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Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants

BioConcepts: symphorism.

J.A. Caruso and A.M.F. Tomescu (2012): Microconchid encrusters colonizing land plants: the earliest North American record from the Early Devonian of Wyoming, USA. In PDF, Lethaia.

Fred Clouter, Lower Eocene Fossils of the Isle of Sheppey: Fossil Trees & Logs. Teredo borings.

K.O. Emery (1955): Transportation of Rocks by Driftwood. Abstract, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 25: 51-57.

E.H. Gierlowski-Kordesch and C.F. Cassle (2015): The "Spirorbis" problem revisited: Sedimentology and biology of microconchids in marine-nonmarine transitions. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews. See also here.

! R.G. Gillespie et al. (2012): Long-distance dispersal: a framework for hypothesis testing. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27.

M.R. Gregory (2009): Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings - entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364: 2013-2025.

H. Hagdorn et al. (2015): 15. Fossile Lebensgemeinschaften im Lettenkeuper. - p. 359-385, PDF file, in German. Go to PDF page 8:
! Microconchus cf. germanicus on plants from the germanotype Lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads (back issues of Palaeodiversity 2015, scroll down to "Special Issue: Der Lettenkeuper ...").

S.J. Hageman et al. (2000): Cool-Water Carbonate Production from Epizoic Bryozoans on Ephemeral Substrates. In PDF, Palaios. See especially PDF page 27: Epiphytes on exterior of Metagoniolithon, articulated calcareous red algae.

Urweltmuseum Hauff, Holzmaden. A driftwood from the Liassic, 12 m long, settled by crinoids.
! See also here (image hosted by

E.A. Heise et al. (2011): Wood taphonomy in a tropical marine carbonate environment: Experimental results from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 312: 363-379.

K.-P. Kelber (1987): Spirorbidae (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) auf Pflanzen des Unteren Keupers - Ein Beitrag zur Phyto-Taphonomie. PDF file (in German), N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 175: 261-294.

! N. Kramer (2016): Great river wood dynamics in Northern Canada. In PDF, Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

P.A. Magni et al. (2015): Evaluation of the floating time of a corpse found in a marine environment using the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata). Forensic Science International, 247. See also here (in PDF).

J. Masterson, Smithsonian Marine Station: Spirorbis spp.

D. Minchin (1996): Tar pellets and plastics as attachment surfaces for lepadid cirripedes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Abstract, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 32: 855-859. See also here (in PDF).

A. Radwanski (2009): "Phoenix szaferi" (palm fruitbodies) reinterpreted as traces of wood-boring teredinid bivalves from the Lower Oligocene (Rupelian) of the Tatra Mountains, Poland. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica, 49: 279-286.

Robert Randell, British Chalk Fossils: Driftwood with Teredo borings.

S. Schneider and A. Kaim (2012): Early ontogeny of Middle Jurassic hiatellids from a wood-fall association: implications for phylogeny and palaeoecology of Hiatellidae. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 78: 119-127.
"The specimens settled on sunken driftwood that served as an attachment surface and thus acted as a "benthic island" on the otherwise muddy seafloor."

A. Seilacher (2011): Developmental transformations in Jurassic driftwood crinoids. Abstract, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 130: 129–141.

! M.J. Simms (1986): Contrasting lifestyles in Lower Jurassic crinoids: a comparison of benthic and pseudopelagic Isocrinida. In PDF, Palaeontology.
Please notice text fig. 2: Distribution of crinoids on floating driftwood., Lexikon der Biologie: Epökie (in German).

Paul D. Taylor & Olev Vinn (2006): Convergent morphology in small spiral worm tubes ("Spirorbis") and its palaeoenvironmental implications. Abstract, Journal of the Geological Society, 163: 225-228.

P.D. Taylor (1990): Preservation of soft-bodied and other organisms by bioimmuration - a review. In PDF, Palaeontology, 33. See especially on PDF page 11:
Fig. 2: Zooids on the alga Fosliella inexpectata, Upper Maastrichtian.

! M. Thiel and L. Gutow (2005): The ecology of rafting in the marine environment. I. The floating substrata. Abstract. In: R.N. Gibson, R.J.A. Atkinson, and J.D.M. Gordon (eds.): Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 42: 181–264 (Taylor & Francis). See also here (in PDF).
Note PDF page 184: A tree of 5–6 m in length populated with numerous hydrozoans, goose barnacles, isopods, and caprellids.

! M. Thiel and L. Gutow (2005): The ecology of rafting in the marine environment. II. The rafting organisms and community. In PDF. In: R.N. Gibson, R.J.A. Atkinson, and J.D.M. Gordon (eds.): Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43: 279-418. (Taylor & Francis). See also here (abstract).

! O. Vinn and P.D. Taylor (2007): Microconchid tubeworms from the Jurassic of England and France. In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! X.F. Wang et al. (2009): The Triassic Guanling fossil Group - A key GeoPark from Barren Mountain, Guizhou Province, China. A colony of Traumatocrinus sp. attached by root cirri to an agatized piece of driftwood! PDF file, from:
Jere H. Lipps and Bruno R.C. Granier (eds.) 2009, (e-book, hosted by Carnets): PaleoParks - The protection and conservation of fossil sites worldwide. Also available from here.

X.F. Wang et al. (2008): The Late Triassic black shales of the Guanling area, Guizhou Province, south-west China: a unique marine reptile and pelagic crinoid fossil Lagerstätte. Palaeontology, 51: 27–61.
! See especially PDF page 14: Pseudoplanktic lifestile: A driftwood log 3.3 m long with Traumatocrinus crinoids attached to both ends; crinoid stem lengths range from approx. 1-7.4 m.
! Note also PDF page 16: The pseudoplanktonic lifestyle of a Traumatocrinus colony attached on drift wood. Wind makes the log drift in the surface water.
Also worth checking out: Treasure with blood: on the discovery of Traumatocrinus (Echinodermata, Triassic) crowns in China; by J.P. Lin (2014), Palaeoworld. See also here (in PDF).

J.M. Waters and D. Craw (2017): Large kelp-rafted rocks as potential dropstones in the Southern Ocean. Abstract, Marine Geology, 391: 13–19.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Probiose, including Epökie (in German).
Log Jam.
Treibholz (in German).
Large woody debris.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

M. Zaton et al. (2014): Microconchid tubeworms (Class Tentaculita) from the Joggins Formation (Pennsylvanian), Nova Scotia, Canada. Abstract, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

M. Zaton and R.L. Peck (2013): Morphology and palaeoecology of new, non-marine microconchid tubeworm from Lower Carboniferous (Upper Mississippian) of West Virginia, USA. M Zaton, RL Peck - Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae. See also here.
Please take notice: Fig 9. Microconchids encrusting land plants.

M. Zaton et al. (2012): Invasion of freshwater and variable marginal marine habitats by microconchid tubeworms - an evolutionary perspective. In PDF, Geobios, 45: 603-610. Go to PDF page 5:
! Fig. 3 A, B. shows the earliest record of freshwater microconchids encrusting terrestrial plants (Drepanophycus) from the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian-Emsian) of Wyoming, USA.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated September 16, 2017