Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa /
Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites
Seed Plants in General
Triassic Palaeobotany, Palynology and Stratigraphy@
Taxonomy and Plant Classification Databases@
! Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Bennettitales, the cycadeoids.
R. Barboni and T.L. Dutra (2013): New "flower" and leaves of Bennettitales from Southern Brazil and their implication in the age of the Lower Mesozoic deposits. In PDF, Ameghiniana, 50: 14-32.
Philippe Choler, Laboratoire de Biologie des Populations d'Altitude, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble: Biologie Evolutive Végétale. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Concepts and methods in evolutionary biology (in French). Navigate from "Plan du cours" (access to about 335 slides). Go to: Bennettitales (1), and Bennettitales (2).
C.J. Cleal et al. (2006): A clarification of the type of the morphogenus Nilssoniopteris Nathorst (Gymnospermophyta, Bennettitales, fossiles). PDF file, Taxon, 55: 219-222.
Peter R. Crane and Patrick S. Herendeen (2009): Bennettitales from the Grisethorpe Bed (Middle Jurassic) at Cayton Bay, Yorkshire, UK. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 284-295. See also here (abstract).
! N.R. Cúneo et al. (2010): Review of the Cycads and Bennettitaleans from the Mesozoic of Argentina. In PDF.
Z. Czier (2014):
fern-bennettitalean floral assemblage in Tithonian-Berriasian travertine deposits
(Aguilar Formation, Burgos-Palencia, N Spain) and its palaeoclimatic and vegetational
implications. In PDF, Journal of Iberian Geology, 35: 127-140.
Specimens preserved as impressions coated with a microbial film up to 5 mm thick made up of bacteria and cyanobacteria.
! A.B. Doweld (2016): Proposals to conserve the names Cycadeoidea against Mantellia and C. megalophylla against M. nidiformis (fossil Spermatophyta: Cycadeoideopsida). In PDF, Taxon, 65: 397-399.
E.M. Friis et al. (2011):
Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution.
Abstract, Cambridge University Press.
See also here (in PDF, long download time) and there (Google books). See especially chapter 5: Angiosperms in context: extant and fossil seed plants
Also worth to check out: Book Review, by P.J. Rudall, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 170. In PDF.
"... This long-awaited book represents not only a remarkable tour de force of palaeobotanical literature, but also a potentially enduring biological textbook. ..."
Else Marie Friis et al. (2007):
Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links
Cretaceous seeds with Gnetales and Bennettitales.
Abstract, Nature 450: 549-552.
! See also here (in PDF).
! M.W. Frohlich & M.W. Chase (2007): After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a great mystery. In PDF, Nature 450: 1184-1189. See also here and there.
T.M. Harris (1973):
strange Bennettitales. In PDF,
Sir Albert Charles Seward Memorial Lecture,
Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
R. Herbst and A. Crisafulli (2016): Buckya austroamericana nov. gen. et sp. (Bennettitales) from the Upper Triassic Laguna Colorada Formation (El Tranquilo Group), Santa Cruz province, Argentina. In PDF, Serie Correlación Geológica, 32: 85-100.
F. Herrera et al. (2018): Exceptionally well-preserved Early Cretaceous leaves of Nilssoniopteris from central Mongolia. Open access, Acta Palaeobotanica, 58: 135–157.
Valentin A. Krassilov (1987): Palaeobotany of the mesophyticum: state of the art. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 50: 231-254. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
C.C. Labandeira et al. (2016):
evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. See also
(in PDF). Proc. R. Soc., B 283.
Heritagedaily: Paleobotanist plays role in discovery of "Jurassic butterflies". An artist´s rendering of the butterfly Oregramma illecebrosa, consuming pollen drops from Triassic bennettitales.
Gerhard Leubner Lab, University Freiburg, Germany: Seed Evolution. Go to: Jurassic parc/Mesozoic era: Extinct gymnosperms and living ancient gymnosperms. Extant Cycadales and extinct Bennettitales.
Z.J. Liu et al. (2019): Zhangwuia: an enigmatic organ with a bennettitalean appearance and enclosed ovules. In PDF, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, 108 (Agora Paleobotanica), : 419-428. See also here.
! S. McLoughlin et al. (2017): The diversity of Australian Mesozoic bennettitopsid reproductive organs. Palaeobio. Palaeoenv., DOI 10.1007/s12549. See also here (in PDF).
John M. Miller (gigantopteroid.org), University of California, Berkeley:
of Angiosperms. See also here
or navigate from essay
contents. Go to:
The Palm and Cycad Society of Florida. The fossil Cycads. With paintings and reconstructions of Douglas Henderson, John Sibbick, and Mark Hallett. Go to: Cretaceous Cycadales. Reconstruction images, image of Cycadeoidea marylandica.
! E. Peñalvera et al. (2012): Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 8623-8628. See also here.
! Kathleen B. Pigg, Department of Plant Biology, Arizona State University: Laboratory. Go to: The Cycads, Cycadeoids (Bennettitales) and Ginkgophytes.M.E. Popa (2014): Early Jurassic bennettitalean reproductive structures of Romania. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94: 327–362. See also here (in PDF).
C. Pott and J.H.A. Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert (2017): The type specimen of Nilssoniopteris solitaria (Phillips 1829) (Bennettitales). Open access, Acta Palaeobotanica, 57: 177–184.
C. Pott et al. (2017):
Lunzia austriaca – a bennettitalean microsporangiate structure with
Cycadopites-like in situ pollen from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of
Lunz, Austria. Abstract,
Grana, 56. See also
Depicted in fig. 8: Restoration of the cup-shaped Lunzia microsporangiate organ as interpreted from the fossils.
C. Pott et al. (2016): Bennettitales in the Rhaetian flora of Wüstenwelsberg, Bavaria, Germany. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 232: 98–118. See also here (in PDF).
C. Pott (2016): Westersheimia pramelreuthensis from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Lunz, Austria: More Evidence for a Unitegmic Seed Coat in Early Bennettitales. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences.
C. Pott and B.J. Axsmith (2015): Williamsonia carolinensis sp. nov. and Associated Eoginkgoites Foliage from the Upper Triassic Pekin Formation, North Carolina: Implications for Early Evolution in the Williamsoniaceae (Bennettitales). In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 176: 174-185.
C. Pott et al. (2015): Wielandiella villosa comb. nov. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, China: More Evidence for Divaricate Plant Architecture in Williamsoniceae. In PDF, Botanica Pacifica, 4.
C. Pott and S. McLoughlin (2014): Divaricate growth habit in Williamsoniaceae (Bennettitales): unravelling the ecology of a key Mesozoic plant group. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 94: 307–325. See also here (in PDF).
! C. Pott et al. (2012): Trichomes on the leaves of Anomozamites villosus sp. nov. (Bennettitales) from the Daohugou beds (Middle Jurassic), Inner Mongolia, China: Mechanical defence against herbivorous arthropods. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 169: 48-60.
! C. Pott et al. (2012): Baikalophyllum lobatum and Rehezamites anisolobus: Two Seed Plants with "Cycadophyte" Foliage from the Early Cretaceous of Eastern Asia. Paper awarded with the Remy and Remy Award 2012, Botanical Society of America.
! Christian Pott and Michael Krings (2010): Gymnosperm Foliage from the Upper Triassic of Lunz, Lower Austria: an annotated check list and identifiation key. PDF file, Geo.Alp, 7: 19-38.
Christian Pott, Natural History Museum Stockholm: Bennettitaleans of the world. The aim of this website is to compile as much information as possible about this enigmatic group of gymnosperms. Under construction.
! C. Pott et al. (2010): Late Palaeozoic foliage from China displays affinities to Cycadales rather than to Bennettitales necessitating a re-evaluation of the Palaeozoic Pterophyllum species. PDF file, Acta Palaeontol. Pol., 55: 57-168.
C. Pott and M. Krings (2007): First record of circinate vernation in bennettitalean foliage. In PDF, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 245: 315-321. see also here (abstract).
Pott, C., Kerp, J.H.F., Zijlstra, G. & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. (2007): Proposal to conserve the name Pterophyllum (Foss., Bennettitales) with a conserved type. PDF file, Taxon 56 (3): 966-967.
S.E. Pratt (2014):
September 1, 1957: Fossil Cycad National Monument is dissolved. Earth, September 01, 2014.
See also here (National Fossil Day).
Dong Ren et al. (2009): A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies. PDF file, Science, 326: 840-847. See also here.
! Gar W. Rothwell et al. (2009): Is the anthophyte hypothesis alive and well? New evidence from the reproductive structures of Bennettitales. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 296-322. See also here (abstract).
Gar W. Rothwell and Ruth A. Stockey (2002): Anatomically preserved Cycadeoidea (Cycadeoidaceae), with a reevaluation of systematic characters for the seed cones of Bennettitales. PDF file, American Journal of Botany. 2002;89:1447-1458. See also here (abstract).
ROTHWELL, GAR W.1 and RUTH STOCKEY2. 1Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens; 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton: Systematic characters of ovulate Cycadeoidea/Bennettites cones from the Cretaceous of Vancouver and Hornby Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Abstract. Botany 2001, August 12 - 16, 2001; Albuquerque, New Mexico.
P.J. Rudall and R.M. Bateman (2019):
surface development and the plant fossil record: stomatal patterning in Bennettitales. Abstract,
"... Fossil bennettites – even purely vegetative material – can be readily identified by a combination of epidermal features, including distinctive cuticular guard-cell thickenings, lobed abaxial epidermal cells (‘puzzle cells’), transverse orientation of stomata perpendicular to the leaf axis, and a pair of lateral subsidiary cells adjacent to each guard-cell pair (termed paracytic stomata). ..."
Vincent L. Santucci, National Park Service, Kemmerer, WY, and Marikka Hughes, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Paleobotany Division, New Haven: Fossil Cycad National Monument: A Case of Paleontological Resource Mismanagement. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Senckenberg Natural History Museum and Centre for Biodiversity Research, Frankfurt am Main: Entwicklung der Pflanzenwelt. Easy to understand introduction (in German). Image and reconstruction of Cycadeoidea. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK: Geology Collection, Plants. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Jurassic. Images of Cycadeoidea, Cycadeoidea gigantea, Cycadeoidea microphylla.
D. Soltis et al. (2017):
and Evolution of the Angiosperms. Book announcement.
(Google books). Worth checking out:
! Relationships of Angiosperms to Other Seed Plants. In PDF.
Note figure 1.12: Reconstructions of Caytoniales.
Note figure 1.13: Reconstruction of Bennettitales.
Note figure 1.14: Reconstructions of Pentoxylon plants.
Note figure 1.15: Reconstructions of glossopterids.
Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: The Jurassic flora of North Yorkshire, Bennettitales from Yorkshire.
C. Strullu-Derrien et al. (2012): Arthropod interactions with bennettitalean roots in a Triassic permineralized peat from Hopen, Svalbard Archipelago (Arctic). In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 348-349: 45-58.
Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of
Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Leonard B. Thien, Hiroshi Azuma, and Shoichi Kawano: New Perspectives on the Pollination Biology of Basal Angiosperms. Abstract, International Journal of Plant Sciences, volume 161 (2000).
J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al. (2017): Differentiation of the fossil leaves assigned to Taeniopteris, Nilssoniopteris and Nilssonia with a comparison to similar genera, Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 237: 100–106.See also here (in PDF).
! Johanna H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2008):
The Jurassic fossil plant record
of the UK area. PDF file,
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119: 59-72. See fig. 6 (after Cleal et al. 2001),
how to distinguish bennettialean leaf shapes!
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Bennettitales.
M. Zhao et al. (2015):
from Middle Jurassic Haifanggou Formation, western Liaoning, China. In PDF,
Top of page
Links for Palaeobotanists
Search in all "Links for Palaeobotanists" Pages!