Ecology & Palaeoenvironment /
Ecology, Facies and Palaeoenvironment
Stress Conditions in Recent and Fossil Plants
Epiphytic and Parasitic Plants
Modern Day Ecosystem Recovery
Wetland Plant Communities
Peloturbation (Churning, Hydroturbation, Self Mulching)
Fossil Animal Plant Interaction
Coprolites (Feacal Pellets) in Fossil Wood
Pseudo Planktonic Organisms Attached on Fossil Plants
! Upland and Hinterland Floras@
! Log Jams and Driftwood Accumulations@
! Sedimentology and Sedimentary Rocks@
! Reconstructions of Triassic Landscapes@
Teaching Documents about Ecology@
! Overviews of Plant Fossil Lagerstätten and Their Palaeoenvironments@
Mount Allison University,
Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada:
Courses. Go to:
Marine Biology: Coastal Systems.
Lecture notes, Powerpoint presentations. See especially:
Soft Substrates - Estuaries.
American Meteorological Society (website supported by the National Science Foundation): Water in the Earth System Learning Files.
S.G. Banham and N.P. Mountney (2014): Climatic versus halokinetic control on sedimentation in a dryland fluvial succession. Abstract, Sedimentology. See also here (in PDF).
S.G. Banham and N.P. Mountney (2013): Evolution of fluvial systems in salt-walled mini-basins: a review and new insights. Abstract, Sedimentary Geology. See also here (in PDF).
R.M. Bateman et al. (2016): Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology of the Loch Humphrey Burn lagerstätte and other Mississippian palaeobotanical localities of the Kilpatrick Hills, southwest Scotland PeerJ, 4.
D.R. Bridgland et al. (2014): Rivers through geological time: the fluvial contribution to understanding of our planet. Proceedings of the Geologists´ Association, 125: 503-510. See also here.
A.R. Bashforth et al. (2010): Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
N. Bätz et al. (2015): Organic matter processing and soil evolution in a braided river system. In PDF, Catena, 126: 86-97.
Biology Online. Biology Online aims to educate and promote awareness of all things biology, offering free and easy access to information in the biological sciences. Go to: Freshwater Ecology.
V. Borruel-Abadía et al. (2015):
changes during the Early–Middle Triassic
transition in the E. Iberian plate and their palaeogeographic significance in the
western Tethys continental domain. In PDF,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 440: 671–689.
See also here.
! D.R. Bridgland and R. Westaway (2014): Quaternary fluvial archives and landscape evolution: a global synthesis. In PDF, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 125: 600–629. See also here (abstract).
! C. Camporeale et al. (2013): Modeling the interactions between river morphodynamics and riparian vegetation. Reviews of Geophysics, 51. See also here (in PDF).
M. Church and R.I. Ferguson (2015): Morphodynamics: Rivers beyond steady state. Water Resour. Res., 51: 1883–1897.
D. Corenblit et al. (2015): Considering river structure and stability in the light of evolution: feedbacks between riparian vegetation and hydrogeomorphology. In PDF, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 40. See also here.
Jeff Crabaugh (University of Wyoming), The Science Education Resource Center (SERC), Carleton College: Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations: Using Images, Animations, and Models Effectively, River Systems: Process and Form. This site provides access to a number of visualizations and supporting material that can be used effectively to teach students about physical processes acting in rivers and their floodplains. Visualizations include simple animations, visual output from numerical models, as well as numerous static illustrations and photos.
N.S. Davies et al. (2014): Cross-Bedded Woody Debris From A Pliocene Forested River System In the High Arctic: Beaufort Formation, Meighen Island, Canada. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 84: 19-25.
W.M. Dijk et al. (2013): Effects of vegetation distribution on experimental river channel dynamics. In PDF, Water Resour. Res., 49: 7558-7574.
W..DiMichele et al. (2007): Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest. In PDF.
P.R. Durkin et al. (2017): Evolution of fluvial meander-belt deposits and implications for the completeness of the stratigraphic record. In PDF, GSA Bulletin,130: 21-739.
EarthComm (developed by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and supported by the National Science Foundation and donors of the American Geological Institute Foundation). Actually a link directory. Go to: Bedrock Geology, and River Systems.
Student Presentations, Earth Science Emporia State University: Wetland Environments.
Environment Agency, UK: River habitats classification. This indicator shows the extent to which river channels are natural or have been modified. Go to: River habitats classification - background and data. The River Habitats Classification enables organisations to set targets for habitat quality and to measure the impact (both positive and negative) of river channel management.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program
(ETE), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program investigates Earth´s land biotas throughout their 400 million year history. Their goal is to understand how terrestrial ecosystems have been structured and how they change over geologic time. Using the fossil record, ETE scientists study the characteristics of ecological communities and the changing dynamics of ecosystems.
! H.J. Falcon-Lang et al. (2001): Fire-prone plant communities and palaeoclimate of a Late Cretaceous fluvial to estuarine environment, Pecínov quarry, Czech Republic. PDF file, Geol. Mag., 138: 563-576.
Mark Francek (Central Michigan University), The Science Education Resource Center (SERC), Carleton College: Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations: Using Images, Animations, and Models Effectively, Processes of River Erosion, Transport, and Deposition. Find animations showing processes of river erosion, transport and deposition.
New Jersey City University, Jersey City, NJ:
Earth Science. Powerpoint Slides for Lecture.
! See for instance: Rivers and Groundwater.
! Sedimentary Rocks and Environments.
! R.A. Gastaldo and T.M. Demko (2011): The relationship between continental landscape evolution and the plant-fossil record: long term hydrologic controls on preservation. In PDF, Taphonomy.
! Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine:
Notes for a course in paleobotany.
This website provides information about:
Taphonomy: Physiological, Necrological, and Traumatic processes,
Taphonomy: Biogeochemical Processes of Plant Fossilization and Preservational Modes,
Biostratinomic Processes in Volcaniclastic Terrains,
! Biostratinomic Processes in Fluvial-Lacustrine Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Coastal-Deltaic Terrains,
Biostratinomic Processes in Peat Accumulating Environments, and
Biostratinomic Processes in Marginal Marine Settings.
M.R. Gibling and N.S. Davies (2012): Palaeozoic landscapes shaped by plant evolution. PDF file, Nature Geoscience, 5: 99-105. See also here (abstract).
A.M. Gurnell et al. (2016): A conceptual model of vegetation–hydrogeomorphology interactions within river corridors. Abstract. See also here (in PDF).
! A. Gurnell (2014): Plants as river system engineers. Abstract, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 39. See also here (in PDF).
! M.E. Harmon et al. (1986): Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. In PDF, Advances in Ecological Research, 15: 133-302.
Thomas R. Holtz, Department of Geology, University of Maryland: Historical Geology - The History of Earth and Life. Lecture notes. Go to: Terrestrial Sedimentary Environments, or Fluvial & Deltaic Environments; Walther's Law.
Home Ground (by Trinity University Press):
A searchable, definitive database of 850 American landscape term. Go to
See for example:
! C.R. Hupp (1992): Riparian vegetation recovery patterns following stream channelization: a geomorphic perspective. In PDF, Ecology, Ecology, 73: 1209-1226. See also here (abstract).
T.L. Hyatt and R.J. Naiman (2001):
residence time of large woody debris in the Queets River, Washington, USA. PDF file,
Ecological Applications, 11: 191-202.
Website outdated, the link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
! A Ielpi et al. (2015): Impact of Vegetation On Early Pennsylvanian Fluvial Channels: Insight From the Joggins Formation of Atlantic Canada. In PDF, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 85: 999-1018.
The Interactive Geology Project
(by Paul Weimer et al., Energy and Minerals Applied Research Center,
Denver Museum of Nature & Science, University of Colorado.
The goal of this website is producing short 3D animations about the geologic evolution of key US national parks. Go to: ! Video Library. Excellent!
See especially (scroll down): "Triassic Thickets: Placerville, Colorado, 225 Million Years Ago."
This scene shows the plants developed on a broad coastal plain in western Colorado near Placerville. Plants depicted: Neocalamites, Sanmiguelia. This version is part of a joint project between the Interactive Geology Project at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. See also here.
Carlos Jaramillo et al. (2010):
origin of the modern Amazon rainforest: implications of the
palynological and palaeobotanical record. PDF file,
Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past, 1st edition.
Edited by C. Hoorn and F.P. Wesselingh.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
S.K. Johansen (2016): Sedimentology and facies distribution of the Upper Triassic De Geerdalen Formation in the Storfjorden area and Wilhelmøya, eastern Svalbard. In PDF, Dissertation, Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).
! N. Kramer (2016): Great river wood dynamics in Northern Canada. In PDF, Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Land & Water Australia, Canberra: River Landscapes. Including interactive 3-D diagrams to explore how rivers and riparian areas function, in scientific, managerial and social terms.
Bruce S. Lieberman and Roger Kaesler (2010):
Evolution and the Fossil Record. Book announcement (Wiley-Blackwell),
including table of contents.
The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.
! Available in PDF from here. See especially:
PDF page 38: "Taphonomy."
PDF page 74: "Introduction to Evolution."
PDF page 123: "Extinctions: The Legacy of the Fossil Record."
PDF page 137: "The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences."
! PDF page 227: "Life, Climate, and Geology."
! PDF page 236: "Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind."
! PDF page 242: "Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology."
Peter Lourie, Matrix Learning Inc.: RiverResource. At RiverResource you won't find the facts, but rather the connections to facts, books, and people studying rivers. Go To: River System (by Hamblin 1995). Major characteristics of a river system.
Virginia T. McLemore:
and Sedimentary Processes.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! A.D. Miall (1977): A review of the braided-river depositional environment. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 13: 1-62. See also here (in PDF).
Per Michaelsen (2002): Mass extinction of peat-forming plants and the effect on fluvial styles across the Permian-Triassic boundary, northern Bowen Basin, Australia. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 179: 173-188. Models of fluvial styles in fig. 7 (on PDF page 10).
! D.R. Montgomery and H. Piégay (2003): Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes. In PDF, Geomorphology, 51: 1-5.
Robert J. Naiman and Henri Décamps (1997):
ECOLOGY OF INTERFACES:
Riparian Zones. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 28: 621-658.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! S. Péron et al. (2005): Paleoenvironment reconstructions and climate simulations of the Early Triassic: Impact of the water and sediment supply on the preservation of fluvial systems. In PDF, Geodinamica Acta, 18: 431-446.
Michael Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena that exist in Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Go to: Introduction to the Hydrosphere.
M. Pole et al. (2016): The rise and demise of Podozamites in east Asia - An extinct conifer life style. Abstract. See also here.
! Geoffrey C. Poole (2002): Fluvial landscape ecology: addressing uniqueness within the river discontinuum. PDF file, Freshwater Biology, 47: 641-660.
P David Polly, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN:
Historical Geology. Life through time.
Lecture notes. Topics are paleontology, geologic time, biological evolution,
plate tectonics, ancient environments, and climate change,
principles of interpreting earth history from geological data, etc. Go to:
Lecture 7: Lakes, Rivers, Wind and Ice: Deposition on Land , and
Lecture 8: Deltas, shores, and reefs: Deposition at Sea . Lecture slides (PDF files).
F. Ricardi-Branco et al. (2009): Plant Accumulations Along the Itanhaem River Basin, Southern Coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. PDF file, Palaios, 24: 416-424. See also here.
J.S. Richardson and R.J. Danehy (2007): A Synthesis of the Ecology of Headwater Streams and their Riparian Zones in Temperate Forests. In PDF, Forest Science.
L.F. Rinehart et al. (2015): Plant architecture and spatial structure of an early Permian woodland buried by flood waters, Sangre de Cristo Formation, New Mexico. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
! Dave Rubin, Western Region Coastal & Marine Geology, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, CA: The USGS bedform sedimentology site. QuickTime and MPEG movies of bedforms and cross-bedding, and bedform simulation software. From this page you can access: Images of bedforms and crossbedding, and "How to identify low-dimensional deterministic systems (chaos) in time series or spatial patterns". Go to: Cross-Bedding, Bedforms, and Paleocurrents. Excellent!
Institute of Technology (MIT) Open Courseware.
Free lecture notes, exams, and videos from MIT.
No registration required. Go to:
John Southard: Special Topics in Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences: The Environment of the Earth´s Surface. PDF files. The course combines aspects of geology, climatology, hydrology, and soil science to present a coherent introduction to the surface of the Earth. Go to: Rivers (PDF file).
! D. Schnurrenberger et al. (2003): Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components. In PDF, Journal of Paleolimnology.
S. Simon (2016):
of the Fluvial Systems of the Clear Fork Formation in North-Central Texas:
Implications for Early Permian Paleoclimate and Plant Fossil Taphonomy. In PDF,
Thesis, Dalhousie University,
Halifax, Nova Scotia.
See especially PDF page 185: "Taphonomy and Preservation of Plant Material".
Goethite petrification of cellular structure of plant remains on PDF page 188.
Els Slots, The Netherlands: World Heritage Site, Categories. Go to: River / Lake.
David L. Strayer and Stuart E. G. Findlay (2010):
of freshwater shore zones. PDF file,
Aquat. Sci., 72: 127-163.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Roger J. Suthren, Institute of Learning and Research Technology, University of Bristol: Mount Hood Stratovolcano, Oregon. Sedimentary environments information.
Roger Suthren, Oxford Brookes University, U.K.: virtual-geology.info. Go to: Online learning in the geosciences, Sedimentology. Online learning materials (actually a link directory) for sedimentology.
Depositional Environments and Sequence Stratigraphy. See especially:
K. Thomas et al. (2016):
of Kinneyia via shear-induced instabilities
in microbial mats. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A 371.
"Kinneyia are a class of microbially mediated sedimentary fossils. Characterized by clearly defined ripple structures, Kinneyia are generally found in areas that were formally littoral habitats and covered by microbial mats".
Oxbow Lake Formation.
This Flash slide show renders a
detailed five step analysis of oxbow lake formation.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
G.J. Vermeij and L. Dudley (2000): Why are there so few evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems? In PDF, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 70: 541-554.
K. Vogt et al. (2007): Seed deposition in drift lines: Opportunity or hazard for species establishment? Aquatic Botany, 86: 385-392.
Steve Wagner (paleontological volunteer at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science): Paleocurrents.com: Mainly nice photo galleries of fossil plants. Go to: Castle Rock Fossil Rainforest. Please take notice: THE MEANDERING RIVER.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
S.L. Wing (1984): Relation of paleovegetation to geometry and cyclicity of some fluvial carbonaceous deposits. PDF file.
E. Wohl (2013):
and wood. Abstract,
Earth-Science Reviews, 123: 194–212.
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