Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa / Lycophyta

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Seed Plants in General
! Triassic Palaeobotany, Palynology and Stratigraphy@
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Taxonomy and Plant Classification Databases@
Living Fossils@
Plant Photographs@
! Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
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! American Society of Plant Biologists: Education & Research - Bookmarks > Selaginella.

! J.P. Benca et al. (2014): Applying morphometrics to early land plant systematics: A new Leclercqia (Lycopsida) species from Washington State, USA. American Journal of Botany 101: 510–520. See also here, and there:
George Dvorsky,
An Incredibly Life-Like Reconstruction Of A 400 Million-Year-Old Plant. Reconstruction of Leclercqia scolopendra.

Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Lycophyta

C.M. Berry and J.E.A. Marshall (2015): Lycopsid forests in the early Late Devonian paleoequatorial zone of Svalbard. In PDF, Geology, 43: 1043-1046.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2011): Macrofossil evidence for pleuromeialean lycophytes from the Triassic of Antarctica. PDF file, Acta Palaeontol. Pol., 56: 195-203. See also here.

Bill Chaloner & Geoff Creber, Royal Holloway, University of London (website hosted by The International Organisation of Palaeobotany, IOP): Unexpected occurrences, An unexpected exposure: Pleuromeia.

! M.J.M. Christenhusz et al. (2011): A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. PDF file, Phytotaxa, 19: 7-54.

Curtis Clark, Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona: Plant Morphology, and Resource. Go to: Lab 10: Lycophyta, Psilotophyta (PDF file).
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:
Fern Allies

I. Cojocaru (2010): Orientations in Macrotaxonomy. PDF file.

Compiled by P. R. Crane, J. A. Doyle, P. Gensel, W. Hahn, P. Kenrick, R. Olmstead, K. Pryer, A. Smith, D. Soltis, E. A. Zimmer (page hosted by the Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley): LYCOPHYTES. Compiled at the 1995 Berkeley meeting of the GPPRCG and modified based on broader input at the 1996 Seattle meeting.

Jim Croft, The Australian National Herbarium: A classification of the ferns and their allies - a work in progress. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
This classification of the genera of ferns and their allies is a loose, perhaps tenuous, concensus of a number of published systems, some of which are available on the web. It tries to reflect contemporary views on phylogenetic relationships and as such will change from time to time.

! Michel Desfayes, Fully, Switzerland ("the irrepressible compiler"):
Bibliography of Isoetes. Including fossil species.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2013): Growth habit of the late Paleozoic rhizomorphic tree-lycopsid family Diaphorodendraceae: Phylogenetic, evolutionary, and paleoecological significance. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 100: 1-22.

W.A. DiMichelle and R.A. Bateman (1996): The rhizomorphic lycopsids: a case-study in paleobotanical classification. PDF file.

! dmoz, the Open Directory Project:
Science: Biology: Flora and Fauna: Plantae:
Lycopodiophyta. See also:
Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Paleobotany: Taxa.

M.T. Dunn et al. (2012): Winslowia tuscumbiana gen. et sp. nov. (Chaloneriaceae): A Cormose, Heterosporous, Ligulate Lycopsid Reconstructed from the Inside Out from the Pride Mountain Formation (Late Mississippian/Serpukhovian) of Northern Alabama. In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 173: 96-111.

Google Directory:
Science > Biology > Flora and Fauna > Plantae > Lycopodiophyta.
Link directory, with ratings (Google page rank).
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

L. Grauvogel-Stamm & B. Lugardon, (2001): The Triassic Lycopsids Pleuromeia and Annalepis: Relationships, Evolution, and Origin. PDF file, American Fern Journal, 91: 115-149.

! W.A. Green (2010): The function of the aerenchyma in arborescent lycopsids: evidence of an unfamiliar metabolic strategy. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc., B, 277: 2257-2267.

Monte Hieb and Harrison Hieb: Plant Fossils of West Virginia. Fossil Plants of the Middle Pennsylvanian Period. Go to: Lycopods.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Alan Kazlev, Palaeos, Class Lycopsida. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Order Pleuromeiales.

M. Alan Kazlev and Mikko Haaramo, Palaeos, The systematics of the plant kingdom, Lycopsids. Go to: Lycophytina cladogram (various sources).
Snapshots taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
Please take notice of figure 9 (PDF page 10): A reconstruction of Pleuromeia sternbergii and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch.

D. Klärner (2016), Frankfurter Allgemeine (FAZ): Die schicksalhaften Wälder. In German.
About P.A. Hochuli et al. (2016): Severest crisis overlooked ...

Enzo Kon'no (1973): New species of Pleuromeia and Neocalamites from the Upper Scythian Bed in the Kitakami Massif, Japan. PDF file.

V.A. Krassilov and Y.D. Zakharov (1975): Pleuromeia from the Lower Triassic of the Far East of the USSR. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2010): Lycophytes from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) locality Kühwiesenkopf (Monte Prà della Vacca) in the Dolomites (northern Italy). In PDF, Palaeontology, 53: 595-626.

! Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima: Plant Biology at OSU Lima. Go to:
Plant anatomical characteristics.

C. Looy and I. Duijnstee (2010), Behind the scenes, Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley: Museum nomads. About Pleuromeia fossils in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Plant Systematics Collection. This web site provides structured access to a teaching collection of plant images representing over 250 families and 1000 genera of vascular plants. Go to: Lycophyta. Lycopodiaceae, Selaginellaceae, Isoetaceae.

Janet Marinelli, Brooklyn Botanic Garden; Plants & Gardens News Volume 18, Number 2; 2003: Power Plants. The Origin of Fossil Fuels. A palaeovegetation reconstruction by Maud H. Purdy.

S. McLoughlin et al. (2015): Paurodendron stellatum: A new Permian permineralized herbaceous lycopsid from the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 220: 1-15. Reconstruction on PDF page 11.
See also here.

! M.-C. Meng et al. (2015): Vegetative Characters, Growth Habit and Microsporangiate Strobilus of Lycopsid Minostrobus chaohuensis. PLoS ONE, 10.

John Mieles, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester: Evolution of the Earth, Student Webpages, Divisions Lycophyta and Sphenophyta in the Late Paleozoic.

P. Moisan and S. Voigt (2013): Lycopsids from the Madygen Lagerstätte (Middle to Late Triassic, Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 192: 42-64.

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, FOSSIL AND EXTANT LYCOPHYTES. Link list page with rankings and brief explanations. Images of Lepidodendron aculeatum, Lepidophyllum, Lepidophylloides, Cyperites bicarinatus, Lepidostrobus, Lepidostrobophyllum, Lepidostrobophyllum lanceolatum, Lepidophloios laricinus, Lepidophloios.

Dennis C. Murphy, ("Devonian Times", a paleontology web site featuring Red Hill): Who's Who at Red Hill, unidentified cormose lycopsid (Lycopsid Tree), cf. Lepidodendropsis sp. (Lycopsid Tree), and More about Lycopsids.

S.V. Naugolnykh (2013): The heterosporous lycopodiophyte Pleuromeia rossica Neuburg, 1960 from the Lower Triassic of the Volga River basin (Russia): organography and reconstruction according to the "Whole-Plant" concept. In PDF, Wulfenia, 20: 1-16.

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2012): Sporophyll morphology and reconstruction of the heterosporous lycopod Tomiostrobus radiatus Neuburg emend. from the Lower Triassic of Siberia (Russia). In PDF, The Palaeobotanist, 61: 387-405.

Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Land Plants Online, Lycophytes - Phylum Lycopodiophyta. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Karl J. Niklas & Tom Silva, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Introductory Botany. Review Topics, Review of Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes- Common Links Between Each Group of Plants.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Karl J. Niklas & Tom Silva, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Introductory Botany. Review Topics, Megasporogenesis and Megagametogenesis: A Review.

! Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA: Isoetes. Including the Bibliography of Isoetes and the Isoetes Spore Library (PDF file).

S. Oplustil (2010): Contribution to knowledge on ontogenetic developmental stages of Lepidodendron mannebachense Presl, 1838. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences.

! H.W. Pfefferkorn (2004): The complexity of mass extinction. Commentary, PNAS, 101: 12779-12780.
Take notice of figure 2: A reconstruction of the herbaceous lycopsid Pleuromeia and the in situ occurrence of casts of stems of this species in a red sandstone of the early Triassic Period, combined with a landscape sketch with this plant and a fern species.

! K.B. Pigg (2001): Isoetalean Lycopsid Evolution: from the Devonian to the Present. PDF file, American Fern Journal, 91: 99-114. See also here (abstract).

Bernard Renault, 1881-1885 (provided by Gallica): Cours de botanique fossile fait au Muséum d'histoire naturelle.- Première année (1881). Cycadées, zamiées, cycadoxylées, cordaïtées, poroxylées, sigillariées, stigmariées.

G.J. Retallack (1997): Earliest Triassic origin of Isoetes and quillwort evolutionary radiation. PDF file, Journal of Paleontology, 71: 500-521. See also here.

G. Retallack (1975): The life and times of a Triassic lycopod. PDF file, Alcheringa.

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. Go to: Class Lycopsida. (PDF file).

E. Schuettpelz and S.B. Hoot (2006): Inferring the Root of Isoetes: Exploring Alternatives in the Absence of an Acceptable Outgroup. Abstract, Systematic Botany, 31: 258-270.

! Alan R. Smith, Kathleen M. Pryer, Eric Schuettpelz, Petra Korall, Harald Schneider, & Paul G. Wolf (2006). A classification for extant ferns. PDF file, Taxon 55: 705–731.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life in the Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Cretaceous. Go to: The clubmoss tree Sigillaria, Identification table Sigillaria, and The clubmoss tree Lepidodendron.

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Angelo Troia and Antonella Troia, Laboratorio Fisiologia Vegetale, Dip. Scienze Botaniche dell´Università, Palermo: The Isoëtes Page. Go to: The Isoëtes Page. A bibliography.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert et al. (2016): New data on Selaginellites coburgensis from the Rhaetian of Wüstenwelsberg (Upper Franconia, Germany). Abstract, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 280. See also here (Open Access in DiVA).

S.I. Vogel et al. (2011): The Effects of Fire on Lycopodium digitatum strobili. In PDF, Jeffersoniana, 27: 1-9.

Margrit Vöge, Hamburg: Zu Isoetites and Persistente Lycophyta: fossile und rezente Isoetes. Vergleichende Beschreibung des Bauplans mit Regressionsgleichungen. PDF files, in German.

Charles H. Wellman et al. (2009): Spore wall ultrastructure in the early lycopsid Leclercqia (Protolepidodendrales) from the Lower Devonian of North America: Evidence for a fundamental division in the lycopsids. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 1849-1860.

J. Yu et al. (2010): Annalepis, a pioneering lycopsid genus in the recovery of the Triassic land flora in South China. Abstract, Comptes Rendus Palevol., 9: 479-486.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated August 14, 2016