Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa /
Cyanobacteria and Stromatolites
Seed Plants in General
Triassic Palaeobotany, Palynology and Stratigraphy@
! Taxonomy and Plant Classification Databases@
! Living Fossils@
! Paleovegetation Reconstructions@
! Nan Crystal Arens, C. Strömberg and A. Thompson, Department of Integrative Biology, and Paleobotany Section, Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California at Berkeley: Virtual Paleobotany. The Virtual Paleobotanical Laboratory, a comprehensive treatment of the fossil record of land plants, is divided into 12 chapters, lab I through XII. Each lab has a title page, a page with questions around the group or subject of study, a list of literature and links for further reading and exploration, and a virtual gallery of images from the lab. Go to: Sphenopsids and Ferns.
S.R. Ash (2001): The fossil ferns of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, and their paleoclimatological implications. In PDF, Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference. See also here.
Sidney Ash, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM: THE FOSSIL FERNS OF PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK, ARIZONA, AND THEIR PALEOCLIMATOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS.
! Lorna Ash & Heather Kroening, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta: Instructional Multimedia, Multimedia Topics, Botany. Go to: Equisetum life cycle, Fern Life Cycle. See also here. Online and downloadable flash 4 movies. Excellent!
! Australian National Herbarium:
The Fern Pages.
This resource is intended to include information about the taxonomy and distribution of
Australian and regional ferns and their allies as well at general information about pteridophyts.
A classification of the ferns and their allies
- a work in progress, and
Pteridophytes: The Ferns and their Allies.
Brian Axsmith (2007): A new species of the fern Cynepteris from the Late Triassic of Arizona: Implications for the early diversification of the Schizaeales. Abstract, Botany & Plant Biology 2007, Botanical Society of America, Chicago.
! The Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), University of California, Berkeley: Introduction to the Pteridopsida, The Ferns.
The Botanical Society of America:
The American Journal
of Botany Cover Images Index.
The collection on the page holding the cover images of
the American Journal of Botany. A great set of images! See also:
! Online Image Collection. This page acts as a map to the entire collection. Images are classified in groups in which they were submitted for historical purposes, e.g. Filicophyta.
! C. Kevin Boyce 2005): Patterns of segregation and convergence in the evolution of fern and seed plant leaf morphologies. PDF file, Paleobiology, 31: 117-140.
Charles Kevin Boyce, Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard Univ.: PATTERNS OF MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN THE LEAVES OF FERNS AND SEED PLANTS. Abstract, GSA Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 2001.
The British Pteridiological Society. The British Pteridological Society provides a wide range of information about ferns for fern enthusiasts. It also organises formal talks, informal discussions, field meetings, garden visits, plant exchanges, a spore exchange scheme and fern book sales. Go to: An Introduction to Ferns. This introduction (to ferns and other pteridophytes) is based on a chapter from the book "A World of Ferns", by Josephine M. Camus, A. Clive Jermy & Barry A. Thomas, Natural History Museum Publications, London.
F.M. Cardillo & T.S. Samuels, Department of Biology, Manhattan College and the College of Mt. St. Vincent: WHITTAKER FIVE KINGDOM SYSTEM (1978) Plant Classification, KINGDOM IV - Plantae, Division Pterophyta, Order Filicales.
Sean Carrington, Department of Biological" Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados: Ferns.
! M.J.M. Christenhusz et al. (2011): A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. PDF file, Phytotaxa, 19: 7-54.
Curtis Clark, Biological Sciences Department California State Polytechnic University, Pomona: Plant Morphology. Resources. Go to: Lab 11: Sphenophyta, Pterophyta. PDF file.
! Michael Clayton, Department of Botany,
University of Wisconsin, Madison:
Instructional Technology (BotIT).
Some image collections. Excellent! Go to:
! M.E. Collinson (2002): The ecology of Cainozoic ferns. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
The Australian National Herbarium:
A classification of the ferns and their allies
- a work in progress. This classification of the genera of ferns and
their allies is a loose, perhaps tenuous, concensus of a number of published systems, some of which are available on the web.
It tries to reflect contemporary views on phylogenetic relationships and as such will change from time
to time. See also:
Pteridophytes: Links to the Ferns and their Allies.
S.H. Deng and P. Shang (2000): A Brief Review of the Mesozoic Filicopsida in China. PDF file.
Dagmar Dietrich et al. (2000): Analytical X-Ray Microscopy on Psaronius sp.: A Contribution to Permineralization Process Studies. Abstract, Mikrochim. Acta, 133: 279-283.
! W.A. DiMichele and T.L. Phillips (2002): The ecology of Paleozoic ferns. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
! dmoz, the Open Directory Project:
Science: Biology: Flora and Fauna: Plantae:
Polypodiophyta. See also:
Earth Sciences: Paleontology: Paleobotany: Taxa.
Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham,
Surrey, UK: Research activities,
Encyclopedia of Earth
(supported by the Environmental Information Coalition and the National
Council for Science and the Environment).
Expert-reviewed information about the Earth. For everyone,
please take notice.
The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined,
with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of
the Earth. Excellent! Go to:
Anthony G. Futcher, Columbia Union College, Maryland: Plant Diversity. A lot of facts about plant groups, fungi, plant-like protists, and monerans, including taxonomy, life cycles, general structure, and representative genera. Go to: Division Pteridophyta (= Filicophyta).
Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville:
Google Web Directory: Science > Biology > Flora and Fauna > Plantae > Pteridophyta.
Xiaoyuan He et al. (2010): Anatomically Preserved Marattialean Plants from the Upper Permian of Southwestern China: The Trunk of Psaronius laowujiensis sp. nov. PDF file, Int. J. Plant Sci 171: 662-678.
Hernandez-Castillo G.R., R.A. Stockey, and G.W. Rothwell (2006): Anemia quatsionense sp. nov. (Schizaeaceae), a permineralized fern from the lower Cretaceous of Vancouver Island. PDF file, International Journal of Plant Sciences 167: 665-674.
Monte Hieb and Harrison Hieb, Plant Fossils of West Virginia: Ferns and Seed Ferns. Fossil Plants of the Middle Pennsylvanian Period. Go to: How to tell Neuropteris from Pecopteris or Alethopteris?
Josef Hlasek: Photo Gallery wildlife pictures, Plants. Go to: Plants - Pteridophyta.
G. Holzhüter et al. (2003): Structure of silica in Equisetum arvense. In PDF, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 376: 512-517.
SHARON D. KLAVINS et al.: MATONIACEOUS FERNS (GLEICHENIALES) FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF ANTARCTICA. Abstract, Journal of Paleontology, 2004; v. 78; no. 1; p. 211-217.
John A. Knouse, Athens, Ohio: Ferns and Fern Allies. See also: Fern Book Bibliography. Periodicals and books dedicated to pteridology.
E. Kustatscher et al. (2012): Danaeopsis Heer ex Schimper 1869 and its European Triassic species. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 183: 32-49.
E. Kustatscher & J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert (2011): The ferns of the Middle Triassic flora from Thale (Germany). Abstract, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 261: 209-248.
! Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Lima:
Biology at OSU Lima. Go to:
Plant anatomical characteristics.
The Los Angeles International Fern Society: FERN BASICS.
Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Plant Systematics Collection. This web site provides structured access to a teaching collection of plant images representing over 250 families and 1000 genera of vascular plants. Go to: Phylum Pterophyta. The Ferns.
Eugene Marinus, Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape: Ferns in the Carboniferous Period (Powerpoint presentatation).
M. Matsumoto and H. Nishada (2003): Osmunda shimokawaensis sp. nov. and Osmunda cinnamomea L. based on permineralized rhizomes from the Middle Miocene of Shimokawa, Hokkaido, Japan. PDF file, Paleontological Research, 7: 153-165.
! Palaeobotanical Research Group, Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms University, Münster, Germany. History of Palaeozoic Forests, FOSSIL FERNS. Link list page with rankings and brief explanations. Images of Psaronius, Psaronius melanedrus, Tietea singularis, Pecopteris, Pecopteris cyathea, Pecopteris oreopteridia, Pecopteris arborescens, P. (Senftenbergia) plumosa, Asterotheca, Scolecopteris, Scolecopteris (P.) mertensiodes, Ptychocarpus (P.) unita, Ptychocarpus (P.) unita, Senftenbergia crenata, Alloiopteris coralloides, Anachoropteris involuta, Ankyropteris, Botryopteris, Etapteris, Oligocarpia gutbieri, Pseudosporochnus, Saccopteris cristata, Stauropteris.
! Robbin Craig Moran (2004): A Natural History of Ferns. 301 pages. Provided by Timber Press through the Google Print Publisher Program. Registration procedure required. Use "More results from this book" or "Search this book" to navigate. Unfortunately, you can view two pages around your search result, but you can search again! Use Google Book Search to search the full text of books.
Andrew G. Murdock (2008): Phylogeny of marattioid ferns (Marattiaceae): inferring a root in the absence of a closely related outgroup. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 95: 626-641.
Dennis C. Murphy, ("Devonian Times", a paleontology web site featuring Red Hill): Who's Who at Red Hill, Gillespiea randolphensis (Early "Fern"), and Rhyacophyton ceratangium (Early "Fern"). See also: More about Ferns.
Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Land Plants Online, Ferns - Phylum Pteridophyta.
Karl J. Niklas & Tom Silva, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Introductory Botany. Review Topics, Review of Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes- Common Links Between Each Group of Plants.
Karl J. Niklas & Tom Silva, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Introductory Botany. Review Topics, Megasporogenesis and Megagametogenesis: A Review.
C.J. Phipps et al. (1998): Osmunda (Osmundaceae) from the Triassic of Antarctica: an example of evolutionary stasis. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 85: 888-895.
! K.M. Pryer and E. Schuettpelz (2009): Ferns. PDF file, In: S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar (eds.): The Timetree of Life (see here).
! Kathleen M. Pryer, Alan R. Smith and Carl Rothfels (2009): The Tree of Life Web Project, Ferns, Polypodiopsida Cronquist, Takht. & Zimmerm. 1966.
! Kathleen M. Pryer et al. (2004): Phylogeny and evolution of ferns (monilophytes) with a focus on the early leptosporangiate divergences. PDF file, American Journal of Botany, 91: 1582-1598. See also here (abstract).
! Kathleen M. Pryer, Department of Botany, The Field Museum, Chicago, and Alan R. Smith, University Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley (part of Tree of Life, the University of Arizona): Leptosporangiate Ferns. Next to the flowering plants, the leptosporangiate ferns are the most diverse group of living land plants. Recent estimates place their diversity at about 12,000 species in 300 genera.
Kathleen Pryer, Jeffrey S. Hunt and J. Belisle: Phylogeny,character evolution, and diversification of extant ferns. The primary goal of the proposed research project is to use morphological and molecular systematics to infer a robust phylogenetic framework for ferns. This site also permits access to an online Fern DNA Database.
Bernard Renault, 1881-1885 (provided by Gallica): Cours de botanique fossile fait au Muséum d'histoire naturelle.- Troisième année (1883). Fougères.
P.M. Rees (1993): Dipterid ferns from the Mesozoic of Antarctica and New Zealand and their stratigraphical significance. In PDF.
! Martin Rickard (2003): Ferns. 96 pages. Provided by Octopus Publishing Group - Cassell Illustrated through the Google Print Publisher Program. Registration procedure required. Use "More results from this book" or "Search this book" to navigate. Unfortunately, you can view two pages around your search result, but you can search again! Use Google Book Search to search the full text of books.
! R. Rößler (2000): The late Palaeozoic tree fern Psaronius - an ecosystem unto itself. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 108: 55-74.
Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH: Vascular Plant Morphology. This course covers the structure, development, reproductive biology and relationships of vascular plants. The course is structured to emphasize the evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of modern tracheophytes. Go to: Ferns (PDF file).
Gar W. Rothwell, Edith L. Taylor and Thomas N. Taylor: Ashicaulis woolfei n. sp.: additional evidence for the antiquity of osmundaceous ferns from the Triassic of Antarctica. Abstract, American Journal of Botany. 2002; 89: 352-361.
Scott Russell, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, Norman: Morphology of Vascular Plants. Lecture notes, chiefly PDF files, including palaeobotany topics. Scroll down to: Lecture / Lab 12 - The Eusporangiate Ferns, Click: "Lab Images". See also: Lecture / Lab 12 - The Eusporangiate Ferns (PDF file).
Harald Schneider et al. (2009): Is Morphology Really at Odds with Molecules in Estimating Fern Phylogeny? PDF file, Systematic Botany, 34: 455-475.
Harald Schneider, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen: Vielfalt der Farne entwickelte sich im "Schatten" der neuen Blütenpflanzen (in German). See also here.
Andrew C. Scott et al. (2009): Scanning Electron Microscopy and Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy of 330 Million Year Old Charcoalified Seed Fern Fertile Organs. PDF file, Microsc. Microanal., 15: 166-173. See figure 4, SEM of charcoalified pteridosperm ovule from the mid-Mississippian (Carboniferous). See also here.
! A.R. Smith et al. (2006). A classification for extant ferns. PDF file, Taxon 55: 705-731.
! K.L. Sporne (1962): The morphology of pteridophytes; the structure of ferns and allied plants (PDF file). See also here.
Hans Steur, Ellecom, The Netherlands: Hans´ Paleobotany Pages. Plant life in the Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Cretaceous. Go to: The tree fern Psaronius, and The tree fern Tempskya.
Biological Sciences, Teaching Development Unit, University of Sydney: Learning Modules. Go to: Fern Life Cycle. Teaching material about the sexual reproductive cycle of ferns, (Division Pteridophyta).
Ralph E. Taggart, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology/Department of
Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing:
BOT335 Lecture Schedule.
Psaronius: a Carboniferous tree-fern;
Herbarium, Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station: Field Systematic Botany, PTERIDOPHYTES (ferns and allies). An overview and link list.
Tropical Fern & Exotic Plant Society, Inc., Florida: What is a Fern...
Thomas R. Warne and Leslie G. Hickok, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN (supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF-DUE): C-Fern. Ceratopteris as a model plant system.
R. Weber (2008): Phlebopteris (Matoniaceae) en el Triásico y Jurásico de México (PDF file, in Spanish). In R. Weber (ed.): Plantas triásicas y jurásicas de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Geología, Boletín, 115: 85-115.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Fern. See also
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