Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa / Gymnosperms

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T. Agarwal (2018): Pentoxylales A Remarkable Order in the Evolution of the Plants. Research and Reviews: Journal of Pharmacognosy In PDF, and Phytochemistry.

! J. Anderson et al. (2007): Brief history of the gymnosperms: classification, biodiversity, phytogeography and ecology. In PDF, Strelitzia, 20, 279 p. See also here (abstract).

! L.M. Bowe et al. (2000): Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: Extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales' closest relatives are conifers. In PDF, PNAS, 97: 4092–4097. See also here.

D.M. Bruns Stockrahm, Biosciences Department, Minnesota State University Moorhead: Organismal Biology, Gymnosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

Benjamin Burger, Utah State University, Vernal, Utah:
Why study fossil plants?
Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany.
How did plants colonize the land, based on the fossil record?
! How did the first seed plants (the Gymnosperms) evolve?
How did gymnosperms diversify during the early Mesozoic to become a modern dominate plant group?
How good is the fossil record of Cycads?
What is the significance of the fossil record of Ginkgo?
What is the fossil record of Horsetails?
Fossil Algae.
What is an Angiosperm?
Video lectures.

! Maarten J.M. Christenhusz et al. (2011): A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. PDF file, Phytotaxa, 19: 55-70.

! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:

Peter Crane, The Tree of Life Web Project (coordinator and editor: David R. Maddison): Spermatopsida, Seed Plants.

! C.C. Davis and H. Schaefer (2011): Plant Evolution: Pulses of Extinction and Speciation in Gymnosperm Diversity. See also here (abstract).

I. Degani-Schmidt and M. Guerra-Sommer (2019): Epidermal morphology of the cordaitalean leaf Noeggerathiopsis brasiliensis nom. nov. from the southern Paraná Basin (Lower Permian, Rio Bonito Formation) and paleoenvironmental considerations. In PDF, Braz. J. Geol., 49. See also here.

! Christopher J. Earle (server space has been provided by the Department of Botany, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany): The Gymnosperm Database. Currently the database provides basic information for all species and higher-ranked taxa of the gymnosperms, i.e., conifers, cycads, and their allies. You may navigate from the Gymnosperm Database Site Map All Taxa on the Gymnosperm Database.

Christopher J. Earle, The Gymnosperm Database: Links.

Howard J. Falcon-Lang and Arden R. Bashforth (2005): Morphology, anatomy, and upland ecology of large cordaitalean trees from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Newfoundland. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 135: 223-243.

Debbie Folkerts, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama: Kingdom Plantae: Gymnosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

! Y. Fragnière et al. (2015): Fighting their last stand? A global analysis of the distribution and conservation status of gymnosperms. Journal of Biogeography. See also here (studied species and the full list of references from the gymnosperm database).

Robert A. Gastaldo, Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine: Navigate via: Notes for a Course in Paleobotany. Go to: Gymnosperms in the Mesophytic.

W. Huang et al. (2016): New Phoenicopsis leaves (Czekanowskiales) from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou Biota, China and their roles in phytogeographic and paleoclimatic reconstruction. In PDF, Palaeoworld, 25: 388–398. See also here.

Kevin R. Hultine (Department of Forest Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID), and John D. Marshall (website hosted by Biology Online): A comparison of three methods for determining the stomatal density of pine needles. Three methods used to estimate the stomatal density of two species of three-needle pines, Pinus taeda and Pinus ponderosa is reported.

Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois: The Seed Plants: Gymnosperms & Angiosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

E. Kustatscher et al. (2019): Did the Czekanowskiales already exist in the late Permian? Free access, PalZ.

Conrad C. Labandeira et al. (2007): Pollination drops, pollen, and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. PDF file, Taxon, 56:663-695.

Gerhard Leubner Lab, University Freiburg, Germany: Seed Evolution.

Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima: Plant Biology at OSU Lima.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A. Linkies et al. (2010): The evolution of seeds. PDF file, New Phytologist.

Y. Lu et al. (2014): Phylogeny and divergence times of gymnosperms inferred from single-copy nuclear genes. PloS one.

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, CORDAITES. Link list page with rankings and brief explanations. Images of Cordaites, Cordaites principalis, Cordaicladus, Cordaianthus, Cordaianthus williamsii, Cardiocarpus spinosus, Samaropsis,, Artisia horizontalis, Mesoxylon, Mesoxylon iowense, Amyelon.
Website outdated. The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Dennis C. Murphy, ("Devonian Times", a paleontology web site featuring Red Hill): Who's Who at Red Hill, Archaeopteris spp. (Progymnosperm Trees), and The First Forests.

The New York Botanical Garden, Herbarium: Catalog of North American Gymnosperms. The Herbarium of The New York Botanical Garden has completed cataloging its gymnosperms from North America north of Mexico. These records represent those specimens collected in Greenland, Canada, and the United States (excluding Hawaii), and include non-native species cultivated in North America.

Ruud J. Poort, Henk Visscher, and David L. Dilcher: Zoidogamy in fossil gymnosperms: The centenary of a concept, with special reference to prepollen of late Paleozoic conifers. The National Academy of Sciences, PNAS 1996 93: 11713-11717.

Christian Pott and Michael Krings (2010): Gymnosperm Foliage from the Upper Triassic of Lunz, Lower Austria: an annotated check list and identifiation key. PDF file, Geo.Alp, 7: 19-38.

! S. Renner (2009): Gymnosperms. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).

! P.J. Rudall (2021): Evolution and patterning of the ovule in seed plants. Free access, Biological Reviews. See also here.

Vishal Sharma, Government Post Graduate College For Girls, Chandigarh: Fossils of Gymnosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

K. Stern: Introduction To Seed Plants: Gymnosperms. Powerpoint presentation.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life in the Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Cretaceous. Go to:

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Fossil gymnosperm wood, and
The gymnospermous tree Cordaites.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life from the Silurian to the Cretaceous. Go to:
Little animals in the Coal Swamp.

Biological Sciences, Teaching Development Unit, University of Sydney: Learning Modules. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to: Pine (Gymnosperm) Life Cycle.

Ruud J. Poort, Henk Visscher, and David L. Dilcher: Zoidogamy in fossil gymnosperms: The centenary of a concept, with special reference to prepollen of late Paleozoic conifers. Article in PDF format. PNAS Vol. 93, Issue 21, 11713-11717, October 15, 1996.

! J.-H. Ran et al. (2018): Phylogenomics resolves the deep phylogeny of seed plants and indicates partial convergent or homoplastic evolution between Gnetales and angiosperms. Abstract.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Fossil plant images from the oldest land plants. Go to: Fossil gymnosperm wood.

C. Sun et al. (2015): A New Species of Czekanowskia (Czekanowskiales) from the Middle Jurassic of Ordos Basin, China. In PDF, Botanica Pacifica, 4: 149-155.

Syllabus of Plant Families, A. Engler´s Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien (13th edition by Wolfgang Frey):
4 Pinopsida (Gymnosperms), Magnoliopsida (Angiosperms) p.p.: Subclass Magnoliidae [Amborellanae to Magnolianae, Lilianae p.p. (Acorales to Asparagales)].

Botany Department, University of Toronto: Families of Vascular Plants. An introduction to the families of vascular plants with emphasis on morphological variation in relation to identification and significant aspects of breeding systems, dispersal syndromes, and other features of their biology. Go to: Gymnosperms. Heterospory and seeds.

Jun Wang and Hermann W. Pfefferkorn (2010): Nystroemiaceae, a new family of Permian gymnosperms from China with an unusual combination of features. PDF file, Proc. R. Soc., B, 277: 301-309. See also here.

WANG Jun, H.W. Pfefferkorn, SUN Bainian & LIU Lujun: Discovery of organic connection of Chiropteris Kurr and Nystroemia Halle from Early Permian of western Henan, China. PDF file (32 MB !), Chinese Science Bulletin, 2003, Vol. 48, No. 20, p. 2248-2252.

K. Unger Baillie (March 12, 2021): ‘Pompeii of prehistoric plants’ unlocks evolutionary secret. Penn Today.

X.Q. Wang and J.H. Ran (2014): Evolution and biogeography of gymnosperms. In PDF, Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. See also here.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Gymnosperm, and the German Wikipedia: Nacktsamige Pflanzen (in German).

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated March 06, 2021

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