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Sphenophyta


! Nan Crystal Arens, C. Strömberg and A. Thompson, Department of Integrative Biology, and Paleobotany Section, Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Virtual Paleobotany. The Virtual Paleobotanical Laboratory, a comprehensive treatment of the fossil record of land plants, is divided into 12 chapters, lab I through XII. Each lab has a title page, a page with questions around the group or subject of study, a list of literature and links for further reading and exploration, and a virtual gallery of images from the lab. Go to: Sphenopsids and Ferns.

! Lorna Ash & Heather Kroening, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Botany. Go to: Equisetum life cycle, Fern Life Cycle. See also here. Online and downloadable flash 4 movies. Excellent!

Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian National Herbarium: Fern Pages, Pteridophytes: The Ferns and their Allies.

M. Barbacka (2009): Sphenophyta from the Early Jurassic of the Mecsek Mts., Hungary. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. PDF file, Acta Palaeobotanica 49: 221-231. Cuticle showing stomata of Equisetites columnaris in fig. 15!

Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, München: Fossil des Monats (in German). Go to Blattscheide eines Schachtelhalmgewächses.

W. Bennert et al. (2005): Triploidy in Equisetum subgenus Hippochaete (Equisetaceae, Pteridophyta). PDF file, Annals of Botany, 95: 807-815.

Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Sphenophyta.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2013): A reappraisal of Neocalamites and Schizoneura (fossil Equisetales) based on material from the Triassic of East Antarctica. See also here (abstract).

! The Botanical Society of America: The American Journal of Botany Cover Images Index. The collection on the page holding the cover images of the American Journal of Botany. A great set of images! See also:
! Online Image Collection. This page acts as a map to the entire collection. Images are classified in groups in which they were submitted for historical purposes, e.g. Sphenophyta.

M. Brea and A.A. Artabe (1999): Apocalamitaceae (Sphenophyta) triásicas de la Formación Paramillo, Agua de la Zorra, provincia de Mendoza Argentina. In Spanish, Ameghiniana, 36 (Google books).

The British Pteridiological Society. The British Pteridological Society provides a wide range of information about ferns for fern enthusiasts. It also organises formal talks, informal discussions, field meetings, garden visits, plant exchanges, a spore exchange scheme and fern book sales. Go to: An Introduction to Ferns. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. This introduction (to ferns and other pteridophytes) is based on a chapter from the book "A World of Ferns", by Josephine M. Camus, A. Clive Jermy & Barry A. Thomas, Natural History Museum Publications, London.

! H. Brunner and K.-P. Kelber (1988): Eisenerzkonkretionen im württembergisch-fränkischen Unterkeuper - Bemerkungen zum fossilen Environment. PDF file, in German. In: Hagdorn, H. (ed.): Neue Forschungen zur Erdgeschichte von Crailsheim. Sonderbände d. Ges. f. Naturk. in Württemberg, 1: 185-205.
Anatomical views of the Triassic horsetail Neocalamites merianii in pyrite/goethite preservation.

Reiner Burger, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: Holzversteinerungen. Unter dem Pflaster der Wald. Ramified Calamites axes from Chemnitz (in German).

! A. Channing et al. (2011): Equisetum thermale sp. nov.(Equisetales) from the Jurassic San Agustín hot spring deposit, Patagonia: Anatomy, paleoecology, and inferred paleoecophysiology. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 98: 680-697. See also here (abstract).

Curtis Clark, Biological Sciences Department California State Polytechnic University, Pomona: Plant Morphology. Resources. Go to: Lab 11: Sphenophyta, Pterophyta. PDF file.

! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:
Fern Allies. See also: Equisetales.

E.P. Coturel et al. (2016): Lycopodiopsids and equisetopsids from the Triassic of Quebrada de los Fósiles Formation, San Rafael Basin, Argentina. In PDF, Geobios. See also here (abstract).

! E. Cullen and P.J. Rudall (2016): The remarkable stomata of horsetails (Equisetum): patterning, ultrastructure and development. Abstract, Annals of Botany, 118: 207–218.
See also here (in PDF).

David L. Des Marais, Alan R. Smith, Donald M. Britton, and Kathleen M. Pryer: PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND EVOLUTION OF EXTANT HORSETAILS, EQUISETUM, BASED ON CHLOROPLAST DNA SEQUENCE DATA (rbcL AND trnL-F). Abstract, Int. J. Plant Sci. 164: 737-751; 2003.

L.V. de Soane (2005): Equisetites pusillus sp. nov. from the Aptian of Patagonia, Argentina. PDF file, Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2009): Catastrophically buried Middle Pennsylvanian Sigillaria and calamitean sphenopsids from Indiana, USA: What kind of vegetation was this? PDF file, Palaios, 24: 159-166.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2005): Equisetites from the Early Permian of North-Central Texas. PDF file.

! dmoz, the Open Directory Project:
Science: Biology: Flora and Fauna: Plantae:
Equisetophyta. See also:
Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Paleobotany: Taxa.

! V.M. Dörken, Universität Konstanz, Germany: Equisetophytina - Schachtelhalmgewächse (in German).

! A.B. Doweld (2013): Proposals to conserve the names Equisetites against Oncylogonatum with a conserved type and Equisetum columnare (Equisetites columnare) against Oncylogonatum carbonarium with a conserved type (fossil Equisetopsida). In PDF, Taxon, 62: 837-839.

! A. Elgorriaga et al. (2015): Reconstruction and Phylogenetic Significance of a New Equisetum Linnaeus Species from the Lower Jurassic of Cerro Bayo (Chubut Province, Argentina). In PDF, Ameghiniana, 52. Nodal reconstruction of Equisetum dimorphum on page 146!

! Z. Feng et al. (2012): When horsetails became giants. In PDF, Chinese Science Bulletin, 57.
Reconstruction of the horsetail tree Arthropitys bistriata. See also here.

J. Georg Friebe: Schachtelhalme (Equisetaceae) aus der Kössen-Formation (Rhaetium) der Nördlichen Kalkalpen Vorarlbergs. PDF file, Vorarlberger Naturschau, Dornbirn (in German).

! Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville:
Sphenopsids (Powerpoint presentatation).

L. Grauvogel-Stamm and S. Ash (1999): "Lycostrobus" chinleana, an equisetalean cone from the Upper Triassic of the southwestern United States and its phylogenetic implications. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 86: 1391-1405.

Alena Gribskov: Reconstructing Calamites: Building Giants from Fragments. PDF file, Yale College Writing Center, EEB 171: Collections of the Peabody Museum.

Monte Hieb and Harrison Hieb: Plant Fossils of West Virginia. Fossil Plants of the Middle Pennsylvanian Period. Go to: Articulates (Sphenopsids).

Josef Hlasek: Photo Gallery wildlife pictures, Plants. Go to: Plants - Pteridophyta.

W.B.K. Holmes (2001): Equisetalean Plant Remains from the Early to Middle Triassic of New South Wales, Australia. In PDF, Australian Museum, 53: 9-20. See also here.

G. Holzhüter et al. (2003): Structure of silica in Equisetum arvense. In PDF, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 376: 512-517.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C. Husby (2013): Biology and Functional Ecology of Equisetum with Emphasis on the Giant Horsetails. Abstract, The Botanical Review.

C.E. Husby (2009): Ecophysiology and Biomechanics of Equisetum giganteum in South America. In PDF, thesis, Florida International University.

! Chad Husby: Horsetails. Beautiful photographs of Equisetum giganteum. Excellent!

! Chad E. Husby, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami: The Giant Horsetails. Worth to check out: An Introduction to the Genus Equisetum and the Class Sphenopsida as a whole, and How large are the giant horsetails?.

! The Interactive Geology Project (by Paul Weimer et al., Energy and Minerals Applied Research Center, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, University of Colorado.
The goal of this website is producing short 3D animations about the geologic evolution of key US national parks. Go to: ! Video Library. Excellent!
See especially (scroll down): "Triassic Thickets: Placerville, Colorado, 225 Million Years Ago."
This scene shows the plants developed on a broad coastal plain in western Colorado near Placerville. Plants depicted: Neocalamites, Sanmiguelia. This version is part of a joint project between the Interactive Geology Project at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. See also here.

A. Jarzynka and G. Pacyna (2015): Fossil flora of Middle Jurassic Grojec clays (southern Poland). Raciborski´s original material reinvestigated and supplemented. I. Sphenophytes. In PDF, Acta Palaeobotanica, 55. See also here.

K.-P. Kelber (2015): 5. Die Makroflora des Lettenkeupers . - p. 51-100, PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart). See also here.
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

K.-P. Kelber and R. Schoch (2015): 18. Lebensbilder des Lettenkeupers im Wandel der Zeiten. PDF file, in German.
In: Hagdorn, H., Schoch, R. & Schweigert, G. (eds.): Der Lettenkeuper - Ein Fenster in die Zeit vor den Dinosauriern. Palaeodiversity, Special Issue (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart).
! Navigate from here for other downloads.

K.-P. Kelber (2005): Makroflora (Die Keuperfloren). PDF file (12 MB), in German. In: Beutler, G., Hauschke, N., Nitsch, E. and Vath, U. (eds.): Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission, Stratigraphie von Deutschland IV - Keuper. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 253: 32-41. Triassic horsetail fossils on plate 1, e.g. Equisetites arenaceus, Neocalamites merianii, Schizoneura paradoxa.

! K.-P. Kelber & J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (1998): Equisetites arenaceus from the Upper Triassic of Germany with evidence for reproductive strategies. Abstract, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 100: 1-26. Paper awarded with the Remy and Remy Award 1999, Botanical Society of America.

K.-P. Kelber (1992): Der dreidimensionale Bau der Blattspitzen bei Equisetites arenaceus (Equisetopsida, Equisetales) aus dem Unteren Keuper (Trias, Ladin). PDF file, in German. In: Kovar-Eder, J. (ed.): Palaeovegetational development in Europe.- Proc. Pan-European Palaeobot. Conf. Vienna (PEPC 1991), pp. 289-299.

K.-P. Kelber (1983): Schizoneura paradoxa Schimp. & Moug. aus dem Unteren Keuper Frankens. In PDF (32 MB), Naturw.-Jb. Schweinfurt, 1: 19-33.

! A. Knowlton (2012): Quick guide Equisetum. In PDF, Current Biology, 10.

Enzo Kon'no (1973): New species of Pleuromeia and Neocalamites from the Upper Scythian Bed in the Kitakami Massif, Japan. PDF file.

E. Kon´no (1960): Schizoneura manchuriensis Kon´no and its Fructification (Manchurostachys n. gen.) from the Gigantopteris-nicotianaefolia-bearing Formation in Penchihu Coal-field, Northeastern China. In PDF.

M.H. Kurmann and T.N. Taylor (1984): Comparative ultrastructure of the sphenophyte spores Elaterites and Equisetum. PDF file, Grana, 23: 109-116. See also here.

Kurt Stüber´s Online Library. A collection of historic and modern biology books. Go to: BioLib alphabetic index of Latin plant species names. Latin names used in this index often do not correspond to modern botanical nomenclature. See for instance: Equisetum hyemale.

E. Kustatscher, M. Wachtler, M. & J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, (2007): Horsetails and seedferns from the Anisian locality Kühwiesenkopf (Dolomites, Northern Italy). PDF file, Palaeontology 50 (5): 1277-1298.

E. Kustatscher and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): Neocalamites asperrimus (Franke) Shen 1990, a morphospecies for Triassic sphenophyte "cortical structures"? Abstract, 18th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Vienna, Austria.

O. Leroux et al. (2011): An extensin-rich matrix lines the carinal canals in Equisetum ramosissimum, which may function as water-conducting channels. In PDF, Annals of Botany, 108: 307-319. Sdee also here.

M. Libertín et al. (2014): New sphenophyllaleans from the Pennsylvanian of the Czech Republic. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 196-210.

! Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima: Plant Biology at OSU Lima. Go to:
Sphenopsids.
Plant anatomical characteristics.

L. Luthardt et al. (2016): Palaeoclimatic and site-specific conditions in the early Permian fossil forest of Chemnitz—Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobotanical evidence. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441: 627–652. See also here.

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Plant Systematics Collection. This web site provides structured access to a teaching collection of plant images representing over 250 families and 1000 genera of vascular plants. Go to: Phylum Sphenophyta (Horse Tails).

Michael Matus: The Wonderful World of Equisetum.

MDR Sachsen (a TV station), Region Chemnitz: Riesenschachtelhalm ist Fossil des Jahres (video report, in German). See also here (abstract Rößler and Noll (2006), the largest known anatomically preserved Calamites trunk.

! V. Mencl et al. (2013): First anatomical description of silicified calamitalean stems from the upper Carboniferous of the Bohemian Massif (Nová Paka and Rakovník areas, Czech Republic). In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 197: 70-77. See also here (abstract).

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, FOSSIL AND EXTANT SPHENOPHYTES. Link list page with rankings and brief explanations. Images of Calamites, Calamites carinatus, Calamites cistii, Annularia, Annularia radiata, Annularia mucronata, Annularia stellata, Annularia sphenophylloides, Asterophyllites, Asterophyllites equisetiformis, Asterophyllites charaeformis, Asterophyllites longifolius, Calamostachys, Calamostachy binneyana, Sphenophyllum, Sphenophyllum cuneifolium, Sphenophyllum emarginatum, Sphenophyllum longifolium, Sphenophyllum majus, Sphenophyllum geinitzii, Sphenophyllum plurifoliatum.

! R Neregato et al. (2015): New petrified calamitaleans from the Permian of the Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil. Part I. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 215: 23-45.

Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Land Plants Online, Horsetails - Phylum Equisetophyta.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Karl J. Niklas & Tom Silva, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Introductory Botany. Review Topics, Review of Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes- Common Links Between Each Group of Plants.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.M. Osborn and T.N. Taylor (1989): Structurally Preserved Sphenophytes from the Triassic of Antarctica: Vegetative Remains of Spaciinodum, gen. nov. PDF file, American Journal of Botany.

Anthony Pigott, National Collection of Equisetum. Go to:
A Brief Introduction to Equisetum. Worth checking out:
Cultivation of Horsetails. (based on an article first published 1988 in the Pteridologist 1: 209).

Anthony Pigott, The National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (NCCPG): Links. Here are a number of links to further information about horsetails on the Internet.

Henry Potonié, 1901: Die Silur und die Culm-Flora des Harzes und des Magdeburgischen (in German). Images of Calamites. See also here. The www.biolib.de project, Kurt Stüber, Max Planck Institut für Züchtungsforschung, Köln.

C. Pott et al. (2008): Sphenophytes from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Lunz am See (Lower Austria). PDF file, Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt Wien, 148 183-199.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

K.M. Pryer et al. (2001): Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants. Abstract, Nature, 409: 618-622.
! See also here (in PDF).

John A. Raven (2009): Horsetails get the wind up. New Phytologist, 184: 6-9. See also here (in PDF).

Bernard Renault, 1881-1885 (provided by Gallica): Cours de botanique fossile fait au Muséum d´histoire naturelle.- Deuxième année (1882). Lépidodendrées, sphénophylles, astérophyllitées, annulariées, calamariées.

R. Rößler et al. (2015): Der Versteinerte Wald Chemnitz - Momentaufnahme eines vulkanisch konservierten Ökosystems aus dem Perm (Exkursion L am 11. April 2015). PDF file, in German. The petrified forest of Chemnitz - A snapshot of an early Permian ecosystem preserved by volcanism. Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N.F. 97.

R. Rößler (2014): Die Bewurzelung permischer Calamiten: Aussage eines Schlüsselfundes zur Existenz freistehender baumförmiger Schachtelhalmgewächse innerhalb der Paläofloren des äquatornahen Gondwana. PDF file, in German. The roots of Permian calamitaleans - a key find suggests the existence of free-stemmed arborescent sphenopsids among the low latitude palaeofloras of Gondwana. Freiberger Forschungshefte, C 548.

! R. Rößler et al. (2012): The largest calamite and its growth architecture - Arthropitys bistriata from the Early Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 185: 64-78.

R. Rößler (2009): 300 Jahre Schatzsuche in Chemnitz: Die wissenschaftliche Grabung nach dem versteinerten Wald. In German (PDF file), Fossilien, 26.

Ronny Rößler & Robert Noll (website hosted by fossilien-journal.de): Calamitea COTTA 1832. Fossile Pflanze zwischen Historie und aktueller Forschung. PDF file, in German.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Rößler, (2006): Einzigartig und dennoch ausgestorben - Die Schachtelhalm-Giganten des Perms (in German). In PDF, Fossilien, 23: 87-92. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

G.W. Rothwell and S.R. Ash (2015): Internal anatomy of the Late Triassic Equisetocaulis gen. nov., and the evolution of modern horsetails. Abstract, Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 142: 27-37.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. Go to: Equisetophytes (PDF file).

Patricia E. Ryberg et al. (2008): Development and ecological implications of dormant buds in the high-Paleolaltitude Triassic sphenophyte Spaciinodum (Equisetaceae). PDF file, Am. J. Bot., 95: 1443-1453. See also here.

Patricia E. Ryberg et al. (2007): Buds and Branching in the Triassic sphenophyte Spaciinodum collinsonii. Abstract, Botany & Plant Biology 2007, Botanical Society of America, Chicago.

Sächsische Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie (2006): Das Döhlener Becken bei Dresden - Geologie und Bergbau. PDF file, in German. Bergbau in Sachsen, vol. 12. See especially PDF page 30: Makroflora und zugehörige "in situ"-Sporen (by M. Barthel).

! A.R. Smith et al. (2006). A classification for extant ferns. PDF file, Taxon 55: 705-731.

Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Underground Carboniferous Forest (Riola mine, Illinois). A lycopsid tree stump and a pith cast of Calamites.

H.-C. Spatz et al. (1998): Biomechanics and functional anatomy of hollow-stemmed sphenopsids. I. Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae) PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 85: 305-314. See also here.

N.A. Stanich et al. (2009): Phylogenetic diversification of Equisetum (Equisetales) as inferred from Lower Cretaceous species of British Columbia, Canada. In PDF, Am. J. Bot., 96: 1289-1299. See also here and See also there.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life in the Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Cretaceous. Go to: The horsetail tree Calamites, and
Wood of the horsetail tree Calamites.

Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.
Go to: Unterer Keuper (Lower Keuper, Lettenkeuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). In German.
! Don´t miss the photograph of the Equisetites arenaceus reconstructions in life position.
Wikipedia also provided a larger view of the Lettenkeuper diorama on its Batrachotomus website.

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
Ginkgophytes;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

TOMESCU, ALEXANDRU MIHAIL FLORIAN and GAR W. ROTHWELL. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens: Exploring the cladistic relationships of sphenopsids. Abstract. Botany 2001, August 12 - 16, 2001; Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Tree of Life Web Project: Filicopsida (by Kathleen M. Pryer and Alan R. Smith).

V.P. Tverdokhlebov (2004): Buried Equisetites thickets from the Middle Triassic of the south Cis-Urals, Russia. In PDF, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaontologie

! K. Vanneste et al. (2015): Horsetails Are Ancient Polyploids: Evidence from Equisetum giganteum. In PDF.

Dave Walker, UK, Micscape Magazine: Horsetails: relic plants from prehistory. The attractive features of horsetails.

J. Watson (1983): Two Wealden species of Equisetum found in situ. PDF file, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 28: 265-269.

David T. Webb, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu: Sphenophytina.

R. Weber (2008): Homomorfismo en Equisetaceae del Triásico: Asinisetum gen. nov., Equisetites aequecaliginosus Weber y conos asociados de Sonora, México (PDF file, in Spanish, with English and German abstracts). In: R. Weber (ed.): Plantas triásicas y jurásicas de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Geología, Boletín 115: 1-83.

R. Weber (2005): Equisetites aequecaliginosus sp. nov., ein Riesenschachtelhalm aus der spättriassischen Formation Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexiko. PDF file, (in German). Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève, 24: 331-364.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Batrachotomus.
! See especially the diorama of the Lettenkeuper swamp (Unterer Keuper, Erfurt Formation, Ladinian, Triassic). The Batrachotomus reconstruction in the background is surrounded by shafts of the horsetail Equisetites arenaceus. Photograph taken in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.

! S. Yamanaka et al. (2012): Roles of silica and lignin in horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), with special reference to mechanical properties. In PDF, Journal of Applied Physics, 111.

Shuqin Zan et al. (2012): A new Neocalamites (Sphenophyta) with prickles and attached cones from the Upper Triassic of China. Abstract.

E. Zodrow and M. Mastalerz (2009): A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada). PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 84: 227-240.
! See fig. 12: In situ Calamites pith casts, Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia.

Chemistry Biology Pharmacy Information Center, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich: Chemistry, Biology and related disciplines in the WWW, Links > Chemistry & Biology > Botany > Cryptogams > Equisetaceae (in German).











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November 21, 2016


















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