Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa / Bennettitales

Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites
Seed Plants in General
! Triassic Palaeobotany, Palynology and Stratigraphy@
Taxonomy and Plant Classification Databases@
Plant Photographs@
! Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Picture Search@


Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Bennettitales, the cycadeoids.

R. Barboni and T.L. Dutra (2013): New "flower" and leaves of Bennettitales from Southern Brazil and their implication in the age of the Lower Mesozoic deposits. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 50: 14-32.

Philippe Choler, Laboratoire de Biologie des Populations d'Altitude, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble: Biologie Evolutive Végétale. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Concepts and methods in evolutionary biology (in French). Navigate from "Plan du cours" (access to about 335 slides). Go to: Bennettitales (1), and Bennettitales (2).

C.J. Cleal et al. (2006): A clarification of the type of the morphogenus Nilssoniopteris Nathorst (Gymnospermophyta, Bennettitales, fossiles). PDF file, Taxon, 55: 219-222.

Peter R. Crane and Patrick S. Herendeen (2009): Bennettitales from the Grisethorpe Bed (Middle Jurassic) at Cayton Bay, Yorkshire, UK. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 284-295. See also here (abstract).

! N.R. Cúneo et al. (2010): Review of the Cycads and Bennettitaleans from the Mesozoic of Argentina. In PDF.

Z. Czier (2014): A fern-bennettitalean floral assemblage in Tithonian-Berriasian travertine deposits (Aguilar Formation, Burgos-Palencia, N Spain) and its palaeoclimatic and vegetational implications. In PDF, Journal of Iberian Geology, 35: 127-140.
Specimens preserved as impressions coated with a microbial film up to 5 mm thick made up of bacteria and cyanobacteria.

! A.B. Doweld (2016): Proposals to conserve the names Cycadeoidea against Mantellia and C. megalophylla against M. nidiformis (fossil Spermatophyta: Cycadeoideopsida). In PDF, Taxon, 65: 397-399.

Else Marie Friis et al. (2007): Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seeds with Gnetales and Bennettitales. Abstract, Nature 450: 549-552.
! See also here (in PDF).

T.M. Harris (1973): The strange Bennettitales. In PDF, Sir Albert Charles Seward Memorial Lecture, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Valentin A. Krassilov (1987): Palaeobotany of the mesophyticum: state of the art. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 50: 231-254. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016): The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also here (in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.

Gerhard Leubner Lab, University Freiburg, Germany: Seed Evolution. Go to: Jurassic parc/Mesozoic era: Extinct gymnosperms and living ancient gymnosperms. Extant Cycadales and extinct Bennettitales.

John M. Miller (, University of California, Berkeley: Origin of Angiosperms. See also here or navigate from essay contents. Go to:
! Bennettitales.

The Palm and Cycad Society of Florida. The fossil Cycads. With paintings and reconstructions of Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick, and Mark Hallett. Go to: Cretaceous Cycadales. Reconstruction images, image of Cycadeoidea marylandica.

! E. Peñalvera et al. (2012): Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 8623-8628. See also here.

! Kathleen B. Pigg, Department of Plant Biology, Arizona State University: Laboratory. Go to: The Cycads, Cycadeoids (Bennettitales) and Ginkgophytes.

C. Pott et al. (2016): Bennettitales in the Rhaetian flora of Wüstenwelsberg, Bavaria, Germany. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 232: 98–118. See also here (in PDF).

C. Pott (2016): Westersheimia pramelreuthensis from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Lunz, Austria: More Evidence for a Unitegmic Seed Coat in Early Bennettitales. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences.

C. Pott and B.J. Axsmith (2015): Williamsonia carolinensis sp. nov. and Associated Eoginkgoites Foliage from the Upper Triassic Pekin Formation, North Carolina: Implications for Early Evolution in the Williamsoniaceae (Bennettitales). In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 176: 174-185.

C. Pott et al. (2015): Wielandiella villosa comb. nov. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, China: More Evidence for Divaricate Plant Architecture in Williamsoniceae. In PDF, Botanica Pacifica, 4.

! C. Pott et al. (2012): Trichomes on the leaves of Anomozamites villosus sp. nov. (Bennettitales) from the Daohugou beds (Middle Jurassic), Inner Mongolia, China: Mechanical defence against herbivorous arthropods. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 169: 48-60.

! C. Pott et al. (2012): Baikalophyllum lobatum and Rehezamites anisolobus: Two Seed Plants with "Cycadophyte" Foliage from the Early Cretaceous of Eastern Asia. Paper awarded with the Remy and Remy Award 2012, Botanical Society of America.

! Christian Pott and Michael Krings (2010): Gymnosperm Foliage from the Upper Triassic of Lunz, Lower Austria: an annotated check list and identifiation key. PDF file, Geo.Alp, 7: 19-38.

Christian Pott, Natural History Museum Stockholm: Bennettitaleans of the world. The aim of this website is to compile as much information as possible about this enigmatic group of gymnosperms. Under construction.

! C. Pott et al. (2010): Late Palaeozoic foliage from China displays affinities to Cycadales rather than to Bennettitales necessitating a re-evaluation of the Palaeozoic Pterophyllum species. PDF file, Acta Palaeontol. Pol., 55: 57-168.

C. Pott and M. Krings (2007): First record of circinate vernation in bennettitalean foliage. In PDF, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 245: 315-321. see also here (abstract).

Pott, C., Kerp, J.H.F., Zijlstra, G. & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. (2007): Proposal to conserve the name Pterophyllum (Foss., Bennettitales) with a conserved type. PDF file, Taxon 56 (3): 966-967.

S.E. Pratt (2014): Benchmarks: September 1, 1957: Fossil Cycad National Monument is dissolved. Earth, September 01, 2014.
See also here (National Fossil Day).

Dong Ren et al. (2009): A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies. PDF file, Science, 326: 840-847. See also here.

! Gar W. Rothwell et al. (2009): Is the anthophyte hypothesis alive and well? New evidence from the reproductive structures of Bennettitales. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 296-322. See also here (abstract).

Gar W. Rothwell and Ruth A. Stockey (2002): Anatomically preserved Cycadeoidea (Cycadeoidaceae), with a reevaluation of systematic characters for the seed cones of Bennettitales. PDF file, American Journal of Botany. 2002;89:1447-1458. See also here (abstract).

ROTHWELL, GAR W.1 and RUTH STOCKEY2. 1Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens; 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton: Systematic characters of ovulate Cycadeoidea/Bennettites cones from the Cretaceous of Vancouver and Hornby Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Abstract. Botany 2001, August 12 - 16, 2001; Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Vincent L. Santucci, National Park Service, Kemmerer, WY, and Marikka Hughes, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Paleobotany Division, New Haven: Fossil Cycad National Monument: A Case of Paleontological Resource Mismanagement. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Senckenberg Natural History Museum and Centre for Biodiversity Research, Frankfurt am Main: Entwicklung der Pflanzenwelt. Easy to understand introduction (in German). Image and reconstruction of Cycadeoidea. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK: Geology Collection, Plants. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Jurassic. Images of Cycadeoidea, Cycadeoidea gigantea, Cycadeoidea microphylla.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: The Jurassic flora of North Yorkshire, Bennettitales from Yorkshire.

C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2012): Arthropod interactions with bennettitalean roots in a Triassic permineralized peat from Hopen, Svalbard Archipelago (Arctic). In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 348-349: 45-58.

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Leonard B. Thien, Hiroshi Azuma, and Shoichi Kawano: New Perspectives on the Pollination Biology of Basal Angiosperms. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences, volume 161 (2000).

J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al. (2017): Differentiation of the fossil leaves assigned to Taeniopteris, Nilssoniopteris and Nilssonia with a comparison to similar genera, Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 237: 100–106.See also here (in PDF).

! Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008): The Jurassic fossil plant record of the UK area. PDF file, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119: 59-72. See fig. 6 (after Cleal et al. 2001), how to distinguish bennettialean leaf shapes!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Bennettitales.

M. Zhao et al. (2015): Anomozamites (Bennettitales) from Middle Jurassic Haifanggou Formation, western Liaoning, China. In PDF, Global Geology.

Top of page
Links for Palaeobotanists
Search in all "Links for Palaeobotanists" Pages!
index sitemap advanced
site search by freefind

This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated April 20, 2017

eXTReMe Tracker