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Home / Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa / Gnetophyta

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Annette Becker et al. (2002): Ancestry and diversity of BEL1-like homeobox genes revealed by gymnosperm (Gnetum gnemon) homologs. PDF file, Dev Genes Evol, 12: 452-457.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here (in German).

! L.M. Bowe et al. (2000): Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: Extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales' closest relatives are conifers. In PDF, PNAS, 97: 4092–4097. See also here.

Shu-Miaw Chaw et al. (2000): Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers. PDF file, PNAS, 97. See also here.

! dmoz, the Open Directory Project:
Science: Biology: Flora and Fauna: Plantae:
Gnetophyta. See also:
Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Paleobotany: Taxa.

Michael J. Donoghue and James A. Doyle (2000): Seed plant phylogeny: Demise of the anthophyte hypothesis? Current Biology, 10: R106-R109. "Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate, surprisingly, that Gnetales are related to conifers, or even derived from them ..."

! Christopher J. Earle (server space has been provided by the Department of Botany, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany): The Gymnosperm Database. Currently the database provides basic information for all species and higher-ranked taxa of the gymnosperms, i.e., conifers, cycads, and their allies. You may navigate from the Gymnosperm Database Site Map Gnetales.

Debbie Folkerts, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama: Kingdom Plantae: Gymnosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

! W.E. Friedman (1996): Introduction to biology and evolution of the Gnetales. PDF file, International Journal of Plant Sciences 157(6) (supplement): 1-2.

! E.M. Friis et al. (2011): Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution. Abstract, Cambridge University Press.
See also here (in PDF, long download time) and there (Google books). See especially chapter 5: Angiosperms in context: extant and fossil seed plants
Also worth to check out: Book Review, by P.J. Rudall, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 170. In PDF.
"... This long-awaited book represents not only a remarkable tour de force of palaeobotanical literature, but also a potentially enduring biological textbook. ..."

Else Marie Friis et al. (2007): Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seeds with Gnetales and Bennettitales. Abstract, Nature 450: 549-552.
! See also here (in PDF).

Thorsten Hebben, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada: Gnetophyta: An Enigmatic Group of Seed Plants. A slideshow.

! S.M. Ickert-Bond and S.S. Renner (2016): The Gnetales: Recent insights on their morphology, reproductive biology, chromosome numbers, biogeography, and divergence times. In PDF, Journal of Systematics and Evolution.

V.A. Krassilov (2009): Diversity of Mesozoic Gnetophytes and the First Angiosperms. PDF file, Paleontological Journal, 43: 1272-1280. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Plant Systematics Collection. This web site provides structured access to a teaching collection of plant images representing over 250 families and 1000 genera of vascular plants. Go to: Phylum Gnetophyta (Vessel-bearing gymnosperms). Ephedra, Gnetum, Welwitschia.

John M. Miller (, University of California, Berkeley: Origin of Angiosperms. See also here or navigate from essay contents. Go to:
! Gnetales.

Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia, Department of Plant Biology Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Land Plants Online, Phylum Gnetophyta. The Gnetophytes, list of families and genera.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Catarina Rydin, Department of Palaeobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm: Phylogeny and evolution of Gnetales. A research project.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! R.A. Stockey, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: PALEOBIOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERM ORIGINS. This course explores recent advancements toward resolution of the evolutionary origin of flowering plants. Go to:
Presentation on Gnetophyta: An Enigmatic Group of Seed Plants (Author: Thorsten Hebben).

X. Wang and S. Zheng (2010): Whole fossil plants of Ephedra and their implications on the morphology, ecology and evolution of Ephedraceae (Gnetales). PDF file (slow download), Chinese Science Bulletin, 55: 1511-1519. See also here (abstract).

! Wikipedia (a free-content encyclopedia): Spermatophyte. Go to: The Gnetales.

Y. Yang (2014): A systematic classification of Ephedraceae: living and fossil. In PDF, Phytotaxa, 158: 283-290.

Y. Yang (2010): A Review on Gnetalean Megafossils: Problems and Perspectives. In PDF, Taiwania, 55: 346-354.

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Last updated July 20, 2017

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