Evolution & Extinction /
Web Sites about Evolution
Focussed on the Fossil Record
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Teaching Documents about Evolution@
! Focused on the Evolution of Plants@
! Articles in Palaeobotany@
! The Gaia Hypothesis@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Databases focused on Botany and Biology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Biology@
D.J. Beerling et al. (1998): Stomatal responses of the "living fossil" Ginkgo biloba L. to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. PDF file, Journal of Experimental Botany, 49: 1603-1607.
D.J. Bennett et al. (2018): Quantifying the living fossil concept. Palaeontologia Electronica.
D.J. Bennett et al. (2017): Evolutionarily distinct “living fossils” require both lower speciation and lower extinction rates. In PDF, Paleobiology, 43: 34-48. See also here.
M.J. Benton and P.N. Pearson (2001): Speciation in the fossil record. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16.
Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, CA: Why all the fuss? The fascination of coelacanths. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B. Bomfleur et al. (2014): Fossilized Nuclei and Chromosomes Reveal 180 Million Years of Genomic Stasis in Royal Ferns. Science, 343, abstract.
! Mark Carnall (2016): Let's make living fossils extinct. The Guardian.
! D. Casane and P. Laurenti (2013): Why coelacanths are not ‘living fossils’. A review of molecular and morphological data. In PDF, Bioessays, 35: 332–338.
! C.C. Davis and H. Schaefer (2011): Plant Evolution: Pulses of Extinction and Speciation in Gymnosperm Diversity. See also here (abstract).
W.A. DiMichele et al. (2004): Long-term stasis in ecological assemblages: evidence from the fossil record. PDF file, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 35: 285-322. This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! M.J. Donoghue et al. (2015): Confluence, synnovation, and depauperons in plant diversification. Open access, New Phytologist, 207: 260–274.
George Dvorsky, gizmodo.com: 12 of the most astounding "living fossils" known to science.
K.C. Elliott et al. (2016): Conceptions of Good Science in Our Data-Rich World. In PDF, Bioscience, 66: 880–889. S ee also here.
Peter Forey, The Natural History Museum, London: Nature online > Life > Reptiles, amphibians and fishes > Living fossils: coelacanths (PDF file). Coelacanths and the ancestry debate. See also here.
On the phenomenon of living fossils.
PDF file, in German.
This expired link is now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
S. Gilmore and K.D. Hill (1997): Relationships of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) and a molecular phylogeny of the Araucariaceae. PDF file, Telopea 7. Now provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! P. Grandcolas et al. (2014): Relict species: a relict concept? In PDF, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29: 655–663. See also here.
P. Gueriau et al. (2016): A 365-Million-Year-Old Freshwater Community Reveals Morphological and Ecological Stasis in Branchiopod Crustaceans. Open access, Current Biology, 26: 383-390.
Nina Horvath, Linz, Austria:
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
R. Heady (2012): The Wollemi Pine—16 Years on. PDF file,in: Brett J. Stubbs et al. (ed.): Chapter 15—Australia’s Ever-changing Forests VI: Proceedings of the Eighth National Conference on Australian Forest History.
Thomas M. Iliffe and Louis S. Kornicker (2009): Worldwide Diving Discoveries of Living Fossil Animals from the Depths of Anchialine and Marine Caves. PDF file, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences.
Susan L. Jewett, Division of Fishes, Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History: On the Trail of the Coelacanth, a Living Fossil. November 11, 1998; The Washington Post.
! A. Knowlton (2012): Quick guide Equisetum. In PDF, Current Biology, 10.
! S. Lidgard and A.C. Love (2018): Rethinking Living Fossils. Open access, BioScience.
Links for Palaeobotanists: Introductions to both Fossil and Recent Plant Taxa, e.g. Sphenophyta, Cycads, and Ginkgoales.
L.H. Liow (2006): Oddities, Wonders, and Other Tall-tales of "living Fossils". In PDF. Thesis, University of Chicago.
J. Ma (2003): The chronology of the "living fossil" Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Taxodiaceae): a review (1943-2003). PDF file, Harvard Papers in Botany, 8: 9-18. See also here (in German).
Steven R. Manchester
(website hosted by International Organisation of Palaeobotany):
Davidia - the
Dove Tree and its fossil record.
The link is to a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B. Mantovani et al. (2004):
taxonomy and phylogeny of the "living fossil" lineages Triops
and Lepidurus (Branchiopoda: Notostraca). PDF file,
Zoologica Scripta, 33: 367-374.
Website outdated, download a version archived by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
T.C. Mathers et al.(2013):
global radiations in tadpole shrimps challenge the concept of "living fossils".
See also here (Der Spiegel, in German).
Palaeontological Museum Munich, Germany: Online-Ausstellung "Lebende Fossilien". In German.
J. Murienne et al. (2013): A living fossil tale of Pangaean biogeography. Proc. R. Soc., B 281.
! N.S. Nagalingum et al. (2011):
Synchronous Radiation of a Living Fossil. Abstract.
"Using fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies, we show that cycads underwent a near synchronous global rediversification beginning in the late Miocene, followed by a slowdown toward the Recent. Although the cycad lineage is ancient, our timetrees indicate that living cycad species are not much older than ~12 million years". See also here. In PDF, Science 334.
C.A. Offord et al. (1999): Sexual Reproduction and Early Plant Growth of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis), a Rare and Threatened Australian Conifer. PDF file, Annals of Botany 84.
David N. Reznick and Robert E. Ricklefs (2009): Darwin´s bridge between microevolution and macroevolution. PDF file, Nature, 257. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Mark Ridley, Department of Zoology, Oxford University:
3rd Edition. Book announcement. See also:
Evolution (Blackwell). Go to:
! Living Fossils.
D.L. Royer et al. (2003): Ecological conservatism in the "living fossil" Ginkgo. In PDF, Paleobiology, 29: 84–104.
! T.J.M. Schopf (1984): Rates of Evolution and the Notion of "Living Fossils". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 12. See also here.
Andrew Simpson, Science Museums, Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University NSW: Andrew's Web Diary. A personal report from the Latin American Palaeontology Conference (Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia in Aracaju, in the north east of Brazil). Go to: DAY 5 - The plants of Gondwana and the Wollemi Pine.
P. Smarda et al. (2016): Polyploidy in a ‘living fossil’ Ginkgo biloba. Open access, New Phytologist, 212: 11–14.
Pamela S. Soltis et al. (2002): Rate heterogeneity among lineages of tracheophytes: Integration of molecular and fossil data and evidence for molecular living fossils. PDF file, PNAS, 99: 4430-4435. See also here (abstract).
D. Turner (2019): In Defense of Living Fossils. Biology and Philosophy. See also here.
G.J. Vermeij (2015): Paleophysiology: From Fossils to the Future. Trends in ecology & evolution.
! A.J. Werth and W.A. Shear (2014): The evolutionary truth about living fossils. Abstract, American Scientist, 102. See also here (in PDF).
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Lebendes Fossil (in German).
! Pages in category "Living fossils".
D. Wood et al. (2020):
indicates the “living fossil” Isoetes diversified in the Cenozoic. Open access,
Plos One, 15.
"... genomic analyses coupled with a careful evaluation of the fossil record indicate that despite resembling forms from the Triassic, extant Isoetes species do not represent the remnants of an ancient and widespread group, but instead have spread around the globe in the relatively recent past. ..."
! G. Wörheide et al. (2016): Molecular paleobiology — Progress and perspectives. Abstract, Palaeoworld, 25: 138–148. See also here (in PDF).
Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut:
The Dawn Redwood - A Living Fossil.
! E. Yong (2013): The Falsity of Living Fossils. The Scientist Magazine. See also here (Richard Dawkins Foundation).
! Zhiyan Zhou (website hosted by International Organisation of Palaeobotany):
biloba: its ancestors and allies.
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