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Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Playa Lakes
Riparian Habitats
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Plant Roots
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants

Teaching Documents about Ecology@
Teaching Documents about Ichnology@
Teaching Documents about Biology@
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Botany@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Environment@


! J.A. Allen (1926): Ice crystal markings. In PDF, American Journal of Science, s5-11 (66): 494-500. See also here (abstract).

! D. Barthel-Ludwig, K. Heißig, T. Kowalke, M. Krings, H. Mayr, M. Nose & W. Werner: Riddles within the stones - Analysing palaeontological traces. PDF file, in German. Catalogue of the 41st Munich Mineral Show, 2004.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D. Barthelt-Ludwig et al. (2004): Rätsel im Stein – Auf paläontologischer Spurensuche. PDF file, in German.

A. Baucon et al. (2017): Organism-substrate interactions and astrobiology: Potential, models and methods. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 171: 141-180. See also here (in PDF).

! A. Baucon (2014): Network theory in ichnology: from behavioural topology to the depositional environment. In PDF, dissertation, University of Milano.

! A. Baucon et al. (2012): A History of Ideas in Ichnology. In PDF.

! M. Bertling et al. (2022): Names for trace fossils 2.0: theory and practice in ichnotaxonomy. Free access, Lethaia, 55.
Note figure 2: Preservation types of plant roots.

! M. Bertling et al. (2006): Names for trace fossils: a uniform approach. Abstract, Lethaia. See also here (in PDF).

! D.J. Bottjer (2016): Paleoecology: Past, Present and Future. Book announcement (Wiley).
! See also here (in PDF).

David J. Bottjer, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles: Fossil Art, by A. Seilacher. Book review.

E.M. Bordy et al. (2024): Selected Karoo geoheritage sites of palaeontological significance in South Africa and Lesotho. Open access, Geological Society, London, Special Publications Volume 543 Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 543.

! L.A. Buatois and M.G. Mángano (2018): The other biodiversity record: Innovations in animal-substrate interactions through geologic time. In PDF, GSA Today, 28. See also here.

L.A. Buatois et al. (2016): The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. Abstract, The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology, 40: 179-263.
! See also here (in PDF).

! L.A. Buatois and M.G. Mángano (2011): Ichnology: Organism-substrate interactions in space and time (Cambridge University Press). Table of contents, in PDF. See also here (Google books). See there: "Part I Conceptual tools and methods" (Starting on page 3).

! L.A. Buatois et al. (2005): Colonization of brackish-water systems through time: evidence from the trace-fossil record. In PDF, Palaios, 20: 321–347. See also here.
! Note figure 7: Schematic diagram showing the development of brackish-water ichnofaunas in space and time.

! L.A. Buatois and M.G. Mángano (2004): Animal-substrate interactions in freshwater environments: applications of ichnology in facies and sequence stratigraphic analysis of fluvio-lacustrine successions. In PDF, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 228: 311-333. See also here.

! M. Buchwitz et al. (2019): 3rd International Conference of Continental Ichnology 2019 Field Trip Guide. In PDF, Hallesches Jahrbuch für Geowissenschaften, Beiheft 46. See also here.

G.E. Budd and S. Jensen (2020): A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla. Abstract, Biological Reviews, 75_253-295.
"... Indeed, the combination of the body and trace fossil record demonstrates a progressive diversification through the end of the Proterozoic well into the Cambrian and beyond, a picture consistent with body plans being assembled during this time. ..."

R.J. Butler et al. (2011, for 2010): Preface to "Late Triassic Terrestrial Biotas and the Rise of Dinosaurs" Special Issue. In PDF, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.

Rick Cheel, Brock University, Canada:
Fossils. Lecture note, Powerpoint presentation.

CFK-Fossilien Coburg (by W. Claus, L. Franzke and U. Knoch; in German):
Saurier-Trittsiegel und Spurenfossilien des mittleren Keuper. Fährten und Spuren in Ablagerungen des “Coburger Sandstein” (Hassberge–Formation).
Ausstellung: Geheimnisvolle Saurierfährten aus der fränkischen Trias.
Ein neuer Saurierfährtenfund aus dem Mittleren Keuper des Coburger Landes.
Der Coburger Sandstein (Mittlerer Keuper) in den Haßbergen.

D. Díez-Canseco et al. (2015): The ichnology of the fluvial–tidal transition: Interplay of ecologic and evolutionary controls. In PDF, Developments in Sedimentology, 68.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2023): Two Early Permian Fossil Floras from the Arroyo de Alamillo Formation of the Yeso Group, Socorro County, New Mexico. In PDF, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 94.
! Note figure 3d: Mud draped surface from L8741. Surface is covered by cavities interpreted either as raindrop imprints or gas-escape structures.
! Figure 6: Branch fragments preserved in a mud drape.

Angela Dinapoli, Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut Universität Heidelberg: Arbeitsexkursion Ostseebecken, Spurenfossilien (in German).
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.L. Falkingham et al. (2018): A standard protocol for documenting modern and fossil ichnological data. Free access, Palaeontology, 61: 469–480.

R.-Y. Fan and Y.-M. Gong (2017): Recent progress and focuses of ichnology: Outline of the 14th International Ichnofabric Workshop. Open access, Journal of Palaeogeography, 6: 359-369.

X. Feng et al. (2022): Resilience of infaunal ecosystems during the Early Triassic greenhouse Earth. Open acces, Sci. Adv., 8: eabo0597.
Note fig. 5: Reconstruction of marine ecosystems before and after the P-Tr mass extinction in China.

M. Fichman (2013): Raindrop Imprints and Their Use in the Retrodeformation of Carboniferous Trace Fossils. In PDF, Master's Theses.

D.L. Fillmore et al. (2017): Ichnology of a Late Triassic lake margin: the Lockatong Formation, Newark Basin, Pennsylvania. Google books, Bulletin 76, New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science.
See also here (in PDF).

S.J. Fischer and S.T. Hasiotis (2018): Ichnofossil assemblages and palaeosols of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, south-eastern Utah (USA): Implications for depositional controls and palaeoclimate. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 88: 127-162. See also here.

Karl W. Flessa, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson: Paleontology. Lecture notes. Go to:
Taphonomy and trace fossils. Explained in a nutshell. See also:
Fossilization, taphonomy & traces, and Ichnofossils and other traces of life.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Earth Science. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture.
! See for instance: Trace Fossils.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.A. Gastaldo and M.W. Rolerson (2008): Katbergia gen. nov., a new trace fossil from Upper Permian and Lower Triassic rocks of the Karoo Basin: Implications for palaeoenvironmental conditions at the P/Tr extinction event. Free access, Palaeontology, 51: 215-229.

C.T. Gee et al. (2018): Fossil burrow assemblage, not mangrove roots: reinterpretation of the main whale-bearing layer in the late Eocene of Wadi Al-Hitan, Egypt. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 99: 143–158. See also here (in PDF).

J.F. Genise et al. (2020): 100 Ma sweat bee nests: Early and rapid co-diversification of crown bees and flowering plants. Open access, PLoS ONE 15: e0227789.

! J.F. Genise et al. (2016): The Phanerozoic Four Revolutions and Evolution of Paleosol Ichnofacies. Abstract, The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology, 40: 301-370.

Jorge F. Genise et al. (2009): Application of neoichnological studies to behavioural and taphonomic interpretation of fossil bird-like tracks from lacustrine settings: The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic? Santo Domingo Formation, Argentina. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 272: 143-161.

Geological Society of America: GSA Annual Meeting, October 27-30, 2002, Denver, CO: Abstracts. Go to: T75. Paleosols and Phanerozoic Climate: Geochemistry to Trace Fossils.

T.R. Good (2013): Life in an ancient sea of sand: Trace fossil associations and their paleoecological implications in the upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, Northeastern Utah. In PDF, thesis, Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Utah.
See also here.

Pamela J.W. Gore, Department of Geology, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA: Historical Geology. Online laboratory manual. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Fossil Preservation Laboratory.

H. Hagdorn (2015): 12. Spurenfossilien aus dem Lettenkeuper. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

3rd International Conference of Continental Ichnology 2019 Halle (Saale), Germany. Abstract Volume & Field Trip Guide. In PDF. Hallesches Jahrbuch für Geowissenschaften, Beiheft 46.

Stephen T. Hasiotis, Department of Geology, University of Kansas: KU Ichnology. Studying the Traces of Life. This website presents information on the basic principles of ichnology, a photo and video gallery of trace fossils, and a bibliography with access to some published articles for those with interests in specific topics. See especially:
! Introduction to Ichnology.
! Glossary of Ichnology Terms.
Ichnology Links.

! Stephen T. Hasiotis (2004): Using Trace Fossils to Differentiate between Alluvial, Lacustrine, Eolian, and Marine Paleoenvironments. PDF file, AAPG HEDBERG CONFERENCE, May 2004; Baku, Azerbaijan.

H. Haubold and H. Klein (2000): Die dinosauroiden Fährten Parachirotherium – Atreipus – Grallator aus dem unteren Mittelkeuper (Obere Trias: Ladin, Karn,? Nor) in Franken. In PDF, Hallesches Jahrbuch für Geowissenschaften.

! Daniel Hauptvogel, Virginia Sisson et al. (2023), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Houston:
The Story of Earth: An Observational Guide 2e . Second edition (Pressbooks), Open access. You can download a printable PDF version.
Navigate from the content menue page. Note especially:
! Chapter 4: Sedimentary Structures.

Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Trace fossils.

Ichnology Newsletter

Hendrik Klein and Andrew B. Heckert (2023):
Chirotheres - Tracking the Ancestors of Dinosaurs and Crocodiles. Google books, 360 Pages, Indiana University Press. A compendium of what is known about the five-toed footprints of Triassic archosaurs.
See also here. With reconstruction artwork by Matthew Celeskey.

! H. Klein and S.G. Lucas (2021): The Triassic tetrapod footprint record. In PDF, New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin 83. See also here.

D. Knaust (2017): Atlas of Trace Fossils in Well Core -- Appearance, Taxonomy and Interpretation. Abstract, Springer International Publishing. See especially:
Table of contents.
! Chapter 2: Ichnological Basics, Principles and Concepts (in PDF).

D. Knaust and N. Hauschke (2005): Living conditions in a Lower Triassic playa system of Central Germany: evidence from ichnofauna and body fossils. Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss., B, Beiheft 19: 95-108.

Glen J. Kuban, North Royalton, OH: An Overview of Dinosaur Tracking. Originally published in the April 1994 M.A.P.S. Digest, Mid-America Paleontology Society, Rock Island, IL. See also:
Other Web Sites on Dinosaur tracks and Ichnology.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Anthony J. Martin, Geosciences Program, Emory University, Atlanta: Trace Fossil Image Database. Go to: Root Traces and other Plant Trace Fossils.
Snapshots provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Anthony J. Martin, Geosciences Program, Emory University: Ichnology Terms Pronounciation and Definition Guide. Audio clips of "latinized" paleontology terms, recorded in AIF format for Macintosh, and links to related resources.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Anthony J. Martin, Environmental Studies Program, Emory University Atlanta, Georgia: Introduction to Ichnology. See also: DINOSAUR TRACE FOSSILS.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Anthony J. Martin, Department of Environmental Studies, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia:
INTRODUCTION TO ICHNOLOGY. The Study of Plant and Animal Traces.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! D. Marty (2016): Dinosaur Track Terminology: A Glossary of Terms. In:
Falkingham, L. & Marty, Daniel & Richter, Annette. Dinosaur Tracks: The Next Steps. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
See also here or there.

! D. McIlroy (2004): The application of ichnology to palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphic analysis: introduction. In PDF, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 228: 1-2. See also here.

! H. Meinolf and W. Meinolf (2016): Reproduction Structures of Damselflies (Odonata, Zygoptera): are They Trace Fossils or not? In PDF, Palaeodiversity, 9: 89-94. See also here.

! R.N. Melchor et al. (2012): Fluvial environments. In PDF, Developments in Sedimentology, 64: 329-378. See also here.
Note table 1: Morphology of Trace Fossils Found in Fluvial Successions and Ichnogenera that can be Included in Each Category.
Table 2: Expression of Ichnofacies Found in Fluvial Deposits.

A. Menendez (2014): Developing Criteria for Identifying Fossil Raindrop Prints. In PDF.

P. Mietto (2020): Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Italy: the state of the art. In PDF, Journal of Mediterranean Earth Sciences 12 (2020), 83-136. In: Romano M., Citton P. (Eds.), Tetrapod ichnology in Italy: the state of the art.
See also here.

R. Mikulás and M. Straková (1994): Trace fossils in "Flora der Vorwelt" by K. Sternberg and in Sternberg´s palaeontological collection (National Museum, Prague). In PDF, Acta Mus. Nat. Pragae, 49B: 143-150.

! Nicholas J. Minter et al., (2007): Palaeoecology of an Early Permian playa lake trace fossil assemblage from Castle Peak, Texas, USA. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 246: 390-423.
See also here.

E. Mujal et al. (2017): An archosauromorph dominated ichnoassemblage in fluvial settings from the late Early Triassic of the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula). Open access, PLoS ONE 12: e0174693.

B. Niebuhr and M. Wilmsen (2016): 16. Ichnofossilien. PDF file, in German. Geologica Saxonica, 62.

! N. Noffke et al. (2001): Microbially induced sedimentary structures: A new category within the classification of primary sedimentary structures. PDF file. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.E. Olsen and D. Baird (1986): The ichnogenus Atreipus and its significance for Triassic biostratigraphy. PDF file. In: In The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. ed. K. Padian, pp. 61–87. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
See also here (Google books).

A. Pastoors and T. Lenssen-Erz (eds.; 2021): Reading Prehistoric Human Tracks -- Methods & Material. Open access,
See for instance: J. Duveau et al. (2021), Pages 183-200: On the Tracks of Neandertals: The Ichnological Assemblage from Le Rozel (Normandy, France) In PDF.

L.S. Pfeifer etal. (2021): Ice-crystal traces imply ephemeral freezing in early Permian equatorial Pangea. Open access, Geology, 49: 1397–1401.

G.J. Retallack (1980): Middle Triassic Megafossil Plants and Trace Fossils from Tank Gully, Canterbury, New Zealand. In PDF, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 10. See also here.

A.K. Rindsberg (2018): Ichnotaxonomy as a science. In PDF, Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 88: 91-110.
See also here.

E.M. Roberts et al. (2016): Oligocene Termite Nests with In Situ Fungus Gardens from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, Support a Paleogene African Origin for Insect Agriculture. PLoS ONE, 11.

M. Rose et al. (2021): A trace fossil made by a walking crayfish or crayfish-like arthropod from the Lower Jurassic Moenave Formation of southwestern Utah, USA. In PDF, PeerJ.
! Note figure 4: Schematic diagrams of locomotory (presumably walking) arthropod ichnofossils and extant walking traces.

Bruce Runnegar, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, (Center for Astrobiology, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics), UCLA, Los Angeles, CA: UCLA ESS116 PALEONTOLOGY FALL 2002. Images and schemes. Go to: Trace fossils.

J.P.S. Saldanha et al. (2023): Deciphering the origin of dubiofossils from the Pennsylvanian of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. In PDF, Biogeosciences, See also here.

M. Schlirf et al. (2001): Upper Triassic (Keuper) non-marine trace fossils from the Haßberge area (Franconia, south-eastern Germany). In PDF, Paläontologische Zeitschrift.
Note also here.

ScienceDaily (2015): How were fossil tracks made by Early Triassic swimming reptiles so well preserved?
See also here.

! J.J. Scott et al. (2012): Lacustrine environments. In PDF. In: Knaust, D., Bromley, R.G. (Eds.), Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments. Developments in Sedimentology, vol. 64. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 379–419. See also here. Google books.

Servicio de Listas de Distribución de RedIRIS, Spain: Archives of SKOLITHOS@LISTSERV.REDIRIS.ES. The forum on trace fossils.

E.L. Simpson et al. (2015): Enigmatic spheres from the Upper Triassic Lockatong Formation, Newark Basin of eastern Pennsylvania: evidence for microbial activity in marginal-lacustrine strandline deposits. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 95: 521–529.

L.H. Tanner and S.G. Lucas (2007): Origin of sandstone casts in the Upper Triassic Zuni Mountains Formation, Chinle Group, Fort Wingate, New Mexico. In PDF, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 40: 209–214.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (provided by Google books).
"... We propose alternatively that the casts are rhizoliths formed by the deep tap roots of the sphenopsid Neocalamites. ..."

A. Uchman et al. (2004): Oligocene trace fossils from temporary fluvial plain ponds: an example from the Freshwater Molasse of Switzerland. Open access, Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 97: 133–148.

Department of Earth Sciences, University College London:
! Types of Ichnofacies. ! Classification Principles.

! A.J. van Loon (2009): Soft-sediment deformation structures in siliciclastic sediments: an overview. I)n PDF, Geologos, 15: 3–55.
See also here.
"... various deformational processes, which are subdivided here into (1) endogenic processes resulting in endoturbations; (2) gravity-dominated processes resulting in graviturbations, which can be subdivided further into (2a) astroturbations, (2b) praecipiturbations, (2c) instabiloturbations, (2d) compagoturbations and (2e) inclinaturbations; and (3) exogenic processes resulting in exoturbations, which can be further subdivided into (3a) bioturbations – with subcategories (3a’) phytoturbations, (3a’’) zooturbations and (3a’’’) anthropoturbations – (3b) glaciturbations, (3c) thermoturbations, (3d) hydroturbations, (3e) chemoturbations, and (3f) eoloturbations. ..."

D.V. Vasilenko and A.P. Rasnitsyn (2007): Fossil Ovipositions of Dragonflies: Review and Interpretation. In PDF, Paleontological Journal, 41: 1156–1161.
See also here.

S. Voigt et al. (2021): Potential Ice Crystal Marks from PENNSYLVANIAN–PERMIAN Equatorial Red-Beds of Northwest Colorado, USA. Abstract, Palaios, 36: 377–392.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Raindrop impressions.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Sedimentary structures
Load cast.
Kategorie:Sedimentation (in German).
Belastungsmarke (in German).

M. Wisshak et al. (2022): Defining and refining principles in ichnotaxonomy: Markus Bertling (1959–2022). Free access, Ichnos.
See also here.

Ewan Wolff, Montana State University Geoscience Education Web Development Team, (website is part of the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), with funding from the National Science Foundation): Ichnology: The Study of Tracks and Traces. An annotated link directory.

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Last updated April 15, 2024

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