Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa /
Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites
Seed Plants in General
! Parasitic Plants@
! Taxonomy and Plant Classification Databases@
! Lorna Ash & Heather Kroening, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Botany. Go to: Life Cycle of an Angiosperm. See also here. Online and downloadable flash 4 movies. Excellent!
Francisco J. Ayala et al. (2000): Variation and evolution in plants and microorganisms: Toward a new synthesis 50 years after Stebbins. PNAS, 97: 6941-6944. Scroll to: "Trends and Patterns in Plant Evolution".
! C.D. Bell et al. (2010): The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 97: 1296-1303.
Dale Benham, Nebraska Wesleyn University: Angiosperm Reproduction.
Museum of Paleontology, University of California (UCMP), Berkeley, CA: Introduction to the Anthophyta, Monocots versus Dicots, and Introduction to the Liliopsida. The Monocots.
C. Kevin Boyce et al. (2010): Angiosperms Helped Put the Rain in the Rainforests: The Impact of Plant Physiological Evolution on Tropical Biodiversity. PDF file, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97: 527-540.
C. Kevin Boyce et al. (2009). Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative. PDF file, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276: 1771-1776.
The palaeofiles. Articles
here have all been
prepared by students on the palaeobiology programmes in Bristol:
The origin and evolution of angiosperms.
Tim J. Brodribb and Taylor S. Feild (2010): Leaf hydraulic evolution led a surge in leaf photosynthetic capacity during early angiosperm diversification. PDF file, Ecology letters, 13: 175-183.
Robyn J. Burnham (2009): An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lianas, cipós, and vines. PDF file, Rev. bras. paleontol., 12: 149-160.
R.J. Burnham (1994): Patterns in tropical leaf litter and implications for angiosperm paleobotany. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
R.J. Butler et al. (2009): Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution. PDF file, Journal of Evolutionary Biol., 22: 446-459. See also here (abstract).
! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany,
University of Wisconsin, Madison:
Instructional Technology (BotIT).
Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:
C. Coiffard et al. (2012): Rise to dominance of angiosperm pioneers in European Cretaceous environments , Abstract. See also here (ScienceBlog.com) and there (Zeenews.com).
C. Coiffard et al. (2012): Deciphering Early Angiosperm Landscape Ecology Using a Clustering Method on Cretaceous Plant Assemblages. In PDF.
Bruce Cornet, (?) Raritan Valley Community College, Somerville, NJ: Why do Paleobotanists Believe in a Cretaceous Origin of Angiosperms? A controversial topic. This website presents palaeobotanical evidence on the origin of flowering plants, with evidence for and against a Cretaceous origin.
! Peter R. Crane and Andrew B. Leslie: Major Events in the Evolution of Land Plants. In PDF. From: The Princeton Guide to Evolution, ed. Jonathan Losos. Princeton, NJ (Princeton University Press).
! W.L. Crepet and K.J. Niklas (2009): Darwin´s second "abominable mystery": Why are there so many angiosperm species? PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 366-381. See also here (abstract).
! W.L. Crepet (2008): The Fossil Record of Angiosperms: Requiem or Renaissance? Abstract, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.
! William L. Crepet (2006): FROM PARIS (TENNESSEE) TO PERTH AMBOY: HOW STUDIES OF FOSSIL FLOWERS BEGAN IN EARNEST AND HAVE CHANGED SINCE 1975. Abstract, in: S. Manchester et al. (organizing committee): ADVANCES IN PALEOBOTANY--RECOGNIZING THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF DAVID L. DILCHER AND JACK A. WOLFE ON THE OCCASION OF THEIR 70TH BIRTHDAY; See: Abstracts Submitted to the Advances in Paleobotany Meeting 2006.
! W.L. Crepet et al. (2004): Fossil evidence and phylogeny: the age of major angiosperm clades based on mesofossil and macrofossil evidence from Cretaceous deposits. In PDF, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1666-1682.
William L. Crepet, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Progress in understanding angiosperm history, success, and relationships: Darwin's abominably "perplexing phenomenon". PNAS 2000; 97: 12939-12941.
Judith L. Croxdale, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison (website hosted by Biology Online): Stomatal patterning in angiosperms. Stomatal pattern types, means of measuring them, advantages of each type of measurement, and then present patterning from evolutionary, physiological, ecological, and organ views are discussed.
Charles Daghlian (Dartmouth College, Hannover, NH) and Jennifer Svitko, Paleobotanical Holdings at the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium at Cornell University: Paleoclusia 3D Reconstructions. Movies from CT scans done on the Turonian fossils. See also here (W.L. Crepet and K.C. Nixon 1998, abstract and photos).
H.J. de Boer et al. (2012): A critical transition in leaf evolution facilitated the Cretaceous angiosperm revolution. In PDF, Nature Communications, 3.
David Dilcher (2000): Toward a new synthesis: Major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record. PDF file, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 97: 7030-7036. See also here.
! dmoz, the Open Directory Project:
Science: Biology: Flora and Fauna: Plantae:
Magnoliophyta. See also:
Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Paleobotany: Taxa.
Michael J. Donoghue and James A. Doyle (2000): Seed plant phylogeny: Demise of the anthophyte hypothesis? Current Biology, 10: R106-R109.
Stephen R. Downie and Kenneth R. Robertson, Life Sciences at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champagne: Systematics of Plants. This course introduces the principles and methods of identifying, naming, and classifying flowering plants. It includes a survey of selected flowering plant families and provides information on their interrelationships. Go to: Digital Flowers.
! Peter K. Endress (2011): Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution. In PDF, Annals of Botany, 107: 1465-1489.
P.K. Endress and J.A. Doyle (2009): Reconstructing the ancestral angiosperm flower and its initial specializations. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 22-66.
Mike Farabee, Estrella Mountain Community College Center, Avondale, Arizona:
On-Line Biology Book.
Introductory biology lecture notes. Go to:
PLANTS AND THEIR STRUCTURE, and
AND THEIR STRUCTURE II.
See: Flower Structure, and Fertilization and Fruits.
Jeffrey A. Fawcett and Yves Van de Peer (2010): Angiosperm polyploids and their road to evolutionary success. Trends in Evolutionary Biology.
Taylor S. Feild and N.C. Arens (2007): The ecophysiology of early angiosperms. PDF file, Plant, Cell and Environment, 30: 291-309.
T.S. Feild et al. (2004): Dark and disturbed: a new image of early angiosperm ecology. PDF file, Paleobiology, 30: 82-107. See also here.
William Friedman et al., Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder: Molecular and Organismal Research in Plant History, MORPH. MORPH, an NSF research coordination network, fosters cross-disciplinary interactions between organismic and molecular plant biologists studying the evolution of morphological diversity to promote a modern synthesis in plant evolutionary developmental biology. Go to: Publications.
Else Marie Friis, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm: Cretaceous angiosperms from Europe and North America (Silvianthemum suecicum), and Cretaceous angiosperms from Kazakhstan.
! Else Marie Friis, Kaj Raunsgaard Pedersen and Peter R. Crane (2010): Diversity in obscurity: fossil flowers and the early history of angiosperms. PDF file, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 365: 369-382. Some of the specimens are charcoalified and have retained their original three-dimensional shape. See also here.
! E.M. Friis, K. Raunsgaard Pedersen and Peter R. Crane (2006): Cretaceous angiosperm flowers: Innovation and evolution in plant reproduction. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 232 (2-4): 251-293.
! Michael W. Frohlich & Mark W. Chase (2007): After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a great mystery. Abstract, Nature 450: 1184-1189.
R. Gorelick (2001): Did insect pollination cause increased seed plant diversity? PDF file, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74: 407-427.
Ben Harder, National Geographic News: Dino-Era Fossil—The First Flower? About the Archaefructaceae.
P.A. Hochuli, Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Zürich: Timing of angiosperm evolution. Research project description.
Natalia Holden, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada: The early Angiosperms: Paleophytogeography and Depositional Settings. A slideshow.
! S. Hu et al. (2008): Early steps of angiosperm-pollinator coevolution. PDF file, PNAS, 105: 40-245. See also here (abstract).
! Norman F. Hughes (1994): The Enigma of Angiosperm Origins. 405 pages. Provided by Cambridge University Press through the Google Print Publisher Program.
Norman F. Hughes (1982): Palaeobiology of Angiosperm Origins: Problems of Mesozoic Seed-Plant Evolution. Provided by Google books.
Marty Huss: Angiosperm Life Cycle. Powerpoint presentation.
Michael Knee, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University, Columbus: General Plant Biology Online Resources. Lecture notes. Go to: Evolution and diversity of angiosperms.
Ross E. Koning, Biology Department, ECSU, Willimantic, CT: Floral Evolution. Comparing plesiomorphic and apomorphic Angiosperms.
Ari and Susan Kornfeld, Natural Perspective: The Plant Kingdom: Dicots Overview.
V.A. Krassilov (2009): Diversity of Mesozoic Gnetophytes and the First Angiosperms. PDF file, Paleontological Journal, 43: 1272-1280.
V.A. Krassilov (1997): Angiosperm Origins: Morphological and Ecological Aspects. PDF file (159 MB!), 270 p., (Pensoft), Sophia.
V.A. Krassilov and A.P. Rasnitsyn (2008): Plant-arthropod interactions in the early angiosperm history: evidence from the Cretaceous of Israel. PDF file, 222 p., (Pensoft Publishers & Brill Academic Publishers), Sofia, Moscow.
B.B. Lamont and T. He (2012): Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous. In PDF, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12. See also here.
Gerhard Leubner Lab, University Freiburg, Germany: Seed Evolution. Go to: Angiosperm seed evolution and species diversification.
Gerhard Leubner, The Seed Biology Place, Molecular Plant Sciences, University Freiburg, Germany: Seed evolution. Origin and evolution of the seed habit. See also: Seed dictionary English-German.
! Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima:
Biology at OSU Lima. Go to:
Flowering plant reproduction.
Plant anatomical characteristics.
A. Linkies et al. (2010): The evolution of seeds. PDF file, New Phytologist.
Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Plant Systematics Collection. This web site provides structured access to a teaching collection of plant images representing over 250 families and 1000 genera of vascular plants. Go to: Phylum Magnoliophyta (Flowering Plants).
! S. Magallón (2009): Flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).
Susana Magallón and Amanda Castillo (2009): Angiosperm diversification through time. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 349-365.
Duane D. McKenna et al. (2009): Temporal lags and overlap in the diversification of weevils and flowering plants. PDF file, PNAS, 106: 7083-7088. See also here (abstract).
! John M. Miller (gigantopteroid.org), University of California, Berkeley: Origin of Angiosperms. See also here or navigate from essay contents.
! Sebastian Molnar, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Evolution and the Origins of Life. A directory of introductions concerning evolution, with a bias to Plant Biology and Evolution. Go to: Angiosperm Origins and Evolution.
Harold Nesbitt, Northern Virginia Community College: Biology Lectures. Powerpoint Lectures. Go to: Chapter 23, The Land Plants.
! Dan Nickrent, Kevin C. Nixon & Dale Vitt (Curatorial Board; website served from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale): Phyto Images. This site includes a wide variety of vascular plant and bryophyte photos of high quality. Phyto Images belongs to DOL (DiversityofLife.org), which is a web interface based on the Encino Software Project. The Encino project is a unified set of software tools for storing, retrieving, and analyzing biodiversity. Search the Cladogramm Database or use the Diagnostic Keys. Superbly done!
A.B. Nicotra et al. (2011): The evolution and functional signifcance of leaf shape in the angiosperms. In PDF, Functional Plant Biology.
NOVA (science series on television): First Flower.
Daniel Oakley et al. (2009): Morphometric analysis of some Cretaceous angiosperm woods and their extant structural and phylogenetic analogues: Implications for systematics. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 157: 375-390.
J. Ollerton and E. Coulthard (2009): Evolution of Animal Pollination. In PDF, Science, 326.
Marc Philippe et al. (2008): Woody or not woody? Evidence for early angiosperm habit from the Early Cretaceous fossil wood record of Europe. PDF file, Palaeoworld, 17: 142-152.
Ray Phillips, Information Technology Services, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: World Wide Flowering Plant Family Identification. Select the characters that are present in the specimen being identified and press "Submit". Database is part of "Biology 211: Flowering Plant Taxonomy", an introduction to the principles and practice of flowering plant taxonomy.
Tõnu Ploompuu, Biology, Tallinn Pedagogical University, Tallinn, Estonia: Resting and active evolution. Possible preadaptations in the early evolution of Angiosperms. See also here.
D. Pons and D. de Franceschi (2007): Neogene woods from western Peruvian Amazon and palaeoenvironmental interpretation. Bulletin of Geosciences, 82: 343-354.
I. Poole (2000): Fossil angiosperm wood anatomy: its role in the reconstruction of biodiversity and palaeoenvironment. PDF file, Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, 134: 361-381.
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS): NOVA (a high rated science series on TV). First Flower. Go to: Flowers Modern and Ancient. About Archaefructus liaoningensis, discovered in the fossil beds of Liaoning Province in northeastern China.
James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland: Advanced Plant Taxonomy. Systems of classification for magnoliophyta, history of systematic botany, approaches to biological classification, taxonomic hierarchy, types of data.
Chris Romero (updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp, Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants. A set of powerpoint lectures can be downloaded from here.
Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens: Angiophytes: Using Whole Plant Concepts to Interpret Angiosperm Origins, Selected Literature.
Anita Roth-Nebelsick et al. (2001): Evolution and Function of Leaf Venation Architecture: A Review. PDF file, Annals of Botany 87: 553-566. See also here.
Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. Go to Flowering Plants (PDF file).
D. Royer et al. (2010): Leaf economic traits from fossils support a weedy habit for early angiosperms. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 97: 438-445. See also here, and there.
! Dmitry A. Ruban (2012): Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new? In PDF, Geologos, 18: 37-42.
Paula J. Rudall and Richard M. Bateman (2010): Defining the limits of flowers: the challenge of distinguishing between the evolutionary products of simple versus compound strobili. In PDF, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, B Biol. Sci., 365: 397-409. See also here (abstract).
! Stephen A. Smith et al. (2010): An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants. PDF file, PNAS, 107: 5897-5902. See also here, or there.
! D.E. Soltis et al. (2009): Polyploidy and angiosperm diversification. In PDF, Am. J. Bot., 96: 336-348.
Pamela Soltis, ActionBioscience.org (a resource of the American Institute of Biological Sciences): Flowering Plants: Keys to Earth´s Evolution and Human Well-Being.
Pamela S. Soltis and Douglas E. Soltis (2004): The origin and diversification of angiosperms. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1614-1626.
! P.F. Stevens and Hilary Davis, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis:
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.
The focus of this site is on angiosperms and emphasis is placed on plant families. You can also navigate from the
or the Families-website.
EVOLUTION OF LAND PLANTS.
! Doug Soltis, Amber Tilley and Hongshan Wang, Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), University of Florida: Deep Time. A comprehensive phylogenetic tree of living and fossil angiosperms. Deep Time explore the ways in which angiosperm fossils can be appropriately integrated into the phylogenetic framework for extant taxa, with the ultimate goal of forming a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of living and fossil angiosperms. This includes the evaluation and prioritization of the fossil record, the critical appraisal of the age of fossils, the construction of a morphological data matrix for fossils and extant angiosperms, the integration of fossils into the angiosperm tree and the calibration of divergence times.
! P.F. Stevens and Hilary Davis, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. The focus of this website is about classification on angiosperm plant families. Sets of evolutionary trees grouping families and orders and showing details of the arrangement. Don´t miss the complete synonymy of family name directory and some literature references. Excellent!
Ruth A. Stockey, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton: Paleobotany of Angiosperm Origins. Go to: Course Outline. Chiefly bibliographies and weblinks.
Ge Sun, David L. Dilcher, Shaoling Zheng, and Zhekun Zhou: In Search of the First Flower: A Jurassic Angiosperm, Archaefructus, from Northeast China. Science 1998: 1692-1695.
David Winship Taylor et al. (2006): Biogeochemical evidence for the presence of the angiosperm molecular fossil oleanane in Paleozoic and Mesozoic non-angiospermous fossils. Abstract, Paleobiology, 32: 179-190.
! David W. Taylor and Leo J. Hickey (1996): Flowering Plant Origin, Evolution & Phylogeny. Google books (some pages omitted); American Institute of Biological Sciences (Springer), 404 pages.
Edith L. Taylor and Thomas N. Taylor (2009): Seed ferns from the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic: Any angiosperm ancestors lurking there? PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 237-251. See also here.
H. Hamshaw Thomas (1936): Palaeobotany and the origin of the angiosperms. PDF file, The Botanical Review, 2: 97-418.
Greg Thorn, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario: Evolution of Plants (Powerpoint presentations). Navigate from here with information from the Syllabus. See e.g. Lecture 16: Evolution of Plants. The evolution of early angiosperms.
! Amber Tilley and Hongshan Wang, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida: Deep Time. Projects about the origin of angiosperms.
Tree of Life Web Project: Angiosperms (by Pam Soltis, Doug Soltis, and Christine Edwards).
G.R. Upchurch Jr. (1984): Cuticle evolution in Early Cretaceous angiosperms from the Potomac Group of Virginia and Maryland. PDF file, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.
Xin Wang (2010): The Dawn Angiosperms. Google books.
Xin Wang et al. (2007): Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms? PDF file, BMC Evol. Biol., 7: 14. See also here.
L. Watson Albany, Australia, and M. J. Dallwitz CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia (page hosted by DELTA):
The Families of Flowering Plants.
Descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval.
Version: 25th November 2009. The Intkey software is required.
Also worth to check out: Static information. Character list, implicit attributes, notes on the APG classification, etc.
E.A. Wheeler and S.R. Manchester (2007): Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods. PDF file, Bulletin of Geosciences, 82: 329-342.
Niklas Wikström et al. (2001): Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B, 268: 2211-2220.
! Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia: Spermatophyte. Go to: Flowering Plant, and Magnoliopsida.
P. Wilf (2008): Fossil angiosperm leaves: paleobotany´s difficult children prove themselves. PDF file, Paleontological Society Papers, 14: 319-333.
! Hugh D. Wilson, Department of Biology Herbarium (TAMU), Texas A&M University:
Flowering Plant Gateway.
This project involves the development of computer programs that allow automated, machine-generated
HTML page production for each Subclass/Superorder of the Flowering Plants as structured
by the Cronquist, Takhtajan, and Thorne Systems of classification.
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