Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa /
Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites
Seed Plants in General
Fungal Wood Decay: Evidence from the Fossil Record@
! Parasitic Plants@
! Plant Roots@
! Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Reinhard Agerer, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Gerhard Rambold, Universität Bayreuth, Germany: DEEMY. An expert information system with descriptions and images for the characterization and determination of ectomycorrhizae - structures formed by fungi and the roots of forest trees. Go to: Character listing, morphology, mycorrhizal system, morphology mycorrhizal system ramification presence-type.
Anonymus (?, see also here): Leavingbio.net. This website will guide you through the main topics of Biology. Go to: Fungi.
P. Baldrian (2017): Forest microbiome: diversity, complexity and dynamics. Free access, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 41: 109–130.
! C. Beimforde et al. (2014): Estimating the Phanerozoic history of the Ascomycota lineages: combining fossil and molecular data. In PDF, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 78: 386-398. See also here.
Phil Berardelli, Science now:
Fungus That Ate the World.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! M.L. Berbee and J.W. Taylor (2010): Dating the molecular clock in fungi – how close are we? In PDF, Fungal Biology Reviews, 24: 1-24.
The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Fungi, and Fungi: Fossil Record.
M.I. Bidartondo et al. (2011): The dawn of symbiosis between plants and fungi. In PDF, Biology Letters. See also here.
! Meredith Blackwell, Rytas Vilgalys & John W. Taylor, Tree of Life Web Project (a collaborative effort of biologists from around the world): Fungi.
! J.E. Blair (2009): Fungi. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).
P. Bonfante and A. Genre (2010): Mechanisms underlying beneficial plant - fungus interactions in mycorrhizal symbiosis. PDF file, Nature Communications.
S. Bonneville et al. (2020): Molecular identification of fungi microfossils in a Neoproterozoic shale rock. In PDF, Science Advances, 6: eaax7599.
C. Kevin Boyce et al. (2007):
landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus.
PDF file, Geology, 35: 399-402.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Mark C. Brundrett (2002):
of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. PDF file,
New Phytologist, 154: 275-304.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Mark Brundrett , CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products:
The Mycorrhiza Site.
Introduction to mycorrhizal associations, structure and development or roots and mycorrhizas.
Chiefly information about Australian plants and fungi.
The older webpage.
Books and cited references.
and Text books on mycorrhizas.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! F.M. Cardillo & T.S. Samuels,
Department of Biology, Manhattan College and the College of Mt. St. Vincent:
WHITTAKER FIVE KINGDOM SYSTEM (1978) Plant Classification.
KINGDOM III - Fungi
Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Go to: Fungi Collection Tom Volk.
! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany,
University of Wisconsin, Madison:
Instructional Technology (BotIT).
Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:
DEEMY Characterization and DEtermination of EctoMYcorrhizae (by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Dept. Biologie I – Systematische Mykologie). DEEMY is a research database (including images) for identifying and characterizing ectomycorrhizae fungus-plant interactions.
Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.: Scientific stock photography library. Light microscope pictures and electron microscopy images featuring science and biomedical microscopy photos. Go to Fungi.
! D.L. Dilcher (1965): Epiphyllous Fungi From Eocene Deposits in Western Tennessee, U.S.A. PDF file (38.5 MB!) Palaeontographica Bd. B. 116:1-54.
N. Dotzler et al. (2011): Sphenophyllum (Sphenophyllales) leaves colonized by fungi from the Upper Pennsylvanian Grand-Croix cherts of central France. Zitteliana 51. Go to PDF page 3.
! N.L. Dotzler (2009): Microbial life in the late Paleozoic: new discoveries from the Early Devonian and Carboniferous. In PDF, Thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
! D.C. Eastwood et al. (2011): The plant cell wall–decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi. In PDF, Science 333. See also here. Supporting Online Material can be found here.
K. Fackler and M. Schwanninger (2012): How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay. In PDF, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 96: 587-599.
Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona:
On-Line Biology Book.
Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: FUNGI.
F.A.A. Feijen et al. (2018): Evolutionary dynamics of mycorrhizal symbiosis in land plant diversification. In PDF, Scientific reports.
! K.J. Field and S. Pressel (2018): Unity in diversity: structural and functional insights into the ancient partnerships between plants and fungi. In PDF, New Phytologist. See also here
K.J. Field et al. (2015): Symbiotic options for the conquest of land. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 30: 477-486. See also here.
! J. García Massini et al. (2012): First report of fungi and fungus-like organisms from Mesozoic hot springs. In PDF, Palaios, 27: 55–62.
! P.R. Hardoim et al. (2015): The hidden world within plants: ecological and evolutionary considerations for defining functioning of microbial endophytes. In PDF, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. See also here.
C.J. Harper et al. (2020): Filamentous cyanobacteria preserved in masses of fungal hyphae from the Triassic of Antarctica. Free access, PeerJ, 8: e8660 https://doi.org.
C.J. Harper et al. (2018): Fungal sporulation in a Permian plant fragment from Antarctica. In PDF, Bulletin of Geosciences, 93: 13–26. Czech Geological Survey, Prague.
C.J. Harper et al. (2017): Fungal decay in Permian Glossopteridalean stem and root wood from Antarctica. Abstract, IAWA Journal, 38: 29-48. See also here (in PDF).
C.J. Harper et al. (2015): Fungi associated with Glossopteris (Glossopteridales) leaves from the Permian of Antarctica. In PDF, Zitteliana.
Carla J. Harper (2015), Ameghiniana 52: Review of Fossil Fungi. Thomas N. Taylor, Michael Krings, Edith L. Taylor. 2015, 382 p. Academic Press, London, UK.
S.W. Heads et al. (2017): The oldest fossil mushroom. PLoS ONE, 12: e0178327.
D. Hibbett et al. (2016):
decay, and the death of the coal forests.
Current Biology, 26: R563-R567: See also
Please note Figure 1: Characteristics of fungal wood degradation.
! D.S. Hibbett et al. (2007): A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. PDF file (1 MB), Mycological Research 111: 509-547.
S. Hongsanan et al. (2016): The evolution of fungal epiphytes. In PDF, Mycosphere, 7: 1690–1712.
G. Janusz et al. (2017):
degradation: microorganisms, enzymes involved, genomes analysis and evolution. Free access,
FEMS Microbiol Rev., 41: 941–962.
"... For many years, white rot fungi were suggested to be the most efficient wood degraders. However, recent data suggest that Nature may have an alternative solution—brown rot fungi, which are capable of depolymerizing holocellulose and extensively modifying lignin. ..."
Olivia Judson, The New York Times (June 24, 2010): Bubbles, Bread and Beer. Prototaxites in the media. With references.
R.K. Kar et al. (2003): Occurrence of fossil-wood rotters (polyporales) from the Lameta Formation (Maastrichtian), India. In PDF, Current Science.
R.K. Kar et al., Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany and Department of Botany, Lucknow University, India: Occurrence of fossil-wood rotters (polyporales) from the Lameta Formation (Maastrichtian), India. PDF file, slow download! Current Science vol. 85, no. 1, 2003 (published by the Current Science Association in collaboration with the Indian Academy of Sciences).
Kazinform, Astana, Kazakhstan: Towering mystery fossil was a 'shroom with a view. About the enigmatic taxa Prototaxites. See also here, and there.
K.-P. Kelber, Würzburg (2007):
und paläobiologische Bedeutung der fossilen Hölzer aus dem süddeutschen
Keuper (Trias, Ladinium bis Rhätium).- In German. PDF file, 33 MB!
pp. 37-100; In: Schüßler, H. & Simon, T. (eds.):
Aus Holz wird Stein.
! A permineralized fungal fossil from the Triassic is shown in fig. 20 (PDF page 35).
! Bryce Kendrick (Author of the book/CD-ROM "The Fifth Kingdom": All About Fungi. A compact mycological encyclopedia, including online images of mushrooms, mycorrhizas, medical mycology, yeasts, lichens, food spoilage, fermented foods, plant diseases, symbioses with animals, and edible, poisonous, and hallucinogenic fungi. Don´t miss the FUNGI FAQ's.
Hans Kerp, Forschungsstelle für Paläobotanik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany: The Rhynie Chert and its Flora, Fungi and non-vascular Plants and Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae.
A.A. Klymiuk and B.A. Sikes (2019):
of root-endogenous fungi in persistently inundated Typha roots. Free access,
Mycologia. See also:
ScienceDaily (2019): Fungi living in cattail roots could improve our picture of ancient ecoystems.
A.A. Klymiuk (2018): Microbiological insights into ecology and taphonomy of prehistoric wetlands. In PDF, Dissertation, University of Alberta. See also here.
A.A. Klymiuk (2015): Paleomycology of the Princeton Chert. III. Dictyosporic microfungi, Monodictysporites princetonensis gen. et sp. nov., associated with decayed rhizomes of an Eocene semi-aquatic fern. Abstract, Mycologia, 108: 882-890.
J. Kowal et al. (2018): From rhizoids to roots? Experimental evidence of mutualism between liverworts and ascomycete fungi. In PDF, Annals Of Botany, 121: 221-227. See also here.
M. Krings et al. (2017): Fungi in a Psaronius root mantle from the Rotliegend (Asselian, Lower Permian/Cisuralian) of Thuringia, Germany. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 239: 4–30. See also here (in PDF).
M. Krings et al. (2012): Fossil fungi with suggested affinities to the Endogonaceae from the Middle Triassic of Antarctica. In PDF, Mycologia, 104: 835-844. See also here.
M. Krings and T.N. Taylor (2012): Microfossils with possible affinities to the zygomycetous fungi in a Carboniferous cordaitalean ovule. In PDF, Zitteliana A 52, 3-7.
! M. Krings et al. (2012): Fungal Endophytes as a Driving Force in Land Plant Evolution: Evidence from the Fossil Record. In PDF; D. Southworth (ed.): Biocomplexity of Plant-Fungal Interactions (John Wiley & Sons).
M. Krings et al. (2011): The fossil record of the Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota). In PDF, Mycologia, 103: 445-457.
M. Krings et al. (2011): Fungal sporocarps from the Carboniferous: An unusual specimen of Traquairia. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168: 1-6.
M. Krings et al. (2011): Fungal remains in cordaite (Cordaitales) leaves from the Upper Pennsylvanian of central France- PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences 86.
M. Krings et al. (2010): Microfungi from the upper Visean (Mississippian) of central France: Structure and development of the sporocarp Mycocarpon cinctum nov. sp. PDF file, Zitteliana, A, 50.
! M. Krings et al. (2010): A fungal community in plant tissue from the Lower Coal Measures (Langsettian, Lower Pennsylvanian) of Great Britain. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 85.
! M. Krings et al. (2007): Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses. Free Access, New Phytologist, 174: 648–657.
! M. Krings, LMU München: Mikroorganismen aus den Cherts von Esnost und Combres/Lay (Unterkarbon, Frankreich) sowie Rhynie (Unterdevon, Schottland). Scientific project report (in German).
K. J. Lang,
Fachgebiet Pathologie der Waldbäume,
Technische Universität München (TUM):
in Wort und Bild, and
in Wort und Bild
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Libri Fungorum (supported by CABI Bioscience, CBS and Landcare Research). This project is coordinated by the Index Fungorum Partnership with the aim of providing a digital archive for books, journals, thesauri, indexes and other publication important to systematic mycology (fungi and fungal analogues, including yeasts, lichens, myxomycetes, downy mildews, and all their allies). Navigate from here.
! Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima:
Biology at OSU Lima. Go to:
Ruta B. Limaye et al. (2007): Non-pollen palynomorphs as potential palaeoenvironmental indicators in the Late Quaternary sediments of the west coast of India. PDF file, CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 92, NO. 10.
! C.C. Loron et al. (2019): Early fungi from the Proterozoic era in Arctic Canada. The complimentary shared article; Nature, 570: 232–235. See also here and there (in German).
C.C. Loron et al. (2019): Early fungi from the Proterozoic era in Arctic Canada. Abstract, Nature, 570: 232–235. See also here (in PDF), and there (review, in German).
! D.W. Malloch et al. (1980): Ecological and evolutionary significance of mycorrhizal symbioses in vascular plants (a review). In PDF, PNAS, 77.! F.M. Martin et al. (2017): Ancestral alliances: Plant mutualistic symbioses with fungi and bacteria. In PDF, Science, 356. See also here.
J.L. García Massini, Department of Geological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas: A Possible Endoparasitic Chytridiomycete Fungus from the Permian of Antarctica. Paleontologia Electronica 2007, 10 (3).
Martin C. Mathes, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA: General Botany. This course is designed to give the students a broad background in the traditional subject matter of botany. This includes topics on organisms in the plant kingdom as well as organisms not in the plant kingdom but which affect the growth ecology or evolution of plants (e.g., selected bacteria, fungi, and selected protists).
! B.J.W. Mills et al. (2017): Nutrient acquisition by symbiotic fungi governs Palaeozoic climate transition. Open access, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 373.
M. Moskal-del Hoyo et al. (2010): Preservation of fungi in archaeological charcoal. PDF file, Journal of Archaeological Science, 37: 2106-2116.
L.G. Nagy et al. (2011): Understanding the Evolutionary Processes of Fungal Fruiting Bodies: Correlated Evolution and Divergence Times in the Psathyrellaceae. Syst. Biol., 60: 303-317.! M.P. Nelsen et al. (2016): Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 2442-2447. See also here.
Offwell Woodland and Wildlife Trust, Honiton, Devon, UK: The Importance of Fungi. The fascinating world of fungi.
G. Poinar (2019):
between Fossil Beetles and Other Organisms. Free access,
Note figure 22: The platypodine, Palaeotylus femoralis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) covered with mycelium, conidiophores and conidia of the ambrosia fungus, Paleoambrosia entomophila (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae) in Burmese amber.
Note figure 27: Ptilodactylid (Coleoptera: Ptilodactylidae) beetle with attached pollinarium (arrow) of Annulites mexicana (Angiospermae: Orchidaceae) in Mexican amber.
G. Poinar (2014): Evolutionary history of terrestrial pathogens and endoparasites as revealed in fossils and subfossils. In PDF, Advances in Biology. See also here (abstract).
Silvia Pressel et al. (2010): Fungal symbioses in bryophytes: New insights in the Twenty First Century. PDF file, Phytotaxa, 9: 238-253. See also here (open access).
W.R. Rimington et al. (2018): Ancient plants with ancient fungi: liverworts associate with early-diverging arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285: 20181600. See also here.
E.M. Roberts et al. (2016): Oligocene Termite Nests with In Situ Fungus Gardens from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, Support a Paleogene African Origin for Insect Agriculture. PLoS ONE, 11.
A. Salt (2018): Plants and Fungi: An ancient partnership. Botany One.
A.R. Schmidt et al. (2014): Amber fossils of sooty moulds. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 53-64.
Alexander R. Schmidt et al.: Carnivorous Fungi from Cretaceous Amber. PDF file, Science, 2007: 1743.
A.B. Schwendemann et al. (2011): Morphological and functional stasis in mycorrhizal root nodules as exhibited by a Triassic conifer. In PDF.
A.B. Schwendemann et al. (2009): Combresomyces cornifer from the Triassic of Antarctica: Evolutionary stasis in the Peronosporomycetes. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 154: 1-5.
Peter v. Sengbusch, Botanik Online: Wechselwirkungen zwischen Pflanzen und Pilzen; Evolution parasitischer und symbiotischer Beziehungen zwischen ihnen (in German).
M.-A. Selosse et al. (2015): Plants, fungi and oomycetes: a 400-million year affair that shapes the biosphere. New Phytologist. 10th New Phytologist Workshop on the "Origin and evolution of plants and their interactions with fungi", London, UK, September 2014.
M.A. Selosse and C. Strullu-Derrien (2015): Origins of the terrestrial flora: A symbiosis with fungi? In PDF, BIO Web of Conferences, 4.
! M.-A. Selosse and F. Rousset (2011): The Plant-Fungal Marketplace. In PDF, Science.
B.J. Slater et al. (2014): A high-latitude Gondwanan lagerstätte: The Permian permineralised peat biota of the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. In PDF, Gondwana Research. On PDF page 16: Reconstruction of the Lambert Graben Middle Permian Alluvial valley palaeoecosystem, With bracket fungus on a fallen log in the foreground.B.J. Slater (2014): Cryptic diversity of a Glossopteris forest: the Permian Prince Charles Mountains Floras, Antarctica. In PDF, Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham. See also here.
B.J. Slater et al. (2013): Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota) from a Middle Permian Permineralised Peat within the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica.
Smithsonian Science: Fungi still visible in wood charcoal centuries after burning.
M. Speranza et al. (2010):
and new microscopy techniques applied to the study of microscopic fungi included in amber.
PDF file, In: A. Méndez-Vilas and J. Díaz (eds.):
Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education.
Scanning electron microscopy in
backscattered electron mode, with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands:
Hans´ Paleobotany Pages.
Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Prototaxites, a huge, 400 million years old, fungus? Or an enormous lichen?
! C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2018): The origin and evolution of mycorrhizal symbioses: from palaeomycology to phylogenomics. In PDF, New Phytologist. See also here.
! C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2016): Origins of the mycorrhizal symbioses. PDF file, In: F Martin (ed.): Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, John Wiley & Sons.C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2015): Fungal colonization of the rooting system of the early land plant Asteroxylon mackiei from the 407-Myr-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland, UK). In PDF, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 179: 201–213. See also here.
C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2011): Evidence of parasitic Oomycetes (Peronosporomycetes) infecting the stem cortex of the Carboniferous seed fern Lyginopteris oldhamia. IN PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 278: 675-680.
L.H. Tanner and S.G. Lucas (2013): Degraded wood in the Upper Triassic Petrified Forest Formation (Chinle Group), northern Arizona: Differentiating fungal rot from arthropod boring. In PDF, p. 582-588; in: Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G. (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61.
! T.N. Taylor et al. (2015): Fungal Diversity in the Fossil Record. In PDF, see also here (abstract).
T.N. Taylor et al. (2011): The advantage of thin section preparations over acetate peels in the study of late Paleozoic fungi and other microorganisms. Abstract, Palaios. See also here.
! T.N. Taylor and M. Krings (2010): Paleomycology: the re-discovery of the obvious. PDF file, PALAIOS, 25: 283-286.
! Thomas N. Taylor and Michael Krings (2005): Fossil microorganisms and land plants: Associations and interactions. PDF file, Symbiosis, 40: 119-135.
! T.N. Taylor et al. (2004): Fungi from the Rhynie Chert: A view from the dark side. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 94: 457-473.
T.N. Taylor and J.M. Osborn (1996): The importance of fungi in shaping the paleoecosystem. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
T.N. Taylor and J.M. Osborn (1992): The Role of Wood in Understanding Saprophytism in the Fossil Record. PDF file.
N. Tian et al. (2020): White-rotting fungus with clamp-connections in a coniferous wood from the Lower Cretaceous of Heilongjiang Province, NE China. Free access, Cretaceous Research, 105.
Nigel H. Trewin, Stephen R. Fayers & Lyall I. Anderson, University of Aberdeen: The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems - The Rhynie Chert: Fungi.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Wood Rots and Decays. In PDF.
! M.G.A. van der Heijden et al. (2015): Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future. In PDF, New Phytologist, 205: 1406–1423. See also here.
Henk Visscher et al. (2011):
virulence at the time of the end-Permian biosphere crisis? Abstract,
Geology, 39. See also:
Fungi helped destroy forests during mass extinction 250 million years ago. By Robert Sanders, UC Berkely News Center, August 5, 2011.
Forest-killing fungi could multiply in a warming world. By Bob Berwyn, August 8, 2011.
! B. Wang and Y.-L. Qiu (2006): Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants. In PDF, Mycorrhiza, 16: 299-363. See also here.
The Washington Post: Scientists Find Fossils in Sexual Union. (The Associated Press, November 3, 2005). "Swarm cells" of the fungus Myxomycetes. See also here, (Glasgow Daily Record, UK), and there (The Hindu).
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
See also: Pilze,
and Baumpilze (in German).
Wikispaces, Tangient LLC,
San Francisco, CA:
CDS Biology Website:
The Colonization of Land by Plants and Fungi. Powerpoint presentation.
J.P. Wilson et al. (2017):
Carboniferous tropical forests: new
views of plant function and potential for
physiological forcing of climate. In PDF,
New Phytologist, 215: 1333–1353. See also
! Figure 2 shows the fungal evolution and abundance of coal basin sediments over the Phanerozoic.
Michael Wood: MykoWeb. WWW pages devoted to the science of mycology.
The WWW Virtual Library:
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