Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa / Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites

Seed Plants in General
! Bacterial Biofilms (Microbial Mats)@
! Taxonomy and Plant Classification Databases@
Plant Photographs@
Image Collections@
Picture Search@

Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites

John Adamek et al. (including fossil dealers): The Virtual Fossil Museum. Search results: Stromatolite.

American Society for Microbiology: A Manual of Biofilm related exercises. An online collection of exercises which can be conducted to illustrate the formation and properties of microbial biofilms.

! Microbial Mat Research at Ames Research Center: What are Microbial Mats?
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M.A.M. Aref et al. (2014): Microbial and physical sedimentary structures in modern evaporitic coastal environments of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In PDF, Facies.

! S.M. Awramik (2006): Respect for stromatolites. In PDF, Nature, 441.

L. Battison and M.D. Brasier (2009): Exceptional Preservation of Early Terrestrial Communities in Lacustrine Phosphate One Billion Years Ago. Abstract.

! F.A. Battistuzzi and S.B. Hedges (2009): Archaebacteria., and Eubacteria. PDF files, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).

! Nicholas H. Barton (Edinburgh University), Derek E.G. Briggs (Yale University), Jonathan A. Eisen (University of California, Davis), David B. Goldstein (Duke University Medical Center), and Nipam H. Patel (University of California, Berkeley): Evolution (by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press). This textbook is designed to serve as the primary text for undergraduate courses in evolution. It differs from currently available alternatives in containing more molecular biology than is traditionally the case. Go to: Table of Contents: Some figures and tables free of charge! See: Evolution Figures: Chapter 4.

Ernst-Georg Beck, Merian-Schule Freiburg: Biokurs (in German). Go to: Präkambrium: Hadäan (4,6 Milliarden Jahre - 3,8 Milliarden Jahre).

Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkely: Introduction to the Cyanobacteria. Architects of earth's atmosphere.

T.R.R. Bontognali et al. (2012): Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism. In PDF, PNAS, 109: 15146-15151. See also here.

Pierre-André Bourque, Département de géologie et de génie géologique, Université Laval, Québec, Canada: Planète Terre, Les stromatolites (in French). See also here.

Brehm, Ulrike, Krumbein, Wolfgang E. and Palinska, K.: Microbial Spheres from Microbial Mats. PDF file; In: Fossil and recent Biofilms A natural History of Life on Earth, p.161-172, edited by Krumbein WE, Paterson DW, Zavarzin, GA, Kluwer Academic Press Publishers, 2003.

Alison Campbell, Penelope Cooke, Kathrin Cass and Kerry Earl, The "Evolution for Teaching" Website Project, University of Waikato, New Zealand: The Evolution of Life. Information about the evolution of life on Earth. Go to: The earliest cells and stromatolites - The Archaean Period (3800 m.y. - 2500m.y.)

E. Couradeau et al. (2013): Cyanobacterial calcification in modern microbialites at the submicrometer-scale. In PDF, Biogeosciences Discuss., 10: 3311-3339.

! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Instructional Technology (BotIT). Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:

! M. Currie, Dr. Ken Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum, (Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada): The Wonderful World of Stromatolites.

Heribert Cypionka, Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, Germany: Microbiological Garden.

S.A.F. Darroch et al. (2012): Experimental formation of a microbial death mask. In PDF, Palaios, 27: 293-303.

A.W. Decho (2000): Microbial biofilms in intertidal systems: an overview. In PDF, Continental Shelf Research, 20.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Department of Mines and Petroleum (DMP), Western Australia: Stromatolites.

Melanie DeVore, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA:
! Life of the PreCambrian: Archean & Proterozoic.
! The Evolution of Plants.
Powerpoint presentations. Provided by D. Freile, New Jersey City University: Historical Geology.

C. Diéguez et al. (2009): A fern-bennettitalean floral assemblage in Tithonian-Berriasian travertine deposits (Aguilar Formation, Burgos-Palencia, N Spain) and its palaeoclimatic and vegetational implications. In PDF, Journal of Iberian Geology, 35: 127-140.
Specimens preserved as impressions coated with a microbial film up to 5 mm thick made up of bacteria and cyanobacteria.
See also here.

! C. Dupraz and P.T. Visscher (2005): Microbial lithification in marine stromatolites and hypersaline mats. In PDF, Trends in microbiology.

Yoichi Ezaki et al., Department of Geosciences, Osaka City University, Sugimoto, Osaka, Japan: Earliest Triassic Microbialite Micro- to Megastructures in the Huaying Area of Sichuan Province, South China: Implications for the Nature of Oceanic Conditions after the End-Permian Extinction. Abstract, PALAIOS, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 388-402.

J. Farmer (1999): Articel starts on page 94, PDF page 110: Taphonomic Modes in Microbial Fossilization. In PDF; In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Size Limits of Very Small Organisms, Space Studies Board, National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Jack Farmer, Arizona State University: Microbial Mats and Stromatolites. PDF file.

R.L. Folk (2005): Nannobacteria and the formation of framboidal pyrite: Textural evidence. PDF file, Journal of Earth System Science, 114: 369-374.

Fossil Mall (stores of fossil dealers): Stromatolite Fossils, and Stromatolite References.

Friends of Petrified Sea Gardens, Inc.: Saratoga Springs, New York. National natural and historic landmark. The "Petrified Sea Garden" is a fossilized stromatolite ocean-reef 500 million-years-old.

Anthony G. Futcher, Columbia Union College, Maryland: Plant Diversity. A lot of facts about plant groups, fungi, plant-like protists, and monerans, including taxonomy, life cycles, general structure, and representative genera. Go to: Division Cyanophyta - Blue-green Algae/Bacteria.

James G. Gehling, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles: Siliciclastics: Ediacaran Death Masks. Abstract, Palaios Vol. 14.1 (via wayback).

C Glunk et al. (2010): Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation in a hypersaline lake, Big Pond (Eleuthera, Bahamas). In PDF, Sedimentology.

Y. Ibarra et al. (2016): A microbial carbonate response in synchrony with the end-Triassic mass extinction across the SW UK. Sci Rep., 6.

Bob Keller, Bob's Rock Shop: Stromatolite Fossils in the Hakatai Shale. A Day Hike from Phantom Ranch - Grand Canyon National Park.

S. Kershaw (2017): Palaeogeographic variation in the Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites: A discussion of microbial and ocean processes after the end-Permian mass extinction. Journal of Palaeogeography.

J. Kleinteich et al. (2017): Cyanobacterial Contribution to Travertine Deposition in the Hoyoux River System, Belgium. Abstract, Microbial Ecology. See also here (in PDF).

! Dave Krogmann, Purdue University (supported by the Department of Biological Sciences at Purdue University): Cyanosite. A webserver for cyanobacterial research. Visit the Cyanobacteria image gallery presenting over 200 images or videos of cyanobacteria.

Krumbein, Wolfgang E., Brehm, Ulrike, Gerdes, Gisela, Gorbushina, A. A., Levit, G. and Palinska, K.: Biofilm, Biodictyon, and Biomat - Biolaminites, Oolites, Stromatolites - Geophysiology, Global mechanisms and Parahistology. PDF file; In: Fossil and recent Biofilms A natural History of Life on Earth, p.1-28, edited by Krumbein WE, Paterson DW, Zavarzin, GA, Kluwer Academic Press Publishers, 2003.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm: The Crafoord Prize. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Crafoord Prize in Biosciences 2003 of USD 500 000 to Carl R. Woese, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA "for his discovery of a third domain of life".

U. Kutschera (2009): Symbiogenesis, natural selection, and the dynamic Earth. PDF file, Theory Biosci., 128: 191-203.

! C.C. Labandeira (2005): Invasion of the continents: cyanobacterial crusts to tree-inhabiting arthropods. In PDF, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20.

! T.M. Lenton and S.J. Daines (2016): Matworld - the biogeochemical effects of early life on land. In PDF, New Phytologist.

Levit, G. and Krumbein, Wolfgang E.: Is there an adequate terminology of biofilms and microbial mats? PDF file; In: Fossil and recent Biofilms A natural History of Life on Earth, p.353-362, edited by Krumbein WE, Paterson DW, Zavarzin, GA, Kluwer Academic Press Publishers, 2003.

Kevin Lepot et al., (2008): Microbially influenced formation of 2,724-million-year-old stromatolites. Abstract, Nature Geoscience 1: 118 - 121.

Jere H. Lipps, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, CA (The Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research): Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists: a Slide Set. The Cushman Foundation, a non-profit public foundation, was founded for the purpose of publishing results of research on Foraminiferida and allied organisms. Go to: Stromatolites and Prokaryotes.

Rolf Ludvigsen & Brian Chatterton, Natural Resources Canada: Past lives: Chronicles of Canadian paleontology. Accounts, stories and anecdotes about the people who collected or studied specific Canadian fossils. Go to: Gunflint Chert, and Pethei stromatolites.

Barry Marsh, School of Ocean and Earth Science University of Southampton, UK: Geology Collection. These pages are a virtual collection of geological specimens used for teaching, research and displays. Go to: Fossils, Algae and Stromatoporoids.

IAN G. MACINTYRE,Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; LESLIE PRUFERT-BEBOUT and R. PAMELA REID: The role of endolithic cyanobacteria in the formation of lithified laminae in Bahamian stromatolites. Sedimentology (2000) 47, 915-921.

Mount Allison University, Canada ( Recap of Archean Proterozoic Life (Powerpoint presentation).

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, THE EARLIEST LIFE. Link list page with picture rankings. Images of precambrian microfossils and stromatolites. The links give the most direct connections to pictures available on the web; in many cases they are from sites that have additional palaeobotanical information.

NASA Astrobiology Institute: What are Microbial Mats? and What are Stromatolites? See also:
Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Image gallery. (Shockwave flash presentation).

! N. Noffke et al. (2001): Microbially induced sedimentary structures: A new category within the classification of primary sedimentary structures. PDF file. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Geobiology, Department of Earth Sciences, Oxford University: Questioning the evidence for Earth's oldest fossils.
Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! M. Pacton et al. (2015): Organomineralization processes in freshwater stromatolites: A living example from eastern Patagonia. In PDF, The Depositional Record, 1: 130-146.

Available from The Paleontology Society:
! The Oldest Fossil Evidence of Life. In PDF, prepared by J. William Schopf and designed by Diane Lonardelli.

Pan Terra Inc., Hill City, SD: Early Life on Earth, Stromatolites.

O. Peterffy et al. (2016): Early Jurassic microbial mats - A potential response to reduced biotic activity in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here.

S.B. Pruss and D.J. Bottjer (2004): Late Early Triassic microbial reefs of the western United States: a description and model for their deposition in the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211: 127-137.

E.C. Raff et al. (2008): Embryo fossilization is a biological process mediated by microbial biofilms. In PDF, PNAS, 105.

R.P. Reid et al. (2000): The role of microbes in accretion, lamination and early lithification of modern marine stromatolites. In PDF, Nature.

A. Yu. Rozanov, Paleontological Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia: Bacterial Paleontology.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Jürgen Schieber, Department of Geology, The University of Texas at Arlington: Microbial Mat Page. See also: Microbial Mats in Terrigenous Clastics: The Challenge of Identification in the Rock Record. Abstract, Palaios 14.1, 1999 (via wayback).

Bettina E. Schirrmeister et al. (2011): The origin of multicellularity in cyanobacteria. PDF file, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11.

Mark A. Schneegurt, Department of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University: Cyanosite. A webserver for cyanobacterial research.

! J.W. Schopf et al. (2007): Evidence of Archean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. In PDF, Precambrian Research, 158: 141-155.

! J.W. Schopf (2006): Fossil evidence of Archaean life. In PDF, Transactions of the Royal Society, B 361: 869–885.

J. William Schopf, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, the Molecular Biology Institute, and the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), University of California, Los Angeles: Cradle of Life: The Discovery of Earth's Earliest Fossils. Go to: Chapter 1: Darwin's Dilemma, and Chapter 2: Birth of a New Field of Science. Sample chapters, provided by Princetown University Press. Sample chapters actually have been mounted for professors' convenience in evaluating books for class use.
See also: Just pure chemistry? (by Dagmar Röhrlich, Deutschlandfunk). New discussions about the oldest fossils (in German). Geology, Evolution upset: Oxygen-making microbes came last, not first.

Robert A. Spicer (1977): The pre-depositional formation of some leaf impressions. PDF file, Palaeontology, 20: 907–912. A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Thomas N. Taylor and Michael Krings (2005): Fossil microorganisms and land plants: Associations and interactions. PDF file, Symbiosis, 40: 119-135.

! M.M. Tice and D.R. Lowe (2004): Photosynthetic microbial mats in the 3,416-Myr-old ocean. Abstract, Nature.

K. Thomas et al. (2016): Formation of Kinneyia via shear-induced instabilities in microbial mats. In PDF, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A 371. See also here.
"Kinneyia are a class of microbially mediated sedimentary fossils. Characterized by clearly defined ripple structures, Kinneyia are generally found in areas that were formally littoral habitats and covered by microbial mats".

The Biology Project (an interactive online resource for learning biology), University of Arizona, Tucson: Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, & Viruses Tutorial. The goal of this exercise is to introduce to the kinds of cells that make up all living systems (Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes), and to contrast cells with viruses.

Hugo van den Berg, Department of Theoretical Biology, Faculty of Biology Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Microbial mats.

! H. Van Gemerden (1993): Microbial mats: a joint venture. In PDF, Marine Geology.

The Virtual Fossil Museum: Stromatolites of America.

Ben Waggoner & Brian Speer, Bacteria: Fossil Record.

Jeff Warner, Fullerton College, Fullerton, California: Domed Cyanobacterial Cabbage-Head Stromatolites. Hoyt Limestone, Late Cambrian; Lester Park, New York

! David T. Webb, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu: The Plant Kingdom, Form & Function in Algae & Plants, Cyanophyta - Cyanobacteria. A well illustrated introduction and detailed overview on many aspects of cyanobacter biology.

West Holidays, Perth, Western Australia: Hamelin Pool. An Australian tourism site about Shark Bay stromatolites.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Microbial mat, and Stromatolite.

Woese CR, Kandler O, & Wheelis ML., Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana: Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. See also here.

Astrobiology Institute, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: Astrobiology Microscope This site has images of bacteria and protists, classification schemes, descriptions of organisms, talks and other educational resources to improve awareness of the biodiversity of microbial life.

Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole: Search results stromatolite.

Shucheng Xie et al. (2011): Cyanobacterial blooms tied to volcanism during the 5 m.y. Permo-Triassic biotic crisis: Reply. In PDF, Geology. See especially:
Shucheng Xie et al. (2010): Cyanobacterial blooms tied to volcanism during the 5 m.y. Permo-Triassic biotic crisis.

Top of page
Links for Palaeobotanists
Search in all "Links for Palaeobotanists" Pages!
index sitemap advanced
site search by freefind

This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated March 22, 2017