Ecology & Palaeoenvironment /
Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
Teaching Documents about Ecology@
Teaching Documents about Ichnology@
Teaching Documents about Biology@
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Botany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Environment@
D. Barthel-Ludwig, K. Heißig, T. Kowalke, M.
Krings, H. Mayr, M. Nose & W. Werner:
Riddles within the stones -
Analysing palaeontological traces.
PDF file, in German. Catalogue of the 41st Munich Mineral Show, 2004.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
D. Barthelt-Ludwig et al. (2004): Rätsel im Stein – Auf paläontologischer Spurensuche. PDF file, in German.
A. Baucon et al. (2017): Organism-substrate interactions and astrobiology: Potential, models and methods. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 171: 141-180. See also here (in PDF).
! A. Baucon (2014): Network theory in ichnology: from behavioural topology to the depositional environment. In PDF, dissertation, University of Milano.
! A. Baucon et al. (2012): A History of Ideas in Ichnology. In PDF.
! M. Bertling et al. (2006): Names for trace fossils: a uniform approach. Abstract, Lethaia. See also here (in PDF).
David J. Bottjer, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles: Fossil Art, by A. Seilacher. Book review.
L.A. Buatois et al. (2016):
Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. Abstract,
The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology,
! See also here (in PDF).
! L.A. Buatois and M.G. Mángano (2011): Ichnology: Organism-substrate interactions in space and time (Cambridge University Press). Table of contents, in PDF. See also here (Google books). See there: "Part I Conceptual tools and methods" (Starting on page 3).
R.J. Butler et al. (2011, for 2010): Preface to "Late Triassic Terrestrial Biotas and the Rise of Dinosaurs" Special Issue. In PDF, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.
D. Díez-Canseco et al. (2015): The ichnology of the fluvial–tidal transition: Interplay of ecologic and evolutionary controls. In PDF, Developments in Sedimentology, 68.
Angela Dinapoli, Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut Universität Heidelberg: Arbeitsexkursion Ostseebecken, Spurenfossilien (in German).P.L. Falkingham et al. (2018): A standard protocol for documenting modern and fossil ichnological data. Free access, Palaeontology, 61: 469–480. R.-Y. Fan and Y.-M. Gong (2017): Recent progress and focuses of ichnology: Outline of the 14th International Ichnofabric Workshop. Open access, Journal of Palaeogeography, 6: 359-369.
Karl W. Flessa,
Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson:
Lecture notes. Go to:
Taphonomy and trace fossils. Explained in a nutshell. See also:
Fossilization, taphonomy & traces, and Ichnofossils and other traces of life.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Earth Science. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture.
! See for instance: Trace Fossils.
R.A. Gastaldo and M.W. Rolerson (2008): Katbergia gen. nov., a new trace fossil from Upper Permian and Lower Triassic rocks of the Karoo Basin: Implications for palaeoenvironmental conditions at the P/Tr extinction event. PDF file, Palaeontology, 51: 215-229.
! J.F. Genise et al. (2016): The Phanerozoic Four Revolutions and Evolution of Paleosol Ichnofacies. Abstract, The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology, 40: 301-370.
Jorge F. Genise et al. (2009): Application of neoichnological studies to behavioural and taphonomic interpretation of fossil bird-like tracks from lacustrine settings: The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic? Santo Domingo Formation, Argentina. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 272: 143-161.
Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, October 27-30, 2002, Denver, CO: Abstracts. Go to: T75. Paleosols and Phanerozoic Climate: Geochemistry to Trace Fossils.
Pamela J.W. Gore, Department of Geology, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA: Historical Geology. Online laboratory manual. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Fossil Preservation Laboratory.
H. Hagdorn (2015):
aus dem Lettenkeuper. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.
Stephen T. Hasiotis, Department of Geology, University of Kansas:
Ichnology. Studying the Traces of Life.
This website presents information on the basic principles of ichnology, a photo
and video gallery of trace fossils, and a bibliography with access to some
published articles for those with interests in specific topics. See especially:
! Introduction to Ichnology.
! Glossary of Ichnology Terms.
! Stephen T. Hasiotis (2004): Using Trace Fossils to Differentiate between Alluvial, Lacustrine, Eolian, and Marine Paleoenvironments. PDF file, AAPG HEDBERG CONFERENCE, May 2004; Baku, Azerbaijan.H. Haubold and H. Klein (2000): Die dinosauroiden Fährten Parachirotherium – Atreipus – Grallator aus dem unteren Mittelkeuper (Obere Trias: Ladin, Karn,? Nor) in Franken. In PDF, Hallesches Jahrbuch für Geowissenschaften.
Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Trace fossils.
D. Knaust (2017):
Atlas of Trace Fossils in
Well Core --
Appearance, Taxonomy and Interpretation. Abstract,
Springer International Publishing. See especially:
Table of contents.
! Chapter 2: Ichnological Basics, Principles and Concepts (in PDF).
D. Knaust and N. Hauschke (2005): Living conditions in a Lower Triassic playa system of Central Germany: evidence from ichnofauna and body fossils. Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss., B, Beiheft 19: 95-108.
Glen J. Kuban, North Royalton, OH:
An Overview of Dinosaur Tracking.
Originally published in the April 1994 M.A.P.S. Digest,
Mid-America Paleontology Society, Rock Island, IL.
Other Web Sites on Dinosaur tracks and Ichnology.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Anthony J. Martin, Geosciences Program, Emory University, Atlanta: Trace Fossil Image Database. Go to: Root Traces and other Plant Trace Fossils.
Anthony J. Martin, Geosciences Program, Emory University: Ichnology Terms Pronounciation and Definition Guide. Audio clips of "latinized" paleontology terms, recorded in AIF format for Macintosh, and links to related resources.
Anthony J. Martin, Environmental Studies Program, Emory University Atlanta, Georgia: Introduction to Ichnology. See also: DINOSAUR TRACE FOSSILS! D. Marty (2016): Dinosaur Track Terminology: A Glossary of Terms. In:
! H. Meinolf and W. Meinolf (2016): Reproduction Structures of Damselflies (Odonata, Zygoptera): are They Trace Fossils or not? In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 9: 89-94. See also here.
R. Mikulás and M. Straková (1994): Trace fossils in "Flora der Vorwelt" by K. Sternberg and in Sternberg´s palaeontological collection (National Museum, Prague). In PDF, Acta Mus. Nat. Pragae, 49B: 143-150.E. Mujal et al. (2017): An archosauromorph dominated ichnoassemblage in fluvial settings from the late Early Triassic of the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula). Open access, PLoS ONE 12: e0174693.
B. Niebuhr and M. Wilmsen (2016): 16. Ichnofossilien. PDF file, in German. Geologica Saxonica, 62.
! N. Noffke et al. (2001): Microbially induced sedimentary structures: A new category within the classification of primary sedimentary structures. PDF file. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.P.E. Olsen and D. Baird (1986): The ichnogenus Atreipus and its significance for Triassic biostratigraphy. PDF file. In: In The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. ed. K. Padian, pp. 61–87. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
E.M. Roberts et al. (2016): Oligocene Termite Nests with In Situ Fungus Gardens from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, Support a Paleogene African Origin for Insect Agriculture. PLoS ONE, 11.
Bruce Runnegar, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, (Center for Astrobiology, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics), UCLA, Los Angeles, CA: UCLA ESS116 PALEONTOLOGY FALL 2002. Images and schemes. Go to: Trace fossils.
were fossil tracks made by Early Triassic swimming reptiles so well preserved?
See also here.
! J.J. Scott et al. (2012): Lacustrine environments. In PDF. In: Knaust, D., Bromley, R.G. (Eds.), Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments. Developments in Sedimentology, vol. 64. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 379–419. See also here. Google books.
Servicio de Listas de Distribución de RedIRIS, Spain: Archives of SKOLITHOS@LISTSERV.REDIRIS.ES. The forum on trace fossils.
E.L. Simpson et al. (2015): Enigmatic spheres from the Upper Triassic Lockatong Formation, Newark Basin of eastern Pennsylvania: evidence for microbial activity in marginal-lacustrine strandline deposits. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 95: 521–529.
L.H. Tanner and S.G. Lucas (2007):
of sandstone casts in the Upper Triassic Zuni Mountains Formation, Chinle Group, Fort Wingate, New Mexico
(column right hand side, scroll down).
New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 40.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here. (provided by Google books).
"We propose alternatively that the casts are rhizoliths formed by the deep tap roots of the sphenopsid Neocalamites."
Department of Earth Sciences, University College London:
! Types of Ichnofacies. ! Classification Principles.
D.V. Vasilenko and A.P. Rasnitsyn (2007): Fossil Ovipositions of Dragonflies: Review and Interpretation. Abstract, PDF file; see also here.
Ewan Wolff, Montana State University Geoscience Education Web Development Team,
(website is part of the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), with funding from
the National Science Foundation):
The Study of Tracks and Traces.
An annotated link directory.
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