Evolution & Extinction /
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic
Web Sites about Evolution
Focussed on the Fossil Record
Evolution Sciences versus Doctrines of Creationism and Intelligent Design
Web Sites about Mass Extinctions
The Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian
Biotic Recovery from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
! Insight into the Triassic World@
! Teaching Documents about Mass Extinction@
The Gaia Hypothesis@
Teaching Documents about Palaeontology and Palaeoecology@
Databases focused on Palaeobotany and Palaeontology@
Glossaries, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Palaeontology@
now avaialble on SUNY Cortland´s webserver, still edited by Wolfram Kuerschner, Oslo).
Albertiana is the official journal of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy.
Its primary aim is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and
understanding among the members of the IUGS Subcommission on
Triassic Stratigraphy. E-Albertiana is formated in Adobe Portable document format (PDF),
for download. See also:
! Geobiology.cn: Albertiana (PDF files). Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine. Excellent!
K.L. Bacon et al. (2013): Increased Atmospheric SO2 Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland. In PDF, Plos One, 8. See also here.
! D.J. Beerling (2002): Palaeoclimatology. CO2 and the end-Triassic mass extinction. PDF file, Nature, 415, 386-387. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2005): Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. In PDF, PNAS, 102.
D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2002): Biogeochemical constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary carbon cycle event. In PDF, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16.
Claire M. Belcher et al. (2010): Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 3: 426-429. See also here (abstract).
! D.P.G. Bond and S.E. Grasby (2016): On the causes of mass extinctions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
! D.P.G. Bond and P. Wignall (2014): Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions: An update. PDF file, in: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.
! Nina R. Bonis (2010), Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology,
Palaeoecology Institute of Environmental Biology,
Department of Biology, Utrecht University:
and vegetation history during the Triassic-Jurassic transition.
PDF file (7.7 MB), LPP Contribution Series No. 29. Seven research reports (chapters)
in this thesis, see especially chapter 7 (with W.M. Kürschner):
! Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (PDF page 140).
R.J. Butler et al. (2011, for 2010): Preface to "Late Triassic Terrestrial Biotas and the Rise of Dinosaurs" Special Issue. In PDF, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.
Ann Cairns, The Geological Society of America, (GSA): Mass Extinction At The Triassic-Jurassic Boundary: Where's The Smoking Gun?
! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2012): Plant fossil record and survival analyses. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 71-82. See also here (abstract).
Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond Conference, University of Vienna, Austria (Sunday, July 9, 2000, to Wednesday, July 12, 2000). Go to: Preliminary Program and Abstracts (PDF format). To use this file, click on the name of the session, and when the full program listing appears, click on the title of a presentation to view the abstract.
Simonetta Cirilli (2011): Upper Triassic-lowermost Jurassic palynology and palynostratigraphy: a review. Abstract.
David M. Cleveland et al. (2008): Pedogenic carbonate isotopes as evidence for extreme climatic events preceding the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: Implications for the biotic crisis? Abstract.
! M.H.L. Deenen et al. (2010): A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 291: 113-125.
! Shenghui Deng et al. (2005): Progress and review of the studies on the end-Triassic mass extinction event. PDF file, Science in China, Ser. D, Earth Sciences, 48: 2049-2060. See also here.
A.M. Dunhill and M.A. Wills (2015): Geographic range did not confer resilience to extinction in terrestrial vertebrates at the end-Triassic crisis. Nature Communications.
A.M.T. Elewa (2008):
Triassic mass extinction (article starts on PDF page 73).
In: A.M.T. Elewa (ed): Mass Extinction (table of contents, Springer).
Fowell, S. J., Cornet, B., and Olsen, P. E., 1994, Geologically rapid Late Triassic extinctions: Palynological evidence from the Newark Supergroup. In: Klein, G. D., ed., Pangea: Paleoclimate, Tectonics, and Sedimentation During Accretion, Zenith, and Breakup of a Supercontinent: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 288.
A.E. Götz et al. (2009):
evidence of synchronous changes within the terrestrial and marine
realm at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Csõvár section, Hungary).
PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 401-409.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
Anthony Hallam: How catastrophic was the end-Triassic mass extinction? Abstract, Lethaia, 35: 147-157, 2002.
Karina G. Hankins, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA: PALEOECOLOGY OF THE BIOTIC RECOVERY FROM THE END-TRIASSIC MASS EXTINCTION, LOWER JURASSIC SUNRISE FORMATION, NEW YORK CANYON, WEST-CENTRAL NEVADA. Abstract, GSA Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 2001.
Jerry D. Harris, Dixie State College, St. George, UT: Tracking Dinosaur Origins: The Triassic/Jurassic Terrestrial. Abstracts, PDF file.
M. Haworth and A. Raschi (2014): An assessment of the use of epidermal micro-morphological features to estimate leaf economics of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic fossil Ginkgoales. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 205: 1-8.
M. Haworth et al. (2014): On the reconstruction of plant photosynthetic and stress physiology across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. In PDF Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 23: 321-329.
HUNT, Adrian P., Mesalands Dinosaur Museum, Tucumcari; LUCAS, Spencer G., NM Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque; HUBER, Phillip, Dept. of Education, University of Bridgeport; LOCKLEY, Martin G., Dept. of Geology, University of Colorado at Denver: FAUNAL EVOLUTION IN LATE TRIASSIC, NONMARINE TETRAPODS. Abstract.
Tran T. Huynh and Christopher J. Poulsen (2005): Rising atmospheric CO2 as a possible trigger for the end-Triassic mass extinction. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 217: 223-242.
Y. Ibarra et al. (2016): A microbial carbonate response in synchrony with the end-Triassic mass extinction across the SW UK. Sci Rep., 6.
! INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CORRELATION PROGRAMME (IGCP), UNESCO HQ, Paris, IGCP 458: Triassic/Jurassic boundary events. Mass extinction, global environmental change, and driving forces. Go to: Resources.
Report on the International Workshop for a Climatic, Biotic, and Tectonic, Pole-to-Pole Coring Transect of Triassic-Jurassic Pangea. Held June 5-9, 1999 at Acadia University, Nova Scotia, Canada. Navigate from here. Go to: Rationale for Meeting, and Triassic-Jurassic Biotic Turnover.
! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.
D.V. Kent et al. (2017): Astrochronostratigraphic polarity time scale (APTS) for the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic from continental sediments and correlation with standard marine stages. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 166: 153–180. See also here.
Education Committee of the Kentucky Geological Survey, (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY): Educational Resources for K-16, End-Triassic extinction--Opening the door for dinosaurs. An annotated link list.
! Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson and Sally Stephens, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK: Late Triassic Website. Go to: Theories on the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction.
W.M. Kürschner et al. (2013): Aberrant Classopollis pollen reveals evidence for unreduced (2n) pollen in the conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. In PDF, Proc. R. Soc. B, 280.
W.M. Kuerschner et al. (2006): Abrupt climate changes at the Triassic - Jurassic boundary inferred from palynological evidence. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8.
Wolfram M. Kuerschner: Palaeofloristic patterns across the Triassic - Jurassic transition: catastrophic extinction or long term gradual change? Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.
L. Li et al. (2014): Late Triassic palaeoclimate and palaeoecosystem variations inferred by palynological record in the northeastern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF.
S. Lindström et al. (2015): Evidence of volcanic induced environmental stress during the end-Triassic event. 2015 GSA Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
! S. Lindström (2015): Palynofloral patterns of terrestrial ecosystem change during the end-Triassic event - a review. In PDF, Geological Magazine.
S. Lindström et al. (2015): Evidence of volcanic induced environmental stress during the end-Triassic event. Abstract.
S. Lindström et al. (2015): Intense and widespread seismicity during the end-Triassic mass extinction due to emplacement of a large igneous province. Abstract. See also here In PDF.
! S. Lindström et al. (2012): No causal link between terrestrial ecosystem change and methane release during the end-Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology.
! S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2015): End-Triassic nonmarine biotic events. In PDF.
S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2008):
of the end-Triassic mass
(article starts on PDF page 75).
In: A.M.T. Elewa (ed): Mass Extinction (table of contents, Springer).
S.G. Lucas, New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque: END-TRIASSIC MASS EXTINCTION OR THE COMPILED CORRELATION EFFECT? Abstract.
S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2007): The nonmarine Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews, 84: 1-20. See also here.
! S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2004): Late Triassic extinction events. In PDF, scroll to PDF page 31. Albertiana, 31.
LUCAS, Spencer G., TANNER, Lawrence H., and HECKERT, Andrew B. (2003): RETHINKING THE MASS EXTINCTION AT THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC BOUNDARY. Abstract, Geological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington.
! L. Mander et al. (2012): Tracking Taphonomic Regimes Using Chemical and Mechanical Damage of Pollen and Spores: An Example from the Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction.
Luke Mander et al. (2010): An explanation for conflicting records of Triassic-Jurassic plant diversity. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 15351-15356. See also here.
J.C. McElwain et al. (2009):
Plant Relative Abundances Indicate Sudden Loss of Late Triassic Biodiversity in East Greenland.
Abstract, Science, 324: 1554-1556.
Plant life under climate pressure (Irish Times, June 25, 2009).
Sudden collapse in ancient biodiversity: Was global warming the culprit? (innovations report, June 23, 2009).
Global Warming May Be to Blame for Sudden Collapse in Ancient Biodiversity (7th Space Interactive).
Climate change linked to ancient mass extinction (Cordis News, June 22, 2009).
Als Grönland in den Tropen lag (Deutschlandfunk, June 22, 2009; in German).
Jennifer C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin:
Climate change and mass extinction: What
can we learn from 200 million year old
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! Jennifer C. McElwain and Surangi W. Punyasena (2007): Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22: 548-557. See also here (abstract).
Jennifer C. McElwain, Jessica Wade-Murphy and Stephen P. Hesselbo: Changes in carbon dioxide during an oceanic anoxic event linked to intrusion into Gondwana coals. Abstract, Nature 435: 479-482; May 2005. Using the stomatal index method. Although multiple forcing factors may have contributed to the abrupt spike in atmospheric CO2, the authors suggest that the likely dominant forcing factor was oxidation of methane gas generated by subsurface thermal metamorphism of organic-rich late Permian and late Triassic coal bearing strata during magmatic intrusion of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province of southern Gondwana.
J.C. McElwain et al. (2009): Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland. PDF file, Science, 324: 1554-1556. See also here (abstract).
J.C. McElwain and S.W. Punyasena (2007): Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. Abstract, Trends Ecol Evol., 22: 548-57.
Jennifer C. McElwain, Dept. of Geology, The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL: FOSSIL FLORAL DYNAMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ACROSS THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC MASS EXTINCTION BOUNDARY. Abstract, North American Paleontological Convention 2001, Paleontology in the New Millennium (University of California Berkeley, California, June 26 to July 1, 2001).
J.C. McElwain, D.J. Beerling & F. I. Woodward (1999): Fossil Plants and Global Warming at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. PDF file, Science, Vol 285.
Jennifer C. McElwain, Jessica Wade-Murphy and Stephen P. Hesselbo Changes in carbon dioxide during an oceanic anoxic event linked to intrusion into Gondwana coals. Abstract, Nature 435, 479-482; 2005. See also here.
G.R. McGhee et al. (2013): A new ecological-severity ranking of major Phanerozoic biodiversity crises. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 370: 260-270.
G.R. McGhee et al. (2004):
ranking of Phanerozoic biodiversity crises: ecological and taxonomic severities are decoupled.
In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211: 289-297.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
! C.S. Miller et al. (2017): Astronomical age constraints and extinction mechanisms of the Late Triassic Carnian crisis. Sci Rep., 7: 2557.
! Simon Morten, Matt Robinson, Sally Stephens, and Tim Kerr, Bristol University: Theories on the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction.
Larry O'Hanlon, Discovery News: Ancient Fossil Fuels Caused Jurassic Warming. The carbon dioxide level and the stomata method. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
P.E. Olsen et al. (2003): Causes and consequences of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction as seen from the Hartford basin. PDF file, in: Brady, J. B. and Cheney, J.T. (eds.) Guidebook for Field Trips in the Five College Region, 95th New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference, Department of Geology, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, p. B5-1--B5-41.
P.E. Olsen and H.-D. Suess (1989): Correlation of the continental Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sediments, and patterns of the Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod transition. PDF file, in: K.Padian (ed.): The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs Faunal Change across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. See also here.
J. Pálfy and Á. Kocsis (2014): Volcanism of the Central Atlantic magmatic province as the trigger of environmental and biotic changes around the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. PDF file. In: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds., Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects: Geological Society of America Special Paper 505: 245-261.
D.L. Parsell, National Geographic News: Mass Extinction That Led to Age of Dinosaurs Was Swift, Study Shows. The Triassic - Jurassic time boundary.
O. Peterffy et al. (2016): Early Jurassic microbial mats - A potential response to reduced biotic activity in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here.
H.I. Petersen and S. Lindström (2012): Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. In PDF, Plos One, 7.
G. Pienkowski et al. (2016): Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming. In PDF, Sci. Rep., 6.
! Simon Morten, Matt Robinson, Sally Stephens, and Tim Kerr, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol: The Bristol University Late Triassic Website. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to: Theories on the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction.
Nature Highlights: Evolution: Extinct theories? About the stability of atmospheric CO2 levels across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Tanner et al. 2001).
Paul E. Olsen, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY: Go to: Lecture 12. The Lias, Newark, Glen Canyon, and Stormberg Assemblages - Mass Extinction in the Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs.
P. E. Olsen, D. V. Kent, H.-D. Sues, C. Koeberl, H. Huber, A. Montanari, E. C. Rainforth, S. J. Fowell, M. J. Szajna, and B. W. Hartline: Ascent of Dinosaurs Linked to an Iridium Anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. Abstract, Science 2002 296: 1305-1307.
! Kevin Padian (ed., 1988): The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. 390 pages. Provided by Cambridge University Press through the Google Books Partner Program. Registration procedure required. Use "More results from this book" or "Search this book" to navigate. Unfortunately, you can view two pages around your search result, but you can search again! Use Google Book Search to search the full text of books.
H.I. Petersen and S. Lindström (2012): Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. In PDF.
! G. Racki (2012): The Alvarez impact theory of mass extinction; limits to its applicability and the "great expectations syndrome". In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. See also here (abstract).
J. Radley et al. (2008): Discussion on Palaeoecology of the Late Triassic Extinction Event in the SW UK. Extract. See also here (Redorbit article).
Rees, P.M., Ziegler, A.M. & Valdes, P.J. (2000): Jurassic phytogeography and climates: New data and model comparisons. Abstract. In: Huber, B.T., Macleod, K.G. & Wing, S.L. (eds) Warm climates in earth history. Cambridge University Press, pp. 297-318. Read the whole article (PDF file).
Allister Rees, Fred Ziegler and David Rowley, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT (PGAP). Including a Jurassic and Permian slideshow sampler (QuickTime), paleogeographic maps (downloadable pdf files), and a bibliography of PGAP Publications (with links to abstracts).
Dmitry A. Ruban (2012): Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new? In PDF, Geologos, 18: 37-42.
Katrin Ruckwied et al. (2008): Palynology of a terrestrial coal-bearing series across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Mecsek Mts, Hungary). PDF file, Central European Geology, 51: 1-15. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M. Ruhl et al. (2011): Atmospheric Carbon Injection Linked to End-Triassic Mass Extinction. PDF file, Science, 333. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
M. Ruhl (2010): Carbon cycle changes during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. In PDF.
Robert Sanders, Public Information Office, University of California at Berkeley: New evidence links mass extinction with massive eruptions that split Pangea supercontinent and created the Atlantic 200 million years ago. NEWS RELEASE, 4/22/99. See also here.
L. Santasalo (2013): The Jurassic extinction events and its relation to CO2 levels in the atmosphere: a case study on Early Jurassic fossil leaves. In PDF, Bachelor´s thesis, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
Urs Schaltegger et al. (2008): Precise U-Pb age constraints for end-Triassic mass extinction, its correlation to volcanism and Hettangian post-extinction recovery. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267: 266-275.
Martin A.N. Schobben (2011): Marine and terrestrial proxy records of environmental changes across the Triassic/Jurassic transition: A combined geochemical and palynological approach. In PDF, Master thesis, Department of Biology, Department of Earth sciences, University Utrecht.
! Blair Schoene et al. (2010): Correlating the end-Triassic mass extinction and fl ood basalt volcanism at the 100 ka level. PDF file, Geology, 38: 387-390. See also here (abstract).
Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.
SpaceDaily: Mass Extinction At The Triassic-Jurassic Boundary.
Tracking Dinosaur Origins: the Triassic/Jurassic Terrestrial Transition. March 14-16, 2005St. Dixie State College, St. George, Utah (PDF file). The conference isn't just about dinosaurs, any facet of terrestrial Triassic/Jurassic research is welcome.
M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2015): Evidence for insect and annelid activity across the Triassic-Jurassic transition of east Greenland. Abstract, Palaios, 30: 597-607. See also here (in PDF).
M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2011): Extremely elevated CO2 concentrations at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 308: 418-432.
Hans-Dieter Sues, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto: Triassic-Jurassic Boundary.
Lawrence H. Tanner, Geography and Geosciences, Bloomsburg Univ, Bloomsburg, PA: THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC BOUNDARY EVENT: SEARCHING FOR THE MECHANISM . Abstract, Earth System Processes - Global Meeting (June 24-28, 2001).
! L.H. Tanner et al. (2004): Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews, 65: 103-139.
A.M. Thibodeau et al. (2016): Mercury anomalies and the timing of biotic recovery following the end-Triassic mass extinction. Nat. Commun., 7.
V. Vajda et al. (2016): Disrupted vegetation as a response to Jurassic volcanism in southern Sweden. In PDF, from: Kear, B. P., Lindgren, J., Hurum, J. H., Milàn, J. & Vajda, V. (eds): Mesozoic Biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic Territories. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 434.
B. van de Schootbrugge and P.B. Wignall (2016):
tale of two extinctions: converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios. Abstract,
Geological Magazine, 153.
"There is substantial evidence to suggest that very similar kill mechanisms acted upon late Permian as well as Late Triassic ecosystems, strengthening the hypothesis that the ultimate causes of the mass-extinction events were similar".
B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2009):
changes across the Triassic/Jurassic
boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. In PDF.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2008): Carbon cycle perturbation and stabilization in the wake of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary mass-extinction event. PDF file, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 9: 1-16.
! J.H. Whiteside et al. (2010): Compound-specific carbon isotopes from Earth´s largest flood basalt eruptions directly linked to the end-Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America).
P.B. Wignall and B. van de Schootbrugge (2016): Middle Phanerozoic mass extinctions and a tribute to the work of Professor Tony Hallam. In PDF, Geological Magazine. See also here (abstract).
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Triassic-Jurassic extinction event.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Triassic first appearances
! Category:Triassic plants
K.H. Williford et al. (2014): An organic record of terrestrial ecosystem collapse and recovery at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in East Greenland. In PDF, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 127: 251-263.
Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, and J. A. Grant-Mackie,
Department of Geology, University of Auckland:
Triassic-Early Jurassic palynofloral assemblages from Murihiku strata of New Zealand,
and comparisons with China. Abstract,
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Snapshot provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
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