Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Ecology & Palaeoenvironment / Riparian Habitats

Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Plant Roots
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
Insect Oviposition
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants

! Upland and Hinterland Floras@
! Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations@
! Sedimentology and Sedimentary Rocks@
! Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes@
Teaching Documents about Ecology@
! Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments@
! Trees@

Riparian Habitats

American Meteorological Society (website supported by the National Science Foundation): Water in the Earth System Learning Files. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.A. Ballesteros-Cánovas et al. (2015): A review of flood records from tree rings. In PDF, Progress in Physical Geography. See also here.

S.G. Banham and N.P. Mountney (2014): Climatic versus halokinetic control on sedimentation in a dryland fluvial succession. Abstract, Sedimentology. See also here (in PDF).

S.G. Banham and N.P. Mountney (2013): Evolution of fluvial systems in salt-walled mini-basins: a review and new insights. Abstract, Sedimentary Geology. See also here (in PDF).

R.M. Bateman et al. (2016): Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology of the Loch Humphrey Burn lagerstätte and other Mississippian palaeobotanical localities of the Kilpatrick Hills, southwest Scotland PeerJ, 4.

A.R. Bashforth et al. (2010): Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

N. Bätz et al. (2015): Organic matter processing and soil evolution in a braided river system. In PDF, Catena, 126: 86-97.

Biology Online. Biology Online aims to educate and promote awareness of all things biology, offering free and easy access to information in the biological sciences. Go to: Freshwater Ecology.

V. Borruel-Abadía et al. (2015): Climate changes during the Early–Middle Triassic transition in the E. Iberian plate and their palaeogeographic significance in the western Tethys continental domain. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 440: 671–689.
See also here.

! D.R. Bridgland and R. Westaway (2014): Quaternary fluvial archives and landscape evolution: a global synthesis. In PDF, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 125: 600–629. See also here (abstract).

D.R. Bridgland et al. (2014): Rivers through geological time: the fluvial contribution to understanding of our planet. Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association, 125: 503-510. See also here.

! D.R. Broussard et al. (2018): Depositional setting, taphonomy and geochronology of new fossil sites in the Catskill Formation (Upper Devonian) of north-central Pennsylvania, USA, including a new early tetrapod fossil. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 511: 168-187. See also here (in PDF).
Note fig. 16: Schematic reconstruction of sandy fluvial subenvironments where diverse fossil remains accumulated.
Fig. 17: Depositional model for Catskill Formation strata.

! C. Camporeale et al. (2013): Modeling the interactions between river morphodynamics and riparian vegetation. Reviews of Geophysics, 51. See also here (in PDF).

M. Church and R.I. Ferguson (2015): Morphodynamics: Rivers beyond steady state. Water Resour. Res., 51: 1883–1897.

D. Corenblit et al. (2015): Considering river structure and stability in the light of evolution: feedbacks between riparian vegetation and hydrogeomorphology. In PDF, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 40. See also here.

Jeff Crabaugh (University of Wyoming), The Science Education Resource Center (SERC), Carleton College: Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations: Using Images, Animations, and Models Effectively, River Systems: Process and Form. This site provides access to a number of visualizations and supporting material that can be used effectively to teach students about physical processes acting in rivers and their floodplains. Visualizations include simple animations, visual output from numerical models, as well as numerous static illustrations and photos.

N.R. Cúneo et al. (1993): The Glossopteris flora from Antarctica: taphonomy and paleoecology. In PDF, Comptes Rendus, 2: 13-40.

! S. Dai et al. (2020): Recognition of peat depositional environments in coal: A review. Free access, International Journal of Coal Geology, 219.

N.S. Davies et al. (2014): Cross-Bedded Woody Debris From A Pliocene Forested River System In the High Arctic: Beaufort Formation, Meighen Island, Canada. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 84: 19-25.

! N.S. Davies and M.R. Gibling (2013): The sedimentary record of Carboniferous rivers: Continuing influence of land plant evolution on alluvial processes and Palaeozoic ecosystems. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 120: 40–79. See also here.
Note figure 14: Large woody debris within Devonian and Carboniferous alluvium.

W.M. Dijk et al. (2013): Effects of vegetation distribution on experimental river channel dynamics. In PDF, Water Resour. Res., 49: 7558-7574.

! W.A. DiMichele et al. (2007): Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest. In PDF Geology, 35: 415–418.
See also here.
"... we report the discovery of a spectacular fossil forest preserved over -1000 ha
[...] The forest was abruptly drowned when fault movement dropped a segment of coastal mire below sea level. ..."

P.R. Durkin et al. (2017): Evolution of fluvial meander-belt deposits and implications for the completeness of the stratigraphic record. In PDF, GSA Bulletin,130: 21-739.

EarthComm (developed by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and supported by the National Science Foundation and donors of the American Geological Institute Foundation). Actually a link directory. Go to: Bedrock Geology, and River Systems.

Student Presentations, Earth Science Emporia State University: Wetland Environments.

Environment Agency, UK: River habitats classification. This indicator shows the extent to which river channels are natural or have been modified. Go to: River habitats classification - background and data. The River Habitats Classification enables organisations to set targets for habitat quality and to measure the impact (both positive and negative) of river channel management.

! The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program investigates Earth´s land biotas throughout their 400 million year history. Their goal is to understand how terrestrial ecosystems have been structured and how they change over geologic time. Using the fossil record, ETE scientists study the characteristics of ecological communities and the changing dynamics of ecosystems.

! H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2001): Fire-prone plant communities and palaeoclimate of a Late Cretaceous fluvial to estuarine environment, Pecínov quarry, Czech Republic. PDF file, Geol. Mag., 138: 563-576. See also here.
Note figure 3: Angiosperm wood charcoal.

Mark Francek Carleton College (SERC) and Central Michigan University: Processes of River Erosion, Transport, and Deposition. Find animations showing processes of river erosion, transport and deposition.

Deborah Freile, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Earth Science. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture. See for instance:
! Rivers and Groundwater.
! Sedimentary Rocks and Environments.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R.A. Gastaldo and T.M. Demko (2011): The relationship between continental landscape evolution and the plant-fossil record: long term hydrologic controls on preservation. In PDF, Taphonomy: 249-285.
See also here.

! Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine:
Notes for a course in paleobotany. This website provides information about:
Taphonomy: Physiological, Necrological, and Traumatic processes,
Taphonomy: Biogeochemical Processes of Plant Fossilization and Preservational Modes,
Biostratinomic Processes in Volcaniclastic Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Fluvial-Lacustrine Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Coastal-Deltaic Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Peat Accumulating Environments, and
Biostratinomic Processes in Marginal Marine Settings. See also: A Brief Introduction to PALEOBOTANY.
These expired links are still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.R. Gibling et al. (2023): Braided-river architecture of the Triassic Swartberg Member, Katberg Formation, South Africa: assessing age, fluvial style, and paleoclimate after the End-Permian Extinction. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 93: 741–775. DOI: 10.2110/jsr.2023.018. See likewise here.
Note figure 14: Block diagrams to illustrate four major fluvial styles in the Swartberg member.

M.R. Gibling et al. (2014): Palaeozoic co-evolution of rivers and vegetation: a synthesis of current knowledge. In PDF, Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 125: 524–533. See also here.
Note fig. 2E: Log accumulation at base of braided-fluvial channel.
Note fig. 2F: Upright lycopsid tree, 1.5 m tall.

! M.R. Gibling and N.S. Davies (2012): Palaeozoic landscapes shaped by plant evolution. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 5. See also here (abstract).

A.M. Gurnell et al. (2016): A conceptual model of vegetation–hydrogeomorphology interactions within river corridors. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).

! A. Gurnell (2014): Plants as river system engineers. Abstract, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 39. See also here (in PDF).

! A.M. Gurnell et al. (2012): Changing river channels: The roles of hydrological processes, plants and pioneer fluvial landforms in humid temperate, mixed load, gravel bed rivers. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 111: 129-141. See also here.
Note fig. 4: Pioneer island initiated around a deposited tree that regenerates and trapping additional fine sediment and plant propagules.

M.E. Harmon et al. (1986): Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. In PDF, Advances in Ecological Research, 15: 133-302. See also here.

Thomas R. Holtz, Department of Geology, University of Maryland: Historical Geology - The History of Earth and Life. Lecture notes. Go to: Terrestrial Sedimentary Environments, or Fluvial & Deltaic Environments; Walther's Law.

Home Ground (by Trinity University Press): A searchable, definitive database of 850 American landscape term. Go to:
! All Definitions. Excellent!
See for example:
Alluvial Fan
Lacustrine Deposit
Overbank deposit.
Website outdated. These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.R. Hupp (1992): Riparian vegetation recovery patterns following stream channelization: a geomorphic perspective. In PDF, Ecology, Ecology, 73: 1209-1226. See also here (abstract).

T.L. Hyatt and R.J. Naiman (2001): The residence time of large woody debris in the Queets River, Washington, USA. PDF file, Ecological Applications, 11: 191-202.
Website outdated, the link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! A Ielpi et al. (2015): Impact of Vegetation On Early Pennsylvanian Fluvial Channels: Insight From the Joggins Formation of Atlantic Canada. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 85: 999-1018.

! The Interactive Geology Project (by Paul Weimer et al., Energy and Minerals Applied Research Center, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, University of Colorado.
The goal of this website is producing short 3D animations about the geologic evolution of key US national parks. Go to: ! Video Library. Excellent!
See especially (scroll down): "Triassic Thickets: Placerville, Colorado, 225 Million Years Ago."
This scene shows the plants developed on a broad coastal plain in western Colorado near Placerville. Plants depicted: Neocalamites, Sanmiguelia. This version is part of a joint project between the Interactive Geology Project at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. See also here.

Carlos Jaramillo et al. (2010): The origin of the modern Amazon rainforest: implications of the palynological and palaeobotanical record. PDF file, Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past, 1st edition. Edited by C. Hoorn and F.P. Wesselingh.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S.K. Johansen (2016): Sedimentology and facies distribution of the Upper Triassic De Geerdalen Formation in the Storfjorden area and Wilhelmøya, eastern Svalbard. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).
See also here.

! W.J. Junk et al. (1989): The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. PDF file, in: Dodge, D.P. (ed.): Canadian special publication Fish. Aquat. Sci., 106: 110-127.

! C. King (2022):
Exploring Geoscience across the globe. In PDF (42 MB), Excellent!
Provided by The International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO). Chapters that may be of interest:
Chapter 3.2 (starting on pdf-page 30): e.g. Relative dating, Absolute dating.
Chapter (starting on pdf-page 56): e.g. Sedimentary processes.
Chapter 4.3 (starting on pdf-page 115): e.g. Atmospheric change.
Chapter 4.4.1 (starting on pdf-page 122): e.g. Evolution.

! N. Kramer (2016): Great river wood dynamics in Northern Canada. In PDF, Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
See also here.

Khudadad (2021): A Middle Devonian vernal pool ecosystem provides a snapshot of the earliest forests. Open access, PLoS ONE 16(9): e0255565.
Note figure 14: Representative fossils of roots systems belonging to three Middle Devonian tree clades.

Peter Lourie, Matrix Learning Inc.: RiverResource. At RiverResource you won't find the facts, but rather the connections to facts, books, and people studying rivers. Go To: River System (by Hamblin 1995). Major characteristics of a river system.

L. Mao et al. (2020): The role of vegetation and large wood on the topographic characteristics of braided river systems. In PDF, Geomorphology, 367. See also here.

J. Marmi et al. (2015): A riparian plant community from the upper Maastrichtian of the Pyrenees (Catalonia, NE Spain). In PDF, Cretaceous Research, 56: 510-529. See also here.

! D.J. Martin and L.E. Benda (2001): Patterns of Instream Wood Recruitment and Transport at the Watershed Scale. PDF file, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 130: 940-958.
See also here.

! Virginia T. McLemore: Sedimentology and Sedimentary Processes. Powerpoint presentation.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! R.N. Melchor et al. (2012): Fluvial environments. In PDF, Developments in Sedimentology, 64: 329-378. See also here.
Note table 1: Morphology of Trace Fossils Found in Fluvial Successions and Ichnogenera that can be Included in Each Category.
Table 2: Expression of Ichnofacies Found in Fluvial Deposits.

! A.D. Miall (2013): The geology of fluvial deposits: sedimentary facies, basin analysis, and petroleum geology. Google books.

! A.D. Miall (1985): Architectural-element analysis: a new method of facies analysis applied to fluvial deposits. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 22: 261-308.
See also here.

A.D. Miall (1977): Lithofacies types and vertical profile models in braided river deposits: a summary. In PDF, Fluvial Sedimentology — Memoir 5: 597-604.
See also here.

! A.D. Miall (1977): A review of the braided-river depositional environment. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 13: 1-62. See also here (in PDF).

Per Michaelsen (2002): Mass extinction of peat-forming plants and the effect on fluvial styles across the Permian-Triassic boundary, northern Bowen Basin, Australia. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 179: 173-188.
See likewise here. Models of fluvial styles in fig. 7 (on PDF page 10).

Kamal Roslan Mohamed, Jabatan Geologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia:
Hydrology of freshwater lakes. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! D.R. Montgomery and H. Piégay (2003): Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes. In PDF, Geomorphology, 51: 1-5.

! Robert J. Naiman and Henri Décamps (1997): THE ECOLOGY OF INTERFACES: Riparian Zones. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 28: 621-658.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T. Okitsu et al. (2021): The Role of Large-Scale Bedforms in Driftwood Storage Mechanism in Rivers. Open access, Water, 13.

! S. Péron et al. (2005): Paleoenvironment reconstructions and climate simulations of the Early Triassic: Impact of the water and sediment supply on the preservation of fluvial systems. In PDF, Geodinamica Acta, 18: 431-446.

Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to: Introduction to the Hydrosphere.

M. Pole et al. (2016): The rise and demise of Podozamites in east Asia - An extinct conifer life style. Abstract. See also here.

! Geoffrey C. Poole (2002): Fluvial landscape ecology: addressing uniqueness within the river discontinuum. PDF file, Freshwater Biology, 47: 641-660.

P. David Polly, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN:
Historical Geology. Life through time. Lecture notes. Topics are paleontology, geologic time, biological evolution, plate tectonics, ancient environments, and climate change, principles of interpreting earth history from geological data, etc. Go to:
Lecture 15: Paleobiology, and
Lecture 21: Mesozoic 2: Terrestrial environments and extinction. Lecture slides (PDF files).
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P. David Polly, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN:
Historical Geology. Life through time. Lecture notes. Topics are paleontology, geologic time, biological evolution, plate tectonics, ancient environments, and climate change, principles of interpreting earth history from geological data, etc. Go to:
Lecture 2: Rocks, the earth's historical record,
Lecture 6: Coming Down: Sedimentary Rocks and Depositional Environments,
Lecture 7: Lakes, Rivers, Wind and Ice: Deposition on Land ,
Lecture 8: Deltas, shores, and reefs: Deposition at Sea . Lecture slides (PDF files).
Websites outdated. Links lead to versions archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

F. Ricardi-Branco et al. (2009): Plant Accumulations Along the Itanhaem River Basin, Southern Coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 416-424. See also here.

J.S. Richardson and R.J. Danehy (2007): A Synthesis of the Ecology of Headwater Streams and their Riparian Zones in Temperate Forests. In PDF, Forest Science.

L.F. Rinehart et al. (2015): Plant architecture and spatial structure of an early Permian woodland buried by flood waters, Sangre de Cristo Formation, New Mexico. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Lindsay Rogers, Nebraska Game & Parks Commission:
Water & Wetlands. Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentation.

! Dave Rubin, Western Region Coastal & Marine Geology, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, CA: The USGS bedform sedimentology site. QuickTime and MPEG movies of bedforms and cross-bedding, and bedform simulation software. From this page you can access: Images of bedforms and crossbedding, and "How to identify low-dimensional deterministic systems (chaos) in time series or spatial patterns". Go to: Cross-Bedding, Bedforms, and Paleocurrents. Excellent!

H. Sakio (ed., 2020): Long-Term Ecosystem Changes in Riparian Forests. Open access, Ecological Research Monographs (Springer).
This book represents the results of more than 30 years of long-term ecological research in riparian forest ecosystems.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware. Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT. No registration required. Go to:
John Southard: Special Topics in Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences: The Environment of the Earth´s Surface. PDF files. The course combines aspects of geology, climatology, hydrology, and soil science to present a coherent introduction to the surface of the Earth. Go to: Rivers (PDF file).

! D. Schnurrenberger et al. (2003): Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components. In PDF, Journal of Paleolimnology.

! S. Simon (2016): Sedimentology of the Fluvial Systems of the Clear Fork Formation in North-Central Texas: Implications for Early Permian Paleoclimate and Plant Fossil Taphonomy. In PDF, Thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
See especially PDF page 185: "Taphonomy and Preservation of Plant Material".
Goethite petrification of cellular structure of plant remains on PDF page 188.

Els Slots, The Netherlands: World Heritage Site, Categories. Go to: Geological formation, Paleontology.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware.
Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT. No registration required. Go to:
John Southard: Special Topics in Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences: The Environment of the Earth´s Surface. PDF files.
The course combines aspects of geology, climatology, hydrology, and soil science to present a coherent introduction to the surface of the Earth.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

STRATA (provided by Society for Sedimentary Geology, SEPM).
SEPM’s stratigraphy open access web site is dedicated to helping people understand sedimentary geology, from the basics to the detailed. Superbly done! See especially:
Sediments & Rocks.
Depositional Analogues.

! David L. Strayer and Stuart E. G. Findlay (2010): Ecology of freshwater shore zones. PDF file, Aquat. Sci., 72: 127-163.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Roger J. Suthren,
Focus on Sedimentary Environments. The study of depositional processes and environments at scales from the landscape to the microscope.

Roger Suthren, Oxford Brookes University, U.K.: Go to: Online learning in the geosciences, Sedimentology. Online learning materials (actually a link directory) for sedimentology.

A. Sutter: Sedimentology, Depositional Environments and Sequence Stratigraphy. See especially:
Depositional Environments.
Fluvial Environments.
Still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! F.J. Swanson et al. (2021): Reflections on the history of research on large wood in rivers. In PDF, Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, (2020).
See also here.

K. Thomas et al. (2016): Formation of Kinneyia via shear-induced instabilities in microbial mats. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A 371. See also here.
"Kinneyia are a class of microbially mediated sedimentary fossils. Characterized by clearly defined ripple structures, Kinneyia are generally found in areas that were formally littoral habitats and covered by microbial mats".

UniServity, UK: Oxbow Lake Formation. This Flash slide show renders a detailed five step analysis of oxbow lake formation.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G.J. Vermeij and L. Dudley (2000): Why are there so few evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems? In PDF, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 70: 541-554.

K. Vogt et al. (2007): Seed deposition in drift lines: Opportunity or hazard for species establishment? Aquatic Botany, 86: 385-392.

Steve Wagner (paleontological volunteer at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science): Mainly nice photo galleries of fossil plants. Go to: Castle Rock Fossil Rainforest. Please take notice: THE MEANDERING RIVER.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Sedimentary rock.

S.L. Wing (1984): Relation of paleovegetation to geometry and cyclicity of some fluvial carbonaceous deposits. PDF file, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 54: 52–66.
See also here.
"... lenticular bodies that truncate underlying mudstone layers. These are interpreted as having formed in abandoned sections of channels.
[...] Deposits of the second type are tabular, as much as 10 km in lateral extent, and rest conformably on other floodplain sediment. These units show a cyclic arrangement ..."

! E. Wohl et al. (2022): Why wood should move in rivers. Open access, River Res. Applic., 2023: 1–12.
"... We briefly review what is known about large wood mobility in river corridors
! [...] The diversity of decay states in stationary large wood in the active channel(s) [...] and in the floodplain ..."
Note figuere 1: Different modes of wood movement by colluvial and fluvial processes.

E. Wohl (2021): An integrative conceptualization of floodplain storage. Free access, Reviews of Geophysics, 59: e2020RG000724. https://doi. org/10.1029/2020RG000724
Note figure 1: Schematic illustration of floodplain storage timespans.
Figure 2: Geomorphic-unit spatial heterogeneity of topography and substrate within a floodplain reach.

E. Wohl and A. Iroumé (2021): Introduction to the Wood in World Rivers special issue. In PDF, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

! E. Wohl et al. (2019): The Natural Wood Regime in Rivers. Free access, BioScience, 69: 259–273.
! Note figure 3: Hypothetical wood process domains along a river continuum.
"... The wood regime consists of wood recruitment, transport, and storage in river corridors. Each of these components can be characterized in terms of magnitude, frequency, rate, timing, duration, and mode ..."

! E. Wohl (2013): Floodplains and wood. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 123: 194–212.

! K.J. Wójcicki (2023): Current and paleo sources of organic material within fluvial features of the meandering Ruda River, Poland. Free access, Catena, 219.
Note table 1: Sediment-forming OM identified in the Ruda Valley.
Figure 10: The main forms of organic remains in the sedimentary subenvironments of the Ruda floodplain.
"... During floods, the most significant phenomenon is the deposition of wood and leaf debris; however, these debris are subject to rapid decomposition in sandy layers and, as a result, do not contribute much to the total OM [organic matter] composition.

! K. Zhao et al. (2022): A review on bank retreat: Mechanisms, observations, and modeling. Open access, Reviews of Geophysics, 60, e2021RG000761.

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