Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa / Algae

Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites
Seed Plants in General
! Taxonomy and Plant Classification Databases@
! Living Fossils@
Plant Photographs@
Image Collections@
Picture Search@

Algae (previously GuruNet), New York City & Jerusalem: Coccolithophorida.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

AYMA Agua y Medio Ambiente, Sevilla: Atlas of Microorganisms. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Go to: Algae.

M.E. Barkworth et al. (2016): Report of the Special Committee on Registration of Algal and Plant Names (including fossils). In PDF, Taxon, 65: 670-672.

! B. Becker and B. Marin (2009): Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes. In PDF, Annals of Botany, 103: 999–1004. See also here.
Note fig. 2: Diversification of green plants (Viridiplantae) and colonization of terrestrial habitats by streptophyte algae.

S. Bengtson et al. (2017): Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae. Open Access, PLoS Biol., 15: e2000735.

The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley:
Introduction to the "Green Algae".

The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley: The Lake Winnipeg Algal Flora. Late Ordovician algae. See also:
Fossil Plants. Images from the UCMP collections.

Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley: "Green Algae": Systematics, Part 2, The Charophytes.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2010): Thalloid organisms and the fossil record - New perspectives from the Transantarctic Mountains. PDF file, Plant Signal Behav., 5: 293-295.

George Booth, The Fish Information Service: Algae. Easy to understand information.

Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH: Center for Algal Microscopy. Images and links about algae.

J.J. Brocks et al. (2017): The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals. Abstract, Nature, 548: 578–581. See also here.

R.C. Brown and B.E. Lemmon (2011): Spores before sporophytes: hypothesizing the origin of sporogenesis at the algal-plant transition. In PDF, New Phytologist, 190: 875-881.

Mark Buchheim, Department of Biological Science, University of Tulsa, OK: deepestgreen. A website for the study of green algal diversity - a coordinated research effort for the phylogenetic investigation of the Chlorophyta. The Chlorophyta is one of two branches of the Viridiplantae (Green Plant) lineage. The Chlorophyta includes extant members that possess a fossil record that extends back into the Precambrian.

Benjamin Burger, Utah State University, Vernal, Utah:
Why study fossil plants?
Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany.
How did plants colonize the land, based on the fossil record?
How did the first seed plants (the Gymnosperms) evolve?
How did gymnosperms diversify during the early Mesozoic to become a modern dominate plant group?
How good is the fossil record of Cycads?
What is the significance of the fossil record of Ginkgo?
What is the fossil record of Horsetails?
! Fossil Algae.
What is an Angiosperm?
Video lectures.

! E.M. Carlisle et al. (2021): Experimental taphonomy of organelles and the fossil record of early eukaryote evolution. Open access, Science Advances, 7. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe9487 See also here (in PDF).

Charophytes. A journal dedicated to the promotion of research and communication about charophytes.

! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:

N.R. Cúneo et al. (2014): Late Cretaceous Aquatic Plant World in Patagonia, Argentina. Open access, PLoS ONE, 9: e104749.

O. De Clerck et al. (2012): Diversity and Evolution of Algae: Primary Endosymbiosis. In PDF, Advances in Botanical Research, 64. See also here.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.F. Delwiche and E.D. Cooper (2015): The Evolutionary Origin of a Terrestrial Flora. Abstract, Current Biology. Please take notice:
! From algae to land plants (and vice versa). Did some freshwater algae descend from a terrestrial ancestor? In PDF.

The Delwiche Lab, Molecular Systematics: Charophycean Green Algae.

Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.: Scientific stock photography library. Light microscope pictures and electron microscopy images featuring science and biomedical microscopy photos. Go to Algae.

J. de Vries et al. (2018): Embryophyte stress signaling evolved in the algal progenitors of land plants. In PDF, PNAS, 115. See also here (abstract), and there (in German).

Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD). A service of USRA, sponsored by NASA Goddard. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. Browse EPODs by Related Fields, such as Coccolithophore bloom in the Celtic Sea.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Anthony G. Futcher, Columbia Union College, Maryland: Plant Diversity. A lot of facts about plant groups, fungi, plant-like protists, and monerans, including taxonomy, life cycles, general structure, and representative genera. Go to: Division Chlorophyta - Green Algae.

Janus Goulding (Derek Keats, Botany Department at the University of the Western Cape, Bellville (Cape Town) South Africa): Classification of Algae: where do they fit the broad scheme of things?
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L.E. Graham (2019): Digging deeper: why we need more Proterozoic algal fossils and how to get them. Free access, Journal of phycology, 55: 1–6.

! Linda E. Graham and Lee W. Wilcox, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison: Algae. A textbook (published by Prentice Hall), brief contents, including some pictures.

Michael Guiry, Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland: What are Algae? A basic guide to algae, including freshwater, terrestrial and marine algae (seaweeds). See also:
The Seaweed Site. This site is a source of general information on all aspects of marine algae.

M.D. Guiry and E. Nic Dhonncha (project currently financed from the NUI, Galway, Environmental Change Institute funded by the Higher Education Authority (PRTLI Cycle II) in Ireland for 2000-2002): AlgaeBase. AlgaeBase is a dynamic, searchable database that stores information on the scientific names of seaweeds (including seagrasses), particularly taxonomic and distributional details. More than 20,000 seaweed and seagrass names are listed at present, but more are added each day. The data are being updated continually.

Till Hanebuth, Bastian Roters and Karl-Heinz Baumann, FB 05 Research group Sedimentology and Palaeoceanography, Bremen University, Germany: What are coccolithophores?

J. Hill and K. Davis, Geology Rocks: The Use Of Diatoms As Palaeoenvironmental Indicators.

Patrick Honecker, University of Cologne: Ancestors of land plants revealed.

! International "Fossil Algae" Association (IFAA). The IFAA is a non-profit organization interested in promoting the study of fossil algae, e.g. taxonomy, morphology, biology, biostratigraphy, palaeo-ecology and mineralization. Go to the archives. Reports, collections, reprints.

International Research Group on Charophytes (IRGC). The aims of IRGC are to promote and coordinate international cooperation in charophyte research, including living and fossil material of all geological periods, and to encourage the integration and synthesis of all aspects of both botanical and paleobotanical study of charophytes. Visit the IRGC photoalbum.

! Derek Keats, Botany Department at the University of the Western Cape, Bellville (Cape Town) South Africa: Introduction to algae (A virtual slide show), and The World of Algae.

! M. Krings, LMU München: Unkalzifizierte fossile Makroalgen. Scientific project report (in German).

Landelijk Informatiecentrum voor Kranswieren (LIK), The Netherlands: Drawings and photos of recent charophyte species in the Netherlands (in Dutch).

! F. Leliaert et al. (2011): Into the deep: new discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny. PDF file, BioEssays.

Frederik Leliaert et al.: Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae. PDF file, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences.

! Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima: Plant Biology at OSU Lima. Go to:
Plant anatomical characteristics.

Ruta B. Limaye et al. (2007): Non-pollen palynomorphs as potential palaeoenvironmental indicators in the Late Quaternary sediments of the west coast of India. PDF file, CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 92, NO. 10.

Steven T. LoDuca and Sigrid Berger, International Fossil Algae Association (IFAA): Fossil Dasycladales.

! S.G. Lucas (2018): Permian-Triassic Charophytes: Distribution, Biostratigraphy and Biotic Events. Journal of Earth Science, 29: 778–793. See also here, and there (in PDF).

! W.F. Martin and J.F. Allen (2018): An algal greening of land. Free access, Cell, 174: 256-258. See also here.
Note figure 1: Streptophyte Algae and the Rise of Atmospheric Oxygen.

C. Martín-Closas et al. (2009): Triassic charophytes from Slovenia: palaeogeographic implications. Abstract, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 252.

C. Martín-Closas (2003): The fossil record and evolution of freshwater plants: a review. PDF file, Geologica Acta, 1: 315-338.

Martin C. Mathes, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA: General Botany. This course is designed to give the students a broad background in the traditional subject matter of botany. This includes topics on organisms in the plant kingdom as well as organisms not in the plant kingdom but which affect the growth ecology or evolution of plants (e.g., selected bacteria, fungi, and selected protists).

! C. Mays et al. (2020): Permian–Triassic non-marine algae of Gondwana—Distributions, natural affinities and ecological implications. Free access, Earth-Science Reviews, 212.

Richard M. McCourt et al. (2004): Charophyte algae and land plant origins. Abstract, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19.

! L.K. Medlin (2009): Haptophyte algae (Haptophyta), and Diatoms (Bacillariophyta). PDF files, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).

M. Moczydlowska et al. (2011): Proterozoic phytoplankton and timing of chlorophyte algae origins. Open access, Palaeontology, 54: 721–733.

G.L. Mullins et al, Department of Geology, University of Leicester: The phytoPal project. About Proterozoic and Palaeozoic phytoplankton (fossil cysts of acritarchs, the phycomata of prasinophyte algae and very rare zygotes of zygnematalean algae).

! The Nannotax website (created by J.R. Young, P.R. Bown and J.A. Lees, International Nannoplankton Association). This website aims to provide an authoritative guide to the biodiversity and taxonomy of coccolithophores - a beautiful group of microscopic planktonic algae with an abundant fossil record. It is both a working tool for specialists and a reference source for anyone looking for information on coccolithophores.
Website awarded with the Golden Trilobite 2014.

! Karl J. Niklas and Ulrich Kutschera (2010): The evolution of the land plant life cycle. PDF file, New Phytologist, 185: 27-41.

Karl J. Niklas & Tom Silva, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Introductory Botany. Review Topics, Review of Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes- Common Links Between Each Group of Plants.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Charles J. O´Kelly and and Tim Littlejohn: Peridinium. The Protist Image Database.

Petralga. The PETRALGA (PErmian & TRiassic ALGAe) Project was initiated in order to provide useful palaeontological tools for both Scientific Institutions and Industry.

Z.A. Popper et al. (2011): Evolution and Diversity of Plant Cell Walls: From Algae to Flowering Plants. In PDF, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 62: 567-590.

Z.A. Popper and M.G. Tuohy (2010): Beyond the Green: Understanding the Evolutionary Puzzle of Plant and Algal Cell Walls. PDF file, Plant Physiology, 53: 373-383.

S.M. Porter (2004): The fossil record of early eukaryotic diversification. In PDF, Paleontological Society Papers, 10.

Protist Information Server, Japan (supported by the "Soken-Taxa" project "Construction of Biological Image Databases" at The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, and by the "Bio-Resource" project "Fundamental research and development for databasing and networking culture collection information" at Japan Science and Technology Corporation). This server is providing 59932 images of protists (575+ genera, 2492+ species, 11645 samples) and 1294 movie clips as research and educational resources. See also: The Protist Movie Database.

Michael W. Rasser, Institute of Paleontology, Vienna: Fossil Coralline Algae.

S. Ratti et al. (2011): Did Sulfate Availability Facilitate the Evolutionary Expansion of Chlorophyll a+c Phytoplankton in the Oceans? In PDF, Geobiology 9, no. 4: 301–312. See also here (abstract).

P.A. Siver (2020): Remarkably preserved cysts of the extinct synurophyte, Mallomonas ampla, uncovered from a 48 Ma freshwater Eocene lake. In PDF, Scientific Reports, 10: 5204.

Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: Algae Research. Go to: Classification, and Algae Links.

Geology Collection, Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOES), University of Southampton: SOES Geology Collection / Fossils / Algae and Stromatoporoids.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Fossil plant images from the oldest land plants. Go to: Prototaxites.

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Thomas N. Taylor and Michael Krings (2005): Fossil microorganisms and land plants: Associations and interactions. PDF file, Symbiosis, 40: 119-135.

Teacher Certification: The Algae Gallery. Including some links to other algae websites.

Bernard Teyssèdre, Paris: Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) two billion years old? Carnets de Géologie / Notebooks on Geology: Article 2006/03.

Sebastian Trapp, Bremen University: Charophytes in man-made lakes in Bremen, Germany.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L.M. van Maldegem et al. (2019): Bisnorgammacerane traces predatory pressure and the persistent rise of algal ecosystems after Snowball Earth. Open access, nature communications.

C.H. Wellman et al. (2019): Filamentous green algae from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert. Free access, PalZ.

Biology Department, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington:
! Protista - Algae. Powerpoint presentation. See also here, or there.

Sabina Wodniok et al. (2011): Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae. PDF file, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 104.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated July 11, 2021

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