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Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Playa Lakes
Riparian Habitats
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Plant Roots
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
! Upland and Hinterland Floras@
! Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments@
! Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes@
! Fossil Plant and Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Teaching Documents about Ecology@
Teaching Documents about Biology@
Teaching Documents about Taphonomy@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Environment@

Wetland Plant Communities

J.S. Aber, T. Eddy, F. Pavri, and R. Sleezer, Earth Science Department, Emporia State University, Kansas: Wetland Environments. An interdisciplinary overview of physical, biological and cultural aspects of wetlands. Definitions, classifications, origins, and natural processes of wetland environments. Wetlands in boreal, temperate, and tropical climatic settings.

American Meteorological Society (website supported by the National Science Foundation): Water in the Earth System Learning Files.

G. Barth et al. (2014): Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) brackish to freshwater habitats at a fluvial-dominated delta plain (Seinstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany). In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94. See also here.

A. Bashforth et al. (2016): A Middle Pennsylvanian macrofloral assemblage from wetland deposits in Indiana (Illinois Basin): a taxonomic contribution with biostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic, and paleoecologic implications. In PDF, Journal of Paleontology, 90: 589–631.

A.R. Bashforth et al. (2010): Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Biology Online. Biology Online aims to educate and promote awareness of all things biology, offering free and easy access to information in the biological sciences. Go to:
Freshwater Ecology.

The Biomes Group, Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: The World's Biomes. This is an introduction to the major biomes on Earth.

Jamie Boyer, The New York Botanical Garden: The Paleoplant Website. An educational resource for students and teachers studying Earth's history, fossils, and evolution.
! Go to: Ecological Concepts. Lecture notes and Power Point presentations.
See especially: Wetland Plants and Ecology. In PDF.

D.W. Bressler and M.J. Paul: Effects of eutrophication on wetland ecosystems. In PDF.

! M.M. Brinson (2011): Classification of wetlands. In PDF, go to PDF page 95. In: B.A. LePage (ed.): Wetlands. Integrating Multidisciplinary Concepts.

Stephen P. Broker, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: Connecticut´s Freshwater Wetlands.

L.A. Buatois et al. (2016): The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. Abstract, The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events, Series Topics in Geobiology, 40: 179-263.
! See also here (in PDF).

Central European University, Budapest, Homepages of students: World Wetlands Day 2004, Wetlands Types and Classifications.

! A. Channing and D. Edwards (2013): Wetland megabias: ecological and ecophysiological filtering dominates the fossil record of hot spring floras. In PDF, Palaeontology, 56: 523–556. See also here (abstract).

A. Channing and D. Edwards (2009): Yellowstone hot spring environments and the palaeoecophysiology of Rhynie chert plants: towards a synthesis. In PDF, Plant Ecology & Diversity. See also here.

C.J. Cleal et al. (2012): Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 114: 124-155.

Andrew S. Cohen (2003): Paleolimnology: The History and Evolution of Lake Systems. Provided by Google books.
! See also here. In PDF, 33 MB (slow download).

C. Coiffard et al. (2012): Rise to dominance of angiosperm pioneers in European Cretaceous environments , Abstract. See also here ( and there (

Timothy M. Demko et al. (2005): Mesozoic Lakes of the Colorado Plateau. In PDF, Geological Society of America, Field Guide 6.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! W.A. DiMichele (2014): Wetland-Dryland Vegetational Dynamics in the Pennsylvanian Ice Age Tropics. Int. J. Plant Sci., 175: 123-164. See also here (in PDF).
Large Sigillaria stump cast on PDF page 11. Reconstructions of coal swamps and some dryland plant reconstructions with Cordaitalean trees and Walchian conifers.

W..DiMichele et al. (2007): Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest. In PDF.

! W.A. DiMichele and T.L. Phillips (1996): Clades, ecological amplitudes, and ecomorphs: phylogenetic effects and persistence of primitive plant communities in the Pennsylvanian-age tropical wetlands. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 127: 83-105.

dmoz, Open Directory Project:
Science: Biology: Ecology: Ecosystems. Search results: Wetlands.

N.C. Emery et al. (2001): Competition and salt-marsh plant zonation: stress tolerators may be dominant competitors. PDF file, Ecology, 82: 471-2485.

Student Presentations, Earth Science Emporia State University: Wetland Environments. All About Nature, Biomes - Habitats.

! Encyclopedia of Earth (supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National Council for Science and the Environment). Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone, please take notice. The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth. Excellent! Go to:

The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program investigates Earth´s land biotas throughout their 400 million year history. Their goal is to understand how terrestrial ecosystems have been structured and how they change over geologic time. Using the fossil record, ETE scientists study the characteristics of ecological communities and the changing dynamics of ecosystems. Go to:
ETE Relational Database and ETE DataNet.
The ETE relational database is now partially united with the Paleobiology Database Project´s (PBDB) relational database. All primary database functions (queries, entries and updates) are available through the PBDB home page. The new combined database compiles information from the terrestrial and marine record, but lacks some of the data fields present in the original ETE database.

Federal Geographic Data Committee (2013): Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. In PDF, adapted from Cowardin, Carter, Golet and LaRoe (1979).

T.J. Flowers et al. (2010): Evolution of halophytes: multiple origins of salt tolerance in land plants. PDF file, Functional Plant Biology, 37: 604-612.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Friends of the Everglades, Miami, Florida: A selection of online resources for everglades information.
Now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Robert A. Gastaldo and Timothy M. Demko (2011): The Relationship Between Continental Landscape Evolution and the Plant-Fossil Record: Long Term Hydrologic Controls on Preservation. PDF file, Topics in Geobiology, 32: 249-285. See also here (abstract).

R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2009): Ecological persistence in the Late Mississippian (Serpukhovian, Namurian A) megafloral record of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 336-350.

! R.A. Gastaldo et al. (2004): Community heterogeneity of Early Pennsylvanian peat mires. Abstract.

! S.F. Greb et al. (2006): Evolution and Importance of Wetlands in Earth History. PDF file, In: DiMichele, W.A., and Greb, S., eds., Wetlands Through Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication, 399: 1-40. See also here.

M. Grey and Z.V. Finkel (2011): The Joggins Fossil Cliffs UNESCO World Heritage site: a review of recent research. In PDF. Carboniferous forest reconstruction on page 192.

! The Interactive Geology Project (by Paul Weimer et al., Energy and Minerals Applied Research Center, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, University of Colorado.
The goal of this website is producing short 3D animations about the geologic evolution of key US national parks. Go to: ! Video Library. Excellent!
See especially (scroll down): "Triassic Thickets: Placerville, Colorado, 225 Million Years Ago."
This scene shows the plants developed on a broad coastal plain in western Colorado near Placerville. Plants depicted: Neocalamites, Sanmiguelia. This version is part of a joint project between the Interactive Geology Project at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. See also here.

International Lake Environment Committee Foundation (ILEC): World Lakes Database.

Irish Peatland Conservation Council: Peatland around the World. A virtual trip, sorted by continent and countries. Website saved by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.A. Janssens (2007): Description of Bryophyte Assemblages of Mesohabitats. In PDF. See also here.

! K. Kathiresan and B.L. Bingham (2001): Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. In PDF, Advances in marine biology, 40: 81-251.

E.A. Kowalski and D.L. Dilcher (2002): Warmer paleotemperatures for terrestrial ecosystems. In PDF, PNAS, 100: 167-170.

E.E. Levi et al. (2014): Similarity between contemporary vegetation and plant remains in the surface sediment in Mediterranean lakes. In PDF, Freshwater Biology, 59: 724-736.

Sonjia Leyva, College of Natural & Social Sciences, Department of Geosciences and Environment, California State University, Los Angeles:
The Geophile Pages. These pages are designed to help everyone explore the wonders of geology and oceanography. Go to:
CSULA Beach Trip.
The field trip focus on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, to convey a basic introduction to the Geology of the Southern Calfornia area.

C.M. Liutkus et al. (2010): Use of fine-scale stratigraphy and chemostratigraphy to evaluate conditions of deposition and preservation of a Triassic Lagerstätte, south-central Virginia. In PDF, J. Paleolimnol. 44: 645-666.

C. Martín-Closas (2003): The fossil record and evolution of freshwater plants: a review. PDF file, Geologica Acta, 1: 315-338.

S. McLoughlin and C. Strullu-Derrien (2015): Biota and palaeoenvironment of a high middle-latitude Late Triassic peat-forming ecosystem from Hopen, Svalbard archipelago. In PDF.

B.A. Middleton (ed, 2012): Global Change and the Function and Distribution of Wetlands. Table of contents.

! I.P. Montañez (2016): A Late Paleozoic climatewindow of opportunity. In PDF, PNAS, 113: 2334-2336. See also here.

L.F. Rinehart et al. (2015): Plant architecture and spatial structure of an early Permian woodland buried by flood waters, Sangre de Cristo Formation, New Mexico. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Alexander R. Schmidt and David L. Dilcher (2007): Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest, PDF file, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 104: 16581-16585. See also here, and there. PDF file.

! D. Schnurrenberger et al. (2003): Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components. In PDF, Journal of Paleolimnology.

S. Sen (2016): Review on coal petrographic indices and models and their applicability in paleoenvironmental interpretation. Abstract, Geosciences Journal. See also here.

B.J. Slater et al. (2013): Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota) from a Middle Permian Permineralised Peat within the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware. Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT. No registration required. Go to:
John Southard: Special Topics in Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences: The Environment of the Earth´s Surface. PDF files. The course combines aspects of geology, climatology, hydrology, and soil science to present a coherent introduction to the surface of the Earth. Go to: Rivers (PDF file), and Lakes (PDF file).

! G.W. Stull et al. (2012): Palaeoecology of Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri, and its implications for resolving the paradox of "xeromorphic" plants in Pennsylvanian wetlands. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 331-332: 162-176.

K.H. Taffs et al. (2012): The evolution of a coastal peatland at Byron Bay, Australia: multi-proxy evidence from the microfossil record. In PDF.

K. Thomas et al. (2016): Formation of Kinneyia via shear-induced instabilities in microbial mats. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A 371. See also here.
"Kinneyia are a class of microbially mediated sedimentary fossils. Characterized by clearly defined ripple structures, Kinneyia are generally found in areas that were formally littoral habitats and covered by microbial mats".

A.M. Trendell et al. (2013): Determining Floodplain plant distributions and populations using paleopedology and fossil root traces: Upper Triassic Sonsela Member of the Chinle Formation at Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. Abstract, Palaios.

UniServity, UK: Oxbow Lake Formation. This Flash slide show renders a detailed five step analysis of oxbow lake formation.

G.J. Vermeij and L. Dudley (2000): Why are there so few evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems? In PDF, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 70: 541-554.

Elizabeth Anne Viau, Charter College of Education, California State University, Los Angeles: World Builders, Session Eight, Terrestrial Botany, Plants on Land. Go to: Introduction to Biomes.

K. Vogt et al. (2007): Seed deposition in drift lines: Opportunity or hazard for species establishment? Aquatic Botany, 86: 385-392.

B.G. Warner (1988): Methods in Quaternary Ecology# 3. Plant Macrofossils. In PDf, Geoscience Canada.

E. Weiher and P.A. Keddy (1995): The assembly of experimental wetland plant communities. PDF file, Oikos.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Wetland classification.

D.A. Willard and T.M. Cronin (2007): Paleoecology and ecosystem restoration: case studies from Chesapeake Bay and the Florida Everglades. PDF file, Front Ecol. Environ., 5: 491-498.

! C.J. Williams (2011): A Paleoecological Perspective on Wetland Restoration. In PDF, go to PDF page 67. In: B.A. LePage (ed.): Wetlands. Integrating Multidisciplinary Concepts. See especially PDF page 77: "wood".

S.L. Wing (1984): Relation of paleovegetation to geometry and cyclicity of some fluvial carbonaceous deposits. PDF file.

S.L. Wing and W.A. DiMichele (1995): Conflict between Local and Global Changes in Plant Diversity through Geological Time. PDF file, Palaios, 10: 551-564. See also here (abstract).

P.H. Zedler (2003): Vernal pools and the concept of "isolated wetlands". In PDF, Wetlands, 23: 597-607.

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Last updated April 04, 2017

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