Pinus succinifera with a trapped spider.

N.L. Gunter et al. (2016): If Dung Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) Arose in Association with Dinosaurs, Did They Also Suffer a Mass Co-Extinction at the K-Pg Boundary?. Open access, PLOS ONE, DOI:10.1371.

H. Hagdorn et al. (2015): 15. Fossile Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper. - p. 359-385, PDF file, in German. Go to PDF page 8:
! Bite traces on plants from the germanotype Lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic).
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! You may also navigate via back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015. Then scroll down to: Table of Contents "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern".
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Terry Harrison (2011): Coprolites: Taphonomic and Paleoecological Implications. PDF file, Paleontology and geology of Laetoli. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C. Hartkopf-Fröder et al. (2011): Mid-Cretaceous charred fossil flowers reveal direct observation of arthropod feeding strategies. Open access, Biol. Lett., 8: 295–298.

S.T. Hasiotis et al. (1998): Research Update on Hymenopteran Nests and Cocoons, Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona.
See also here.

T. Hazra et al. (2023): Marginal leaf galls on Pliocene leaves from India indicate mutualistic behavior between Ipomoea plants and Eriophyidae mites. Open access, Scientific Reports, 13.

M. Heingård et al. (2022): Preservation and Taphonomy of Fossil Insects from the Earliest Eocene of Denmark. Open access, Biology, 11.

E.A. Heise et al. (2011): Wood taphonomy in a tropical marine carbonate environment: Experimental results from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 312: 363-379.
See also here.

! C.M. Herrera (1985): Determinants of plant-animal coevolution: the case of mutualistic dispersal of seeds by vertebrates. PDF file, Oikos, 44.

! G. Horváth et al. (2019): How did amber get its aquatic insects? Water-seeking polarotactic insects trapped by tree resin. Free access, Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2019.1663843.

! S. Hu et al. (2008): Early steps of angiosperm-pollinator coevolution. PDF file, PNAS, 105: 40-245. See also here (abstract).

I.B. Huegele and S.R. Manchester (2020): An Early Paleocene Carpoflora from the Denver Basin of Colorado, USA, and Its Implications for Plant-Animal Interactions and Fruit Size Evolution. Free access, Int. J. Plant Sci., 181: 646–665.

D.P. Hughes et al. (2011): Ancient death-grip leaf scars reveal ant-fungal parasitism. PDF file, Biology Letters, 7: 67-70.
See also here.

J. Hummel et al. (2008): In vitro digestibility of fern and gymnosperm foliage: implications for sauropod feeding ecology and diet selection. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. B, 275. See also here.
"Based on our experimental results, plants such as Equisetum, Araucaria, Ginkgo and Angiopteris would have formed a major part of sauropod diets, while cycads, tree ferns and podocarp conifers would have been poor sources of energy".

Y. Imada et al. (2022): Oldest leaf mine trace fossil from East Asia provides insight into ancient nutritional flow in a plant-herbivore interaction. Free access, Sci. Rep., 12: 5254. See also here.
Note figure 4: Mining structures known so far from the Middle–Late Triassic.

International Palaeoentomological Society (IPS). The aims of the Society are to promote and advance the understanding of fossil insects and other non-marine arthropods.

! D. Jablonski (2008): Biotic interactions and macroevolution: extensions and mismatches across scales and levels. PDF file, Evolution, 62: 715-739.

! E.M. Janson et al. (2008): Phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms and adaptive evolutionary diversification. In PDF.

E.A. Jarzembowski (2012): The oldest plant-insect interaction in Croatia: Carboniferous evidence. In PDF, Geologia Croatica, 65: 387-392.

L. Kaiser et al. (2017): The Plant as a Habitat for Entomophagous Insects. In PDF, Advances in Botanical Research, 81: 179-223. See also here.

J.E. Kalyniuk et al. (2023): The Albian vegetation of central Alberta as a food source for the nodosaurid Borealopelta markmitchelli. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 611.

O. Katz (2020): Silicon and Plant–Animal Interactions: Towards an Evolutionary Framework. Open access, Plants, 9. See also here (in PDF).

M.A. Khan et al. (2014): Fossil evidence of insect folivory in the eastern Himalayan Neogene Siwalik forests. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410: 264-277. See also here (abstract).

Derek Keats, Department of Botany, University of the Western Cape, Bellville (Cape Town) South Africa: Herbivory.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

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"... The wood substrate (Aglaia, Meliaceae) was transported to the marine realm from its natural habitat of inland moist tropical forest by a river or stream. Postinfestation, it was buried in a near-shore lagoon or a tidal flat area, ..."

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Note figure 2A: A polished transverse section with some teredinid molluscan borings.

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Note figure 1: The FFG-DT system [FFG = functional feeding group, DT = damage type] for documenting and analyzing herbivory in the fossil record.
Figure 2: Important studies of plant–insect interactions from plant assemblages of the fossil record.

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This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
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Note figure 2: Examples of fossil plant functional traits.
Figure 4: A ranked list of paleo-functional traits that can be applied to fossil plants.
"What plant remnants have withstood taphonomic filtering, fragmentation, and alteration in their journey to become part of the fossil record provide unique information on how plants functioned in paleo-ecosystems through their traits. Plant traits are measurable morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical, or phenological characteristics
[...] We demonstrate how valuable inferences on paleo-ecosystem processes (pollination biology, herbivory), past nutrient cycles, paleobiogeography, paleo-demography (life history), and Earth system history can be derived through the application of paleo-functional traits to fossil plants ..."

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"... Vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal is a common attribute of many living plants, and variation in the size and abundance of fleshy diaspores is influenced by regional climate and by the nature of vertebrate seed dispersers among present-day floras.
[...] We present a new data set of more than 800 georeferenced fossil diaspore occurrences spanning the Triassic–Oligocene, across low to mid- to high palaeolatitudes ..."

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Schnappschuss aus der Urzeit Insektenbestäubung doch keine Erfindung der Blütenpflanzen?

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Note fig. 5: Summary of the taphonomic pathways experienced by the Mzamba Formation fossil woods indicating the range of biotic interactions in various environmental settings.

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Note figure 22: The platypodine, Palaeotylus femoralis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) covered with mycelium, conidiophores and conidia of the ambrosia fungus, Paleoambrosia entomophila (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae) in Burmese amber.
Note figure 27: Ptilodactylid (Coleoptera: Ptilodactylidae) beetle with attached pollinarium (arrow) of Annulites mexicana (Angiospermae: Orchidaceae) in Mexican amber.

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Authored by the The Rhynie Chert Research Group, University of Aberdeen, with contributions and support by the Palaeobotanical Research Group, University of Münster, Germany, the Centre for Palynology, University of Sheffield, The Natural History Museum, London, and The Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems, The Rhynie Chert. A resource site for students and teachers covering many aspects of the present knowledge of this unique geological deposit (including a glossary and bibliography pages). Go to: Evidence for Plant/Animal Interactions.

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"... We report, from mid-Cretaceous logs of the Envigne Valley, France, exceptionally preserved wood-boring bivalves with silicified soft parts
[...] we report both the molluscs’ anatomy and their distribution inside the wood (using computed tomography)..."

E.A. Robinson et al. (2012): A meta-analytical review of the effects of elevated CO2 on plant-arthropod interactions highlights the importance of interacting environmental and biological variables. In PDF, New Phytologist, 194: 321-336. See also here (abstract).

J.M. Robledo et al. (2015): Phytophagy on fossil ferns from Argentina (Palo Pintado Formation, late Miocene): a review of their fossil record and ichnotaxonomy. In PDF, Rev. bras. paleontol., 18: 225-238. See also here.

I. Rodríguez-Barreiro et al. (2023): Palynological reconstruction of the habitat and diet of Iguanodon bernissartensis in the Lower Cretaceous Morella Formation, NE Iberian Peninsula. Free access, Cretaceous Research, 156.
Note figure 1: Paleogeographical map of western Europe for the late Barremian-early Aptian interval.
"... To elucidate the paleoenvironment of the Palau-3 site, a palynological analysis was carried out on matrix samples collected from around the skeleton. The palynological assemblage is found to correspond to an upper Barremian age.
[...] the palynoflora is mostly dominated by the Cheirolepidiaceae conifer (Classopollis) and Anemiaceae fern (mainly Cicatricosisporites) families. The absence of angiosperm pollen in this flora is also noteworthy ..."

! E. Romero-Lebrón et al. (2022): Endophytic insect oviposition traces in deep time. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 590.
See also here.

F. Ronquist and J. Liljeblad (2001): Evolution of the gall wasp–host plant association: In PDF, Evolution, 55: 2503–2522.

R. Rößler et al. (2014): Fraßgalerien von Mikroarthropoden in Koniferenhölzern des frühen Perms von Crock, Thüringen. PDF file, in German. Veröff. Museum für Naturkunde Chemnitz, 37.

! R. Rößler et al. (2012): The largest calamite and its growth architecture - Arthropitys bistriata from the Early Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 185: 64-78.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Salzman et al. (2020): An ancient push-pull pollination mechanism in cycads. In PDF, Sci. Adv., 6: eaay6169. See also here.
Note fig. 4: Time line and plant behaviors responsible for push-pull pollination.

P.M. Sander et al. (2011): Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism. In PDF, Biol. Rev., 86: 117-155. Worth checking out: "Dentition and digestive system" (PDF page 129).
See also here.

P.M. Sander et al. (2010): Mesozoic plants and dinosaur herbivory. PDF file. In: Gee, C T. Plants in Mesozoic time: Morphological innovations, phylogeny, ecosystems. Bloomington, 331-359.
Note Fig. 14.7B: Putative stomach contents of the hadrosaur Corythosaurus casuarius. Close-up showing fragments of plant material in the matrix.

A.A. Santos et al. (2023): Plant–Insect Interactions on Aquatic and Terrestrial Angiosperms from the Latest Albian (Early Cretaceous) of Estercuel (Northeastern Spain) and Their Paleoenvironmental Implications. Open access, Plants, 12.

A.A. Santos et al. (2022): A Robinson Crusoe story in the fossil record: Plant-insect interactions from a Middle Jurassic ephemeral volcanic island (Eastern Spain). Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 583.

E.B. Santos Filho et al. (2017): Evidence of plant–insect interaction in the Early Cretaceous Flora from the Crato Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil. Abstract, Historical Biology. See also here and there (in PDF).

S.R. Schachat 2022): Examining paleobotanical databases: Revisiting trends in angiosperm folivory and unlocking the paleoecological promise of propensity score matching and specification curve analysis. Free access, Front. Ecol. Evol., 10: 951547. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2022.951547.
"... Long-term trends in the fossil record of plants, encompassing their interactions with herbivores and with the environment, are of the utmost relevance for predicting global change
[...] in contrast to modern ecology and unlike various other paleontological disciplines, paleobotany has a limited history of “big data” meta-analyses.
[...] Here I demonstrate the importance of analytical best practices by applying them to a recent meta-analysis of fossil angiosperms. ..."

S.R. Schachat et al. (2022): Generating and testing hypotheses about the fossil record of insect herbivory with a theoretical ecospace. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 297. See also here.
"... a discussion of the most appropriate uses of a theoretical ecospace for insect herbivory, with the overlapping damage type diversities of Paleozoic gymnosperms and Cenozoic angiosperms as a brief case study. ..."

S.R. Schachat et al. (2021): Linking host plants to damage types in the fossil record of insect herbivory. In PDF, bioRxiv. See also here.
"... We evaluate a range of methods for characterizing the relationships between damage types and host plants by performing resampling and subsampling exercises on a variety of datasets. ..."

S.R. Schachat et al. (2020): Sampling fossil floras for the study of insect herbivory: how many leaves is enough? Fossil Record, 23: 15–32.
See also here.

S.R. Schachat et al. (2020): Sampling fossil floras for the study of insect herbivory: how many leaves is enough? In PDF, Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Fossil Record, 23: 15-32. See also here.

S.R. Schachat et al. (2018): The importance of sampling standardization for comparisons of insect herbivory in deep time: a case study from the late Palaeozoic. In PDF, R. Soc. open sci.

S.R. Schachat et al. (2014): Plant-Insect Interactions from Early Permian (Kungurian) Colwell Creek Pond, North-Central Texas: The Early Spread of Herbivory in Riparian Environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 175.

H. Martin Schaefer et al. (2004): How plant-animal interactions signal new insights in communication. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 19.

F.-J. Scharfenberg et al. (2022): A possible terrestrial egg cluster in driftwood from the Lower Jurassic (Late Pliensbachian) of Buttenheim (Franconia, Germany). In PDF, Zitteliana, 96: 135–143.

D.W. Schemske et al. (2009): Is There a Latitudinal Gradient in the Importance of Biotic Interactions? In PDF, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.,40: 245-269.

Claudia Schülke, FAZ, Germany: Palmenhaus, Lebende und versteinerte Pflanzen aus der Zeit der Saurier. In German.

A.C. Scott et al.(2004): Evidence of plant-insect interactions in the Upper Triassic Molteno Formation of South Africa. PDF file, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 161: 401-410.
See also here.

Scott et al. (1994): The fossil record of leaves with galls. PDF file, In: Michele A.J. Williams (ed.): Plant Galls.

! A.C. Scott et al. (1992): Interaction and coevolution of plants and arthropods during the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B. See also here.

J.O. Shaw et al. (2021): Disentangling ecological and taphonomic signals in ancient food webs. Free access, Paleobiology, 47: 85–401.

D.E. Shcherbakov (2008): Madygen, Triassic Lagerstätte number one, before and after Sharov. PDF file, Alavesia, 2: 113-124. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.M. Slater et al. (2018): Dinosaur-plant interactions within a Middle Jurassic ecosystem—palynology of the Burniston Bay dinosaur footprint locality, Yorkshire, UK. Free access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 98: 139–151.

B.J. Slater (2014): Cryptic diversity of a Glossopteris forest: the Permian Prince Charles Mountains Floras, Antarctica. In PDF, thesis, submitted to the University of Birmingham.

B.J. Slater et al. (2012): Animal-plant interactions in a Middle Permian permineralised peat of the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 363-364: 109-126.

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Ancient Insect-Plant Relationship Persists through Time.

R. Spiekermann et al. (2021): Not a lycopsid but a cycad-like plant: Iratinia australis gen. nov. et sp. nov. from the Irati Formation, Kungurian of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 289. See also:
Scientists Find a Fossilized Ancestor of 'Dinosaur Food' (The New York Times).

! N. Stamp (2003): Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses. PDF file, Quarterly Review of Biology 78: 23-55.
See also here.

M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2015): Evidence for insect and annelid activity across the Triassic-Jurassic transition of east Greenland. Palaios, 30: 597-607.

! R.E. Stephens et al. (2023): Insect pollination for most of angiosperm evolutionary history. Open access, New Phytologist, 240: 880–891.
"... Most contemporary angiosperms (flowering plants) are insect pollinated, but pollination by wind, water or vertebrates occurs in many lineages.
[...] We use a robust, dated phylogeny and species-level sampling across all angiosperm families to model the evolution of pollination modes
[...] Angiosperms were ancestrally insect pollinated, and insects have pollinated angiosperms for c. 86% of angiosperm evolutionary history ..."

P. Steuer (2010): Limitation of body mass of herbivores - Allometry of food quality and of digestive aspects. In PDF, Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Little animals in the Coal Swamp.

Sharon Y. Strauss and Rebecca E. Irwin (2004): Ecological and evolutionary consequences of multispecies plant-animal interactions. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 35: 435-66.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! E. Strickson et al. (2016): Dynamics of dental evolution in ornithopod dinosaurs. In PDF, Scientific Reports, 6. See also here (abstract).

G.W. Stull et al. (2013): The "Seeds" on Padgettia readi are Insect Galls: Reassignment of the Plant to Odontopteris, the Gall to Ovofoligallites N. Gen., and the Evolutionary Implications Thereof. In PDF, Journal of Paleontology, 87: 217-231.

J.I. Sutherland (2003): Miocene petrified wood and associated borings and termite faecal pellets from Hukatere Peninsula, Kaipara Harbour, North Auckland, New Zealand. In PDF, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 33: 395-414.

A. Swain et al. (2022): Sampling bias and the robustness of ecological metrics for plant-damage-type association networks. In PDF, bioRxiv.
See also here.
"... Using proxy data of insect herbivore damage (denoted by the damage type or DT) preserved on fossil leaves, functional bipartite network representations provide insights into how plant–insect associations depend on geological time, paleogeographical space, and environmental variables such as temperature and precipitation. ..."

A. Swain et al. (2022): Understanding the ecology of host plant–insect herbivore interactions in the fossil record through bipartite networks—Corrigendum. Free access, Paleobiology, 48: 353–355.

A. Swain et al. (2021): Understanding the ecology of host plant–insect herbivore interactions in the fossil record through bipartite networks. IN PDF, Paleobiology. See also here.

Ralph E. Taggart, & A.T. Cross (1997): The relationship between land plant diversity and productivity and patterns of dinosaur herbivory. PDF file, p.403-416 in Wolberg, D.L., E. Stump, and G.D. Rosenberg (eds.), Proceedings of the Dinofest International Symposium, 1997, Arizona State University (Tempe). Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 587 pp.

! L. Tapanila and E.M. Roberts (2012): The Earliest Evidence of Holometabolan Insect Pupation in Conifer Wood. In PDF. See also here.

E.L. Taylor et al.(1998): Plant-animal interactions in the Triassic of Antarctica. Abstract, 1998 Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America, 2-6 August, 1998 Baltimore.

P.D. Taylor & Olev Vinn (2006): Convergent morphology in small spiral worm tubes ("Spirorbis") and its palaeoenvironmental implications. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 163: 225-228.

! T.N. Taylor and M. Krings (2005): Fossil microorganisms and land plants: Associations and interactions. PDF file, Symbiosis, 40: 119-135.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

taz (a German newspaper; November 19, 2022): Versteinerte Welten:
„Wie ein Foto aus der Urzeit“ (in German).
Paläobotaniker interessieren sich für die urzeitliche Pflanzenwelt. Die Fossilien von Blättern und Stämmen liefern Einblicke in untergegangene Welten.

L.B. Thien et al. (2000): New Perspectives on the Pollination Biology of Basal Angiosperms. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 161.

Teaching Biology:
Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Fossil Record.
A version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A.S. Thorpe et al. (2011): Interactions among plants and evolution. Free access, Journal of Ecology, 99: 729-740.

! B.H. Tiffney (2004): Vertebrate dispersal of seed plants through time. In PDF, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 35: 1-29.

! B.H. Tiffney (1988): Conceptual advances in paleobotany. In PDF, Journal of Geological Education: September 1988, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 221-226. See also here.

Bruce H. Tiffney, UC Santa Barbara: Tracking the Course of Evolution (hosted by UCMP), Plants and Their Predators Through Time. A ramble through the positive and negative (from the plant's point of view) interactions between terrestrial plants and those insects and vertebrates who feed upon them. Examine TWO GRAPHICS showing (1) a simple time line of plant predation and (2) the relationship of plant diversification and the phylogeny of vertebrate plant predators.

Bruce H. Tiffney, University of California, Santa Barbara (Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs): Dinosaurs and Plants.

! Thomas van de Kamp et al. (2018): Parasitoid biology preserved in mineralized fossils. Open access, Nature Communications, 9.
Using high-throughput synchrotron X-ray microtomography 55 parasitation events by four wasp species were identified from the Paleogene of France.

! C.J. van der Kooi and J. Ollerton (2020): The origins of flowering plants and pollinators. Free access, Science, 368: 1306-1308.
See also here (in PDF).

Diego P. Vázquez et al. (2009): Uniting pattern and process in plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review. PDF file, Annals of Botany, 103: 1445-1457. See also here (abstract).

G.J. Vermeij (2016): Plant defences on land and in water: why are they so different? Open access, Annals of Botany, 117: 1099–1109.

Y.P. Veenma et al. (2023): Biogeomorphology of Ireland's oldest fossil forest: Plant-sediment and plant-animal interactions recorded in the Late Devonian Harrylock Formation, Co. Wexford. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 621.
Note figure 6, 7: Lignophyte root systems within the lower Sandeel Bay plant bed.
"... new evidence for early plant-sediment interactions from the Late Devonian (Famennian) Harrylock Formation (County Wexford, Ireland), which hosts standing trees that represent Ireland's earliest known fossil forest.
[...] Fossilized driftwood preserved in the lacustrine facies contains the earliest evidence for arthropod(?) borings in large vascular plant debris. Together these early examples show that plant-sediment and plant-animal interactions, frequently recorded in Carboniferous strata, were already in existence by the Devonian ..."

! Y. Wang et al. (2012): Jurassic mimicry between a hangingfly and a ginkgo from China. In PDF, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 109: 20514-20519. See also here.

Y. Wang et al. (2010): Ancient pinnate leaf mimesis among lacewings. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 16212-16215.

Jun Wang et al. (2009) Permian Circulipuncturites discinisporis Labandeira, Wang, Zhang, Bek et Pfefferkorn gen. et spec. nov. (formerly Discinispora) from China, an ichnotaxon of a punch-and-sucking insect on Noeggerathialean spores. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 77-282.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! X. Wang et al. (2009): The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from Barren Mountain, Guizhou Province, China. PDF file.
! Note figure 29: A colony of Traumatocrinus sp. attached by root cirri to an agatized piece of driftwood!
PDF still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

T. Wappler et al. (2015): Plant-insect interactions from Middle Triassic (late Ladinian) of Monte Agnello (Dolomites, N-Italy) - initial pattern and response to abiotic environmental perturbations. PeerJ.

P. Ward et al. (2006): Confirmation of Romer´s Gap as a low oxygen interval constraining the timing of initial arthropod and vertebrate terrestrialization. In PDF, PNAS, see also here.

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Ancient Insect-Plant Relationship Persists through Time.


Biology Department, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington:
! Coevolution of Plants and Insects. Powerpoint presentation. See also here, or there.

W.C. Wetzel et al. (2023): Variability in plant–herbivore interactions. Free access, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 54: 451-474.
"... We review the literature with the goal of showing how variability-explicit research expands our perspective on plant– herbivore ecology and evolution. We first clarify terminology for describing variation and then review patterns, causes, and consequences of variation in herbivory across scales of space, time, and biological organization ..."

! B.M. Wiegmann et al. (2009): Holometabolous insects (Holometabola). PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Plant defense against herbivory.
Herbivore adaptations to plant defense.
See also Wikipedia Germany (in German):
Pflanzliche Abwehr von Herbivoren.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Pflanzengalle (in German).

P. Wilf (2008): Insect-damaged fossil leaves record food web response to ancient climate change and extinction. In PDF, New Phytologist.

Peter Wilf et al. (2006): Decoupled Plant and Insect Diversity After the End-Cretaceous Extinction. PDF file, Science, 313.

Peter Wilf, Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA: Commentary and media items, and online accessable publications.

Peter Wilf, Museum of Paleontology and Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: Ancient insect-plant relationship persists through time. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Highlight, October, 2000. See also: Commentary, reporting, and interviews about Peter Wilf's research.

P. Wilf and C. C. Labandeira, Response of plant-insect associations to Paleocene-Eocene warming. From Science (1999), 284:2153-2156. You can view and print the document using Adobe Acrobat Reader.

P. Wilf et al. (2001): Insect herbivory, plant defense, and early Cenozoic climate change. Free access, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98: 6221-6226.
See also here.

Peter Wilf et al. (1998): Portrait of a Late Paleocene (Early Clarkforkian) Terrestrial Ecosystem: Big Multi Quarry and Associated Strata, Washakie Basin, Southwestern Wyoming. PDF file, Palaios, 13: 514-532.

D.M. Wilkinson and T.N. Sherratt (2016): Why is the world green? The interactions of top-down and bottom-up processes in terrestrial vegetation ecology. In PDF, Plant Ecology & Diversity, 9: 127-140. See also here.

Isaak S. Winkler and Charles Mitter (2008): The phylogenetic dimension of insect-plant interactions: a review of recent evidence. PDF file. See also here.

M. Zaton et al. (2015): Comment on the paper of Gierlowski-Kordesch and Cassle "The "Spirorbis" problem revisited: Sedimentology and biology of microconchids in marine–nonmarine transitions" [Earth-Science Reviews, 148 (2015): 209–227]. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews.

M. Zaton et al. (2012): Invasion of freshwater and variable marginal marine habitats by microconchid tubeworms - an evolutionary perspective. In PDF, Geobios, 45: 603-610. See also here.
Go to PDF page 5:
! Fig. 3 A, B. shows the earliest record of freshwater microconchids encrusting terrestrial plants (Drepanophycus) from the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian-Emsian) of Wyoming, USA.

X. Zhao et al. (2021): Early evolution of beetles regulated by the end-Permian deforestation. Free access, eLife. See also here (in PDF).
"... Our results suggest that xylophagous (feeding on or in wood) beetles probably played a key and underappreciated role in the Permian carbon cycle ..."

! T. Züst and A.A. Agrawal (2017): Trade-Offs Between Plant Growth and Defense Against Insect Herbivory: An Emerging Mechanistic Synthesis. Abstract, Annual Review of Plant Biology, 68: 513-534. See also here (in PDF).

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