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Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
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Riparian Habitats
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants

! Pith Cast and "in situ" Preservation@
! Fungi@
Upland and Hinterland Floras@
Teaching Documents about Botany@
Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Botany@

Plant Roots

Reinhard Agerer, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Gerhard Rambold, Universität Bayreuth, Germany: DEEMY. An expert information system with descriptions and images for the characterization and determination of ectomycorrhizae - structures formed by fungi and the roots of forest trees. Go to: Character listing, morphology, mycorrhizal system, morphology mycorrhizal system ramification presence-type.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.K. Bamford, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa: Methods for reconstructing past vegetation based on macroplant fossils. In PDF.

! H. Beraldi-Campesi (2013): Early life on land and the first terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, Ecological Processes, 2. See also here.

C.M. Berry and J.E.A. Marshall (2015): Lycopsid forests in the early Late Devonian paleoequatorial zone of Svalbard. In PDF, Geology, 43: 1043-1046.

Margaret E. Berry and James R. Staub, Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL: Root Traces and the Identification of Paleosols.

Paola Bonfante & Andrea Genre (2010): Mechanisms underlying beneficial plant - fungus interactions in mycorrhizal symbiosis. PDF file, Nature Communications.

V. Borruel-Abadía et al. (2015): Climate changes during the Early–Middle Triassic transition in the E. Iberian plate and their palaeogeographic significance in the western Tethys continental domain. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 440: 671–689.
See also here.

! M.C. Brundrett (2002): Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. In PDF, New phytologist, 154: 275-304.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Mark Brundrett , CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products: The Mycorrhiza Site. Introduction to mycorrhizal associations, structure and development or roots and mycorrhizas. Chiefly information about Australian plants and fungi. See also:
The older webpage.
Books and cited references.
and Text books on mycorrhizas.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Mark Brundrett , CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products: Roots. An introduction to the root structures which influence mycorrhizal fungi. Including root systems and root growth.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Frances M. Cardillo, Manhattan College: Plant System Tissues. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Tissue Systems of the Root.

! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:

Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: The Virtual Foliage. Go to: Root Images.

! Harold G. Coffin, Geoscience Research Institute, Loma Linda, CA: THE YELLOWSTONE PETRIFIED "FORESTS". All about the petrified forests of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming and Montana.

C.E. Colombi and J.T. Parrish (2008): Late Triassic Environmental Evolution in Southwestern Pangea: Plant Taphonomy of the Ischigualasto Formation. In PDF, Palaios.

D. Corenblit et al. (2015): Considering river structure and stability in the light of evolution: feedbacks between riparian vegetation and hydrogeomorphology. In PDF, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 40. See also here.

John D. Curtis, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin; Nels R. Lersten, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, and Michael D. Nowak, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin: Photographic Atlas of Plant Anatomy. Go to: Root Systems.

A.-L. Decombeix et al. (2011): Root suckering in a Triassic conifer from Antarctica: Paleoecological and evolutionary implications. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 98: 1222-1225. See also here (abstract).

C. de Vega et al. (2011): Mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic plants: Reply. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 98: 597-601.

William A. DiMichele et al. (2010): Cyclic changes in Pennsylvanian paleoclimate and effects on floristic dynamics in tropical Pangaea. PDF file, International Journal of Coal Geology, 83: 329-344.

M.T. Dunn et al. (2012): Winslowia tuscumbiana gen. et sp. nov. (Chaloneriaceae): A Cormose, Heterosporous, Ligulate Lycopsid Reconstructed from the Inside Out from the Pride Mountain Formation (Late Mississippian/Serpukhovian) of Northern Alabama. In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 173: 96-111.

J.E. Francis, Earth Sciences, University of Leeds: Fossil Trees in the Basal Purbeck Formation on Portland - The Great Dirt Bed Forest.

N. Geldner and D.E. Salt (2014): Focus on Roots. In PDF, Plant Physiology, See also here.

Pamela J.W. Gore, Department of Geology, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA: Historical Geology. Online laboratory manual. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Fossil Preservation Laboratory.

David R. Greenwood, Zoology Dept., Brandon University, Manitoba, Canada: Mummified tree stumps on Axel Heiberg Island, Canada (PDF file). Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

H. Hagdorn et al. (2015): 15. Fossile Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper.- p. 359-385. In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. - Palaeodiversity Supplement (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart). Go to PDF page 3:
! Equisetites roots from the germanotype Lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic).

! A.J. J. Hetherington et al. (2016): Networks of highly branched stigmarian rootlets developed on the first giant trees. In PDF, PNAS, 113.

A.J. Hetherington et al. (2016): Unique Cellular Organization in the Oldest Root Meristem. In PDF, see also here.

! A Ielpi et al. (2015): Impact of Vegetation On Early Pennsylvanian Fluvial Channels: Insight From the Joggins Formation of Atlantic Canada. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 85: 999-1018.

P. Kenrick and C. Strullu-Derrien (2014): The Origin and Early Evolution of Roots. In PDF, Plant Physiology, 166: 570-580. See also here (abstract).

Ross Koning, Biology Department, Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, CT: Biology of Plants. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
! Root Vocabulary.

! M.J. Kraus and S.T. Hasiotis (2006): Significance of different modes of rhizolith preservation to interpreting paleoenvironmental and paleohydrologic settings: examples from Paleogene paleosols. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 76: 633-646.

L. Luthardt et al. (2016): Palaeoclimatic and site-specific conditions in the early Permian fossil forest of Chemnitz—Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobotanical evidence. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441:627–652.

! D.W. Malloch et al. (1980): Ecological and evolutionary significance of mycorrhizal symbioses in vascular plants (a review). In PDF, PNAS, 77.

L. Luthardt et al. (2016): Palaeoclimatic and site-specific conditions in the early Permian fossil forest of Chemnitz—Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobotanical evidence. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441: 627–652. See also here.

Anthony J. Martin, Geosciences Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA: Trace Fossil Images Page, Plant Trace Fossils. Modern and fossil root traces.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! K.K.S. Matsunaga and A.M.F. Tomescu (2016): Root evolution at the base of the lycophyte clade: insights from an Early Devonian lycophyte. In PDF, Annals of botany.

! B. Meyer-Berthaud et al. (2013): Archaeopterid root anatomy and architecture: new information from permineralized specimens of Famennian age from Anti-Atlas (Morocco). In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 174: 364–381.

B. Meyer-Berthaud and A.L. Decombeix (2012): Palaeobotany: in the shade of the oldest forest. In PDF, Nature 483: 41-42.

! J.L. Morris et al. (2015): Investigating Devonian trees as geo-engineers of past climates: linking palaeosols to palaeobotany and experimental geobiology. In PDF, Palaeontology, 58: 787-801. See also here.

S. Oplustil et al. (2014): T0 peat-forming plant assemblage preserved in growth position by volcanic ash-fall: A case study from the Middle Pennsylvanian of the Czech Republic. In PDF, see also here (abstract).

J.A. Raven and D. Edwards (2001): Roots: evolutionary origins and biogeochemical significance. PDF file, J. Exp. Bot., 52: 381-401.

! R. Rellán-Álvarez et al. (2016): Environmental control of root system biology. In PDF, Annual Reviews Plant Biology, 67: 1–26.

! W. Remy et al. (1994): Four hundred-million-year-old vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae. In PDF, PNAS. See also here.

! G.J. Retallack (1985): Fossil soils as grounds for interpreting the advent of large plants and animals on land. In PDF, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B, 309: 105-142.

L.F. Rinehart et al. (2015): Plant architecture and spatial structure of an early Permian woodland buried by flood waters, Sangre de Cristo Formation, New Mexico. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

R. Rößler (2014): Die Bewurzelung permischer Calamiten: Aussage eines Schlüsselfundes zur Existenz freistehender baumförmiger Schachtelhalmgewächse innerhalb der Paläofloren des äquatornahen Gondwana. PDF file, in German. The roots of Permian calamitaleans - a key find suggests the existence of free-stemmed arborescent sphenopsids among the low latitude palaeofloras of Gondwana. Freiberger Forschungshefte, C 548.

R. Rößler et al. (2014): The root systems of Permian arborescent sphenopsids: evidence from the Northern and Southern hemispheres. In PDF, see also here (abstract).

E. Schuettpelz and S.B. Hoot (2006): Inferring the Root of Isoetes: Exploring Alternatives in the Absence of an Acceptable Outgroup. Abstract, Systematic Botany, 31: 258-270.

A.B. Schwendemann et al. (2011): Morphological and functional stasis in mycorrhizal root nodules as exhibited by a Triassic conifer. In PDF.

! M.-A. Selosse and F. Rousset (2011): The Plant-Fungal Marketplace. In PDF, Science.

W.E. Stein et al. (2012): Surprisingly complex community discovered in the mid-Devonian fossil forest at Gilboa. Abstract, Nature, 483. Numerous Eospermatopteris root systems in life position within a mixed-age stand of trees, large woody rhizomes with adventitious roots.

C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2012): Arthropod interactions with bennettitalean roots in a Triassic permineralized peat from Hopen, Svalbard Archipelago (Arctic). In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 348-349: 45-58.

N.J. Tabor et al. (2013): Conservatism of Late Pennsylvanian vegetational patterns during short-term cyclic and long-term directional environmental change, western equatorial Pangea. Geol Soc Spec Publ., 376: 201–234; available in PMC 2014.

L.H. Tanner et al. (2014): Pedogenic and lacustrine features of the Brushy Basin Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in Western Colorado: Reassessing the paleoclimate interpretations. In PDF.

L.H. Tanner and S.G. Lucas (2007): Origin of sandstone casts in the Upper Triassic Zuni Mountains Formation, Chinle Group, Fort Wingate, New Mexico (column right hand side, scroll down). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 40.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here. (provided by Google books).
"We propose alternatively that the casts are rhizoliths formed by the deep tap roots of the sphenopsid Neocalamites."

A.M.F. Tomescu (2016): Development: Paleobotany at the High Table of Evo-Devo. In PDF, Current Biology.

A.M. Trendell et al. (2013): Determining Floodplain plant distributions and populations using paleopedology and fossil root traces: Upper Triassic Sonsela Member of the Chinle Formation at Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. Abstract, Palaios.

! T. Van Loon (2009): Soft-sediment deformation structures in siliciclastic sediments: an overview. PDF file, Geologos, 15: 3-55. Go to PDF page 25: " Bioturbation by plants and phytoturbations".

! B. Wang and Y.-L. Qiu (2006): Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants. In PDF, Mycorrhiza, 16: 299-363. See also here.

Wayne´s Word Biology and Botany, Stem and Root Anatomy. Cellular structure of vascular plants.

David T. Webb, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu: Plant Anatomy Home Page. Lecture notes. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:

! Ian West, Southampton University: The Fossil Forest - East of Lulworth Cove, Dorset. Permineralized plant fossils from Germany (in German).

! J. Xue et al. (2016): Belowground rhizomes in paleosols: The hidden half of an Early Devonian vascular plant. In PDF, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113. See also here (abstract).

! R.W. Zobel and Y. Waisel (2010): A plant root system architectural taxonomy: A framework for root nomenclature. In PDF, Plant Biosystems, 144: 507-512. See also here.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Universität Würzburg,
Last updated January 22, 2017

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