Links for Palaeobotanists

Home / Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa / Pteridospermopsida

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Seed Plants in General
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H.M. Anderson et al. (2008): Stems with attached Dicroidium leaves from the Ipswich Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia. PDF file, Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 52: 1-12. Snapshot taken by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

S. Archangelsky (1968): Studies on Triassic fossil plants from Argentina. IV. The leaf genus Dicroidium and its possible relation to Rhexoxylon stems. PDF file, Palaeontology, 11: 500-512.
A version archived by Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

Brian J. Axsmith et al. (2007): The "New Approach to Corystospermales" and the Antarctic Fossil Record: A Critique. Ameghiniana, 44. See also here (PDF file).


The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Introduction to the Glossopteridales.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2012): Modified basal elements in Dicroidium fronds (Corystospermales). In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 170: 15-26.

B. Bomfleur et al. (2011): Systematics and paleoecology of a new peltaspermalean seed fern from the Triassic polar vegetation of Gondwana. In PDF, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 172: 807-835.

L.D. Boucher et al. (1995): Dicroidium compression floras from southern Victoria Land. PDF file, Antarctic Journal, 41.

Philippe Choler, Laboratoire de Biologie des Populations d'Altitude, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble: Biologie Evolutive Végétale. Concepts and methods in evolutionary biology (in French).
Navigate from "Plan du cours" (access to about 335 slides).
Go to: Corystospermaceae, or Caytoniales.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

C.J. Cleal et al. (2015): Pennsylvanian fossil flora from the Velebit Mountains and Lika region (SW Croatia). In PDF, Bulletin of Geosciences 90: 721-742.

José Alejandro D´angelo (2006): Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of Johnstonia (Corystospermales, Corystospermaceae) cuticles and compressions from the Triassic of Cacheuta, Mendoza, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 43.

W.A. DiMichele et al. (2005): THE PERMIAN PELTASPERM RADIATION: EVIDENCE FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. PDF file, p. 67-79, In: Lucas, S.G. and Zeigler, K.E., (eds.): The Nonmarine Permian, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin No. 30.

! A.B. Doweld (2012): Proposals to conserve the name Scytophyllum Bornem. (fossil Pteridospermae, Peltaspermopsida) against Scytophyllum Eckl. & Zeyh. (Celastraceae) and the name S. bergeri with a conserved type. In PDF, Taxon, 61: 1128-1129.

! T.M. Harris (1933): A new member of the Caytoniales. New Phytologist, 32: 97–114. In PDF, See also here (abstract).

Monte Hieb and Harrison Hieb, Plant Fossils of West Virginia: Ferns and Seed Ferns. Fossil Plants of the Middle Pennsylvanian Period.

! J. Hilton and R.M. Bateman (2006): Pteridosperms are the backbone of seed-plant phylogeny. In PDF, Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 133: 119-168.

E.V. Karasev (2009): A New Genus Navipelta (Peltaspermales, Pteridospermae) from the Permian/Triassic Boundary Deposits of the Moscow Syneclise. PDF file, Paleontological Journal, 43: 1262-1271.

H. Kerp et al. (2006): Typical Triassic Gondwanan floral elements in the Upper Permian of the paleotropics. In PDF.

Hans Kerp, Abdallah Abu Hamad, Klaus Bandel & Birgit Niemann: A new Upper Permian flora from the Middle East with typical Triassic Gondwana elements. Abstract, The 15th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Naturalis, National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands, 12-13th November 2004. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Sharon D. Klavins et al. (2002): Anatomy of Umkomasia (Corystospermales) from the Triassic of Antarctica. American Journal of Botany, 89: 664-676. See also here. Abstract, Botany 2001, August 12 - 16, 2001; Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Michael Krings et al. (2006): Frond architecture of Odontopteris brardii (Pteridospermopsida, ?Medullosales): new evidence from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Missouri, U.S.A. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 133: 33-45.

! E. Kustatscher and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2013): Seed ferns from the European Triassic - an overview. In PDF, In: Tanner, L.H., Spielmann, J.A. and Lucas, S.G., (eds.): The Triassic System. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61.
See also here from

E. Kustatscher et al. (2011): Scytophyllum waehneri (Stur) nov. comb., the correct name for Scytophyllum persicum (Schenk) Kilpper, 1975. In PDF, Zitteliana, A 51.

S. McLoughlin (2011): Glossopteris - insights into the architecture and relationships of an iconic Permian Gondwanan plant. In PDF, J. Botan. Soc. Bengal 65: 1-14.

Stephen McLoughlin et al. (2008): Seed ferns survived the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in Tasmania. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 95: 465-471.

B. Meyer-Berthaud et al. (1993): Petrified Stems Bearing Dicroidium Leaves from the Triassic of Antarctica. In PDF, Palaeontology, 36.

John M. Miller (, University of California, Berkeley: Origin of Angiosperms. See also here or navigate from essay contents. Go to:
! Caytoniales and Corystospermales.

V. Mosbrugger, Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen: Lecture notes about plant palaeobiology. PDF files, in German. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Go to:
Introduction, Progymnosperms (4 MB),
Wood, Seed evolution (1.2 MB),
Pteridosperms I, Lyginopterids (1.2 MB),
Pteridosperms II, Medullosans (2.1 MB),
Glossopterids, Caytoniales (1.3 MB),

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, PTERIDOSPERMS OR SEED FERNS. Link list page with rankings and brief explanations. Images of Lyginopteris, Lagenostoma, Sphenopteris crepinii, Lagenostoma lomaxii, Pachytesta, Trigonocarpus, Bernaultia, Schopfipollenites, Bernaultia formosa, Whittleseya microphylla, Medullosa noei, Myeloxyleon, Neuropteris, Alethopteris, Sphenopteris, Alethopteris decurrens, Alethopteris lonchitica, Alethopteris sullivantii, Neuropteris obliqua, Eusphenopteris, Mariopteris, Mariopteris muricata, Reticulopteris, Cyclopteris, Lescuropteris genuina, Alethopteris zeilleri.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, CALLIPTERIDS. Link list page with rankings and brief explanations. Images of Autunia conferta, Rhachiphyllum schenkii.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Dennis C. Murphy, ("Devonian Times", a paleontology web site featuring Red Hill): Who's Who at Red Hill, Early Seed Plants (lyginopterids).

! S.V. Naugolnykh (2012): Vetlugospermum and Vetlugospermaceae: A new genus and family of peltasperms from the Lower Triassic of Moscow syneclise (Russia). In PDF, Geobios, 45: 451-462.
Embedment of plant remains in block-diagram reconstructions!

H. Nishida, K.B. Pigg and J. F. Rigby, Swimming sperm in an extinct Gondwanan plant. Glossopteris´ simple mode of reproduction. PDF file, Nature, 422: 396-397; 2003.

R. Prevec (2011): A structural re-interpretation and revision of the type material of the glossopterid ovuliferous fructification Scutum from South Africa. In PDF, Palaeont. afr., 46: 1–19.
See also here and there (abstract).
Please take notice of the sketch in fig 3 on PDF page 6, showing depressed seed scars of the apical portion of a Scutum leslii fructification.

Rosemary Prevec, Geology Department Rhodes University, South Africa (website by Science in Africa): The power of plants: how ancient forests drive SA´s economy. About Glossopteris forests and coal. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

R. Prevec et al. (2009): Portrait of a Gondwanan ecosystem: A new late Permian fossil locality from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 454-493. See also here (PDF file). About Glossopteris.

Kathleen B. Pigg, Department of Plant Biology, Arizona State University: Plant Fossils and Evolution. Go to: Laboratory 11. Paleozoic Seed Ferns, Cordaites & Early Conifers, Gondwana groups.

K.P. Pigg and S. McLoughlin (1997): Anatomically preserved Glossopteris leaves from the Bowen and Sydney Basins, Australia. PDF file, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 97: 339-359.

G.J. Retallack (2002): Lepidopteris callipteroides, an earliest Triassic seed fern of the Sydney Basin, southeastern Australia. In PDF, Alcheringa, Alcheringa 26:475–500.

A.K. Srivastava et al. (2010): Dicroidium: no more a Triassic Gondwana index fossil. PDF file.

Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life in the Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Cretaceous. Go to: Seed ferns from the Piesberg and Ibbenbüren. See also: The Permian flora of Lodève (France), The seed ferns.

Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
! BOT335 Lecture Schedule. Some interesting chapters in terms of palaeobotany, e.g.
The First Vascular Land Plants;
Carboniferous Forests;
Arborescent Lycopods;
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Carboniferous Horsetails;
Carboniferous Seed Ferns;
The Evolution of Conifers;
Cycadophytes, the True Cycads;
Mesozoic Cycadeoids;
North American Redwoods, Past and Present.
These expired links are available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

Edith L. Taylor (1996): Enigmatic gymnosperms? Structurally preserved Permian and Triassic seed ferns from Antarctica. PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. See also here (abstract).

Edith L. Taylor and Thomas N. Taylor (2009): Seed ferns from the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic: Any angiosperm ancestors lurking there? PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 96: 237-251. See also here.

Edith L. Taylor et al. (2006): Mesozoic seed ferns: Old paradigms, new discoveries. PDF file, Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 133: 62-82. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! John A. Townrow (1966): The Peltaspermaceae, a pteridosperm family of Permian and Triassic age. PDF file, Palaeontology, 3: 333–361.

WANG Jun, H.W. Pfefferkorn, SUN Bainian & LIU Lujun: Discovery of organic connection of Chiropteris Kurr and Nystroemia Halle from Early Permian of western Henan, China. PDF file (32 MB !), Chinese Science Bulletin, 2003, Vol. 48, No. 20, p. 2248-2252.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Pteridospermatophyta.
Samenfarne (in German).
! Caytoniales.
Caytoniales (in German).

N. Zavialova and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2012): Exine ultrastructure of in situ peltasperm pollen from the Rhaetian of Germany and its implications. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 168: 7-20. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

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This index is compiled and maintained by Klaus-Peter Kelber, Würzburg,
Last updated January 11, 2017

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