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Plant Roots
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
! Upland and Hinterland Floras@
! Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes@
! Teaching Documents about Ecology@
Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites@
Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
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Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Environment@
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Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@

Playa Lakes (Endorheic Basins)

R. Albert (2014): Die Entstehung und sedimentologische Bedeutung von Steinsalzkristallmarken im fossilen Beleg. PDF file, in German.

M.A.M. Aref et al. (2014): Microbial and physical sedimentary structures in modern evaporitic coastal environments of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In PDF, Facies. See also here.

M.A.M. Aref et al. (2014): Microbial and physical sedimentary structures in modern evaporitic coastal environments of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In PDF, Facies.

S.G. Banham and N.P. Mountney (2014): Climatic versus halokinetic control on sedimentation in a dryland fluvial succession. Abstract, Sedimentology. See also here (in PDF).

S.G. Banham and N.P. Mountney (2013): Evolution of fluvial systems in salt-walled mini-basins: a review and new insights. Abstract, Sedimentary Geology. See also here (in PDF).

X. Bao et al. (2023): Quantifying climate conditions for the formation of coals and evaporites. Free access, National Science Review.
"... We show that coal records were associated with an average temperature of 25°C and precipitation of 1300 mm yr-1 before 250 Ma. Afterwards, coal records appeared with temperatures between 0°C and 21°C and precipitation of 900 mm yr-1
[...] Evaporite records were associated with average temperature of 27°C and precipitation of 800 mm yr-1 ..."

M.Y. Bradford and K.C. Benison (2024): Gypsum lakes, sandflats and soils revealed from the Triassic Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group, north-central Wyoming. Open access, Depositional Rec. 2024;00:1–19.
"... Fieldwork, petrography and X-ray diffraction reveal three distinct lithologies of bedded gypsum: bottom-growth gypsum, laminated gypsum and clastic gypsum
[...] this outcrop of the Red Peak Formation shows that it formed in shallow saline lakes and associated mudflats, sandflats and desert soils ..."

Stephan Brauner, TU Freiberg, Germany: Sabkha-Modell. Sedimentologie und Biota. Chott el Djerid, Tunesien. PDF file, in German.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

P.R. Briere (2000): Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas: Playa, playa lake, sabkha: Proposed definitions for old terms. Abstract, Journal of Arid Environments, 45: 1-7.

! R.G. Bryant (1993): The sedimentology and geochemistry of non-marine evaporites on the Chott el Djerid, using both ground and remotely sensed data. IN PDF. Thesis, University of Reading.

J.M. Cheeseman (2015): The evolution of halophytes, glycophytes and crops, and its implications for food security under saline conditions. New Phytologist, 206: 557–570.

Andrew S. Cohen (2003): Paleolimnology: The History and Evolution of Lake Systems. Provided by Google books.
! See also here. In PDF, 33 MB (slow download).

A.S. Cohen (2011): Scientific drilling and biological evolution in ancient lakes: lessons learned and recommendations for the future. In PDF, Hydrobiologia, 682: 3–25. See also here.

L. Courel et al. (2003): Mid-Triassic to Early Liassic clastic/evaporitic deposits over the Maghreb Platform. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 196: 157-176. See also here (in PDF).

Timothy M. Demko et al. (2005): Mesozoic Lakes of the Colorado Plateau. In PDF, Geological Society of America, Field Guide 6.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.-P. Deroin (2008): Permian and Quaternary playas, a discussion based on climatic, tectonic and palaeogeographic settings. PDF file, Journal of Iberian Geology, 34: 11-28.

The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program investigates Earth´s land biotas throughout their 400 million year history. Their goal is to understand how terrestrial ecosystems have been structured and how they change over geologic time. Using the fossil record, ETE scientists study the characteristics of ecological communities and the changing dynamics of ecosystems. Go to:
ETE Relational Database and ETE DataNet.
The ETE relational database is now partially united with the Paleobiology Database Project´s (PBDB) relational database. All primary database functions (queries, entries and updates) are available through the PBDB home page. The new combined database compiles information from the terrestrial and marine record, but lacks some of the data fields present in the original ETE database.

H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2014): Coniferopsid tree trunks preserved in sabkha facies in the Permian (Sakmarian) Community Pit Formation in south-central New Mexico, U.S.A.: Systematics and palaeoecology. Abstract.

D.L. Fillmore et al. (2017): Ichnology of a Late Triassic lake margin: the Lockatong Formation, Newark Basin, Pennsylvania. Google books, Bulletin 76, New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science.
See also here (in PDF).

Ernest B. Fish, Erin L. Atkinson, Tony R. Mollhagen, Christopher H. Shanks, and Cynthia M. Brenton: PLAYA LAKES DIGITAL DATABASE FOR THE TEXAS PORTION OF THE PLAYA LAKES JOINT VENTURE REGION.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T.J. Flowers et al. (2010): Evolution of halophytes: multiple origins of salt tolerance in land plants. PDF file, Functional Plant Biology, 37: 604-612.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M.E. Gibson and K.C. Benison (2023): It's a trap!: Modern and ancient halite as Lagerstätten. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 93: 642–655.
See likewise here.

C Glunk et al. (2010): Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation in a hypersaline lake, Big Pond (Eleuthera, Bahamas). In PDF, Sedimentology.
See also here.

! U. Hambach et al. (2001): A time frame for the Middle Keuper - cyclostratigraphy, sedimentology and first paleomagnetic results from the RAUENBERG 1 research well (km1-km4, Upper Triassic, SW-Germany). Poster, in PDF, Conference Sediment 2001, Jena. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 13. See also here (Google search).

N. Hauschke et al. (2011): Die Bildung pyramidaler Halit-Hopper in eindunstenden Wasserpfützen bei Teutschenthal (Sachsen-Anhalt), in der Saline von Halle (Saale) und im Keuper Nordwestdeutschlands. PDF file, in German. Der Aufschluss, 62: 333-344.
Note PDF page 10: Diagenesis of pyramidal halite hopper crystals and of cubic halite casts in the continental Triassic (in German).

N. Hauschke and U. Vath (2003): Zur Bildung und geologischen Überlieferung würfelförmiger und pyramidaler Steinsalzkristalle in der Germanischen Trias. PDF file, in German. Beitr. Geol. Thüringen, N. F., 10: 53–74.

! N. Hauschke (1989): Steinsalzkristallmarken - Begriff, Deutung und Bedeutung für das Playa-Playasee-Faziesmodell. Pdf file, about halite casts, (in German). Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 140: 355-369. See also here.

M.H.T. Hipondoka (2005): The Development and Evolution of Etosha Pan, Namibia. Dissertation, Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

B. Hofbauer et al. (2021): Microfacies and C/O-isotopes in lacustrine dolomites reflect variable environmental conditions in the Germanic Basin (Arnstadt Formation, Upper Triassic). Open access, Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences, 114.

Home Ground (by Trinity University Press): A searchable, definitive database of 850 American landscape term. Go to:
! All Definitions. Excellent!
See for example:
Alluvial Fan
Lacustrine Deposit
Overbank deposit.
Website outdated. These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Tim Horner, Geology Department, California State University, Sacramento:
! Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. Course information, lecture notes, doc-files and Powerpoint presentations. Note for example:
Lecture 10: Evaporite deposition, phosphatic rocks, glauconite . Powerpoint presentation.

M.W. Hounslow and A. Ruffell (2006): Triassic - seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and salty lakes. PDF file: In: Brenchley, P.J., Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Geology of England and Wales. Geological Society of London, London.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K. Jewula et al. (2019): The late Triassic development of playa, gilgai floodplain, and fluvial environments from Upper Silesia, southern Poland. In PDF, Sedimentary Geology, 379: 25–45. See also here.
Note fig. 9A: Schematic illustration of the gilgai palaeoenvironment at Krasiejów.

Bill Johnson, Marina Oliver, Texas Tech University: Digital Resources for Managing Wetlands: The Case of Playa Lake Research: A Preliminary Report. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, Summer 1997.

Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC:
! Evaporite Stratigraphic Signals of Base Level Change in the Geologic Record. Powerpoint presentation.

D. Knaust and N. Hauschke (2005): Living conditions in a Lower Triassic playa system of Central Germany: evidence from ichnofauna and body fossils. Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss., B, Beiheft 19: 95-108.

L. Krakow and F. Schunke (2016): Current clay potential in Germany Part 4: Raw materials from the Buntsandstein group/Trias system. In PDF, Brick and Tile Industry International, 69.
! Note fig. 1: Palaeogeographic position of the Central European Basin at the time of the Buntsandstein.
fig. 2: Grouping and facies areas of the Central European Basin at the time of the Buntsandstein.
! Note fig. 10: Formation of salt clays in sporadic playa lakes in the arid to semi-arid climate regions.

! W.M. Last (1984): Sedimentology of playa lakes of the northern Great Plains. In PDF, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.
See also here.

Berit Legler, Technische Universität, Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany:
Extrembiota - Biota und Sedimentation.
Die Salare im Altiplano - Playa-Modell. PDF file (in German).
These expired links are still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Leinfelder: Freshwater limestones (1989-1996), with abstracts.

C. Leitner et al. (2023): Saltern, mudflat, and dry playa: playa basin types of a retreating epeiric sea (Keuper, Germany). Abstract, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 93: 840–856.
! Note figure 8: Idealized depositional cycles of the Grabfeld Formation.
"... playa basins can be different if they are fed by marine incursions, dominated by perennial lakes of brackish or fresh water
[...] The present study contributes to our understanding of these settings by reconstructing the evaporitic facies evolution in the German Keuper Basin after the retreat of an epeiric sea. The Middle to Late Triassic Grabfeld Formation (ca. 237–233 Ma) consists of weathered gypsum and dolomitic marl
[...] The study concludes that an evaporative environment of a coast (“coastal sabkha”) can never be undoubtedly distingushed from a playa basin in the sedimentary record ..."

C. Leitner et al. (2021): Deformed displacive halite crystals: Diagenetic or tectonic origin? Journal of Sedimentary Research, 91: 21–33. doi: 10.2110/jsr.2020.10.
See also here.
"... Displacive halite crystals in fine-grained sediments are a common feature of evaporitic sequences worldwide
[...] We interpret a primary rectangular crystal growth to platy shapes in the mudstone (reduced fluid circulation). The displacive halite crystals subsequently deformed during compaction of the mudstone ..."

S.M. Mandaville, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax: Limnological terms, definitions, acronyms and concepts.

! Nicholas J. Minter et al., (2007): Palaeoecology of an Early Permian playa lake trace fossil assemblage from Castle Peak, Texas, USA. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 246: 390-423.
See also here.

Kamal Roslan Mohamed, Jabatan Geologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia:
Hydrology of freshwater lakes. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

NASA Earth Observatory: Sebkhat El Melah, Tunisia.

A.J. Newell et al. (2010): Disruption of playa-lacustrine depositional systems at the Permo-Triassic boundary: evidence from Vyazniki and Gorokhovets on the Russian Platform. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 167: 695-716.

Marina Oliver, GIS/Electronic Resources Librarian, TTU Libraries, and Bill Johnson, Science Librarian, Arizona State University: Playa Lakes / Ogallala Aquifer: A Bibliographic Database and Full Text Resource of Texas Tech University Libraries. Archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine. A bibliographic and full text resource on information related to the specific physiographic wetland feature known as playa lakes.

S.E. Peters and J.M. Husson (2018): We need a global comprehensive stratigraphic database: here's a start. In PDF, The Sedimentary Record.
See also here.
Note figure 5: Abundance of evaporite- and iron formation-bearing units.

Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to: Introduction to the Hydrosphere.

P. David Polly, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN:
Historical Geology. Life through time. Lecture notes. Topics are paleontology, geologic time, biological evolution, plate tectonics, ancient environments, and climate change, principles of interpreting earth history from geological data, etc. Go to:
Lecture 2: Rocks, the earth's historical record,
Lecture 6: Coming Down: Sedimentary Rocks and Depositional Environments,
Lecture 7: Lakes, Rivers, Wind and Ice: Deposition on Land ,
Lecture 8: Deltas, shores, and reefs: Deposition at Sea . Lecture slides (PDF files).
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Ratti et al. (2011): Did Sulfate Availability Facilitate the Evolutionary Expansion of Chlorophyll a+c Phytoplankton in the Oceans? In PDF, Geobiology 9, no. 4: 301–312. See also here (abstract).

L. Reinhardt and W. Ricken (2000): The stratigraphic and geochemical record of Playa Cycles: monitoring a Pangaean monsoon-like system (Triassic, Middle Keuper, S. Germany). Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 161: 205-227.

L. Reinhardt and W. Ricken (1999): Climate cycles documented in a playa system: comparing geochemical signatures of subbasins (Triassic, Middle Keuper, German Basin). In PDF, Zbl. Geol. Paläontol. Teil I.

L. Reinhardt, Fakultät Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität zu Köln: Dynamic stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system: a record of Pangean megamonsoon cyclicity (Triassic, Middle Keuper, Southern Germany). Abstract, in German.
"... The study’s main purpose was to examine the cyclic deposits of the Steinmergel-Keuper playa system in southern German Keuper basin (Upper Middle Keuper) in order to verify a possible climate related control of the high-frequent mudstone/dolomite cycles. ..."

Lutz Reinhardt, Department of Geology, University of Cologne: The strati-chem record of playa cycles: implications for paleo-climate control (Triassic, Middle Keuper, S-Germany). Abstract.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Lindsay Rogers, Nebraska Game & Parks Commission:
Water & Wetlands. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

A. Ruffell and M. Hounslow 2006): Triassic: seasonal rivers, dusty deserts and saline lakes. In PDF, In P.F. Rawson, & P. Brenchley (eds.), The Geology of England & Wales. (pp. 295-325). Geological Society of London.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Rychliñski et al. (2014): Unusually well preserved casts of halite crystals: A case from the Upper Frasnian of northern Lithuania. Sedimentary Geology, 308: 44-52. See also here.

! R. Sallenave and A. Ganguli (2021): PLAYA LAKES: Understanding Their Importance and How to Protect Them and Improve Their Function. In PDF.

! D. Schnurrenberger et al. (2003): Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components. In PDF, Journal of Paleolimnology.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.J. Scott et al. (2012): Lacustrine environments. In PDF. In: Knaust, D., Bromley, R.G. (Eds.), Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments. Developments in Sedimentology, vol. 64. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 379–419. See also here. Google books.

D.B. Seegis, (1993): The lacustrine-palustrine facies of the upper Knollenmergel (Middle Keuper, Upper Triassic) in Southwest Germany: Sedimentary types and formation. Abstract, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 189, 309-332.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here and there.

D.B. Seegis and M. Goerik: Lakustrine und pedogene Sedimente im Knollenmergel (Mittlerer Keuper, Obertrias) des Mainhardter Waldes (Nordwürttemberg). Abstract, in German. Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen: NF 74: 1992; Oberrheinischer Geologischer Verein.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! P.A. Shaw and D.S.G. Thomas (1997): 15. Pans, playas and salt lakes. Book announcement, In: Thomas, D.S.G., Ed., Arid Zone Geomorphology; Process, Form and Change in Drylands. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 293-312.
! See also here. In PDF, chapter is for 3rd edition.

William James Smith Jr. (sponsored by the University of Delaware Water Resources Agency): What is a watershed and why should I care? (in German):
! Lexikon der Geowissenschaften, Sabkha.

STRATA (provided by Society for Sedimentary Geology, SEPM).
SEPM’s stratigraphy open access web site is dedicated to helping people understand sedimentary geology, from the basics to the detailed. Superbly done! See especially:
Sediments & Rocks.
Depositional Analogues.

United Nations Environment Programme: Endorheic Lakes: Waterbodies That Don't Flow to the Sea.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Robert van Geldern & Michael Joachimski, Institut für Geologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, Germany: Stabile Isotope und Sedimentologie triassischer Paläoböden als Paläoenvironment- und Paläoklimaindikatoren. Abstract, Sediment'98, (in German).
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

F.B. Van Houten (1965): Crystal casts in Upper Triassic Lockatong and Brunswick Formations. Abstract, Sedimentology, 4: 301-313.

! T. Vollmer et al. (2008): Orbital control on Upper Triassic Playa cycles of the Steinmergel-Keuper (Norian): a new concept for ancient playa cycles. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 267: 1–16. See also here.
Note figure 1: Simplified paleogeographic map.
! Figure 6: General facies model of the SMK [the Norian Steinmergel-Keuper].
"... The Norian Steinmergel.Keuper (SMK) represents a low-latitude cyclically-bedded playa system of the Mid-German Basin.
[...] Dolomite layers reflect the lake stage (maximum monsoon) while red mudstones indicate the dry phase (minimum monsoon) of the playa cycle.
[...] humid periods reveal thick layers of dolomite beds, indicating that during those intervals the monsoonal activity was strong enough to prevent the playa system from drying out completely.

T. Vollmer (2005): Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles: New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin) PDF file (10.3 MB), Thesis, Universität zu Köln. See also here.

Derek Walton, University of Derby, UK: Fossils and Strata, Wind, Rain and (Fresh) Water. Non-marine depositional environments. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.K. Warren (2010): Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 98: 217–268. Worth checking out, excellent!

! John K. Warren (2006): Evaporites: Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons. In PDF, 1035 pages, (Springer).
See also here (Google books) and there. Worth checking out:
! Chapter 3. Sabkhas, saline mudflats and pans.
! Chapter 4. Subaqueous salts: salinas and perrenial lakes.
! Chapter 5. Ancient basins and stratigraphic evolution.

Waterfoul Management Handbook: Ecology of Playa Lakes. PDF file.

Ian West, Geology Department, Southampton University, UK: Sabkha and some other desert features. An introduction. Sabkha field trip images and information on sabkhas of the Middle East and North Africa.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Playa Lakes.
! Category:Endorheic lakes.
! Category:Salt flats.
! Salt pan (geology).
Salztonebene (in German).
Sabcha (in German).
! Endorheic Basins. Waterbodies that don't flow to the sea.
Endorheisch (in German).

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