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The Mass Extinction at the End of the Triassic


! Albertiana (The Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy).
The primary mission of Albertiana is to promote the interdisciplinary collaboration and understanding among members of the Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy and the Triassic community at large. Albertiana are posted in a blog-style format and archived (by volume) as fully-formatted pdf issues at year end.
Albertiana past issues are available from here and likewise from Geobiology.cn. Scans of the rare early volumes of Albertiana!
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

! T.J. Algeo and J. Shen (2024): Theory and classification of mass extinction causation. Free access, National Science Review, 11: nwad237.
See likewise here.
Note figure 3: Generalized flowchart showing role of carbon-cycle response (yellow) in linking triggers (ultimate causes; green) to environmental responses (proximate causes; red) during major biocrises.
Figure 4: Classification of mass extinctions, based on a combination of ultimate ( y-axis) and proximate ( x-axis) causation.

! J.M. Anderson et al. (1999): Patterns of Gondwana plant colonisation and diversification. Abstract, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28: 145-l67. See also here (in PDF).

K.L. Bacon et al. (2013): Increased Atmospheric SO2 Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland. In PDF, Plos One, 8. See also here.

S.J. Baker et al. (2022): CO2-induced biochemical changes in leaf volatiles decreased fire-intensity in the run-up to the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Free access, New Phytologist, 235: 1442–1454.

S.J. Baker et al. (2017): Charcoal evidence that rising atmospheric oxygen terminated Early Jurassic ocean anoxia. In PDF, Nat Commun., 8: 15018. See also here.

M. Barbacka et al. (2017): Changes in terrestrial floras at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in Europe. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 480: 80-93.

! D.J. Beerling (2002): Palaeoclimatology. CO2 and the end-Triassic mass extinction. PDF file, Nature, 415, 386-387. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2005): Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. In PDF, PNAS, 102.

! D.J. Beerling and R.A. Berner (2002): Biogeochemical constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary carbon cycle event. Free access, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16.

Claire M. Belcher et al. (2010): Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change. In PDF, Nature Geoscience, 3: 426-429. See also here (abstract).

A.D. Bond et al. (2023): Globally limited but severe shallow-shelf euxinia during the end-Triassic extinction. Open access, Nature Geoscience. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-023-01303-2.
Note figure 1: Triassic–Jurassic palaeogeography of the Tethyan shelf.
"... The marine extinction was initiated by large igneous province volcanism and has tentatively been linked to the spread of anoxic conditions
[...] we use the sedimentary enrichmentand isotopic composition of the redox-sensitive element molybdenum to reconstruct global–local marine redox conditions through the extinction interval ..."

! D.P.G. Bond and S.E. Grasby (2016): On the causes of mass extinctions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

! D.P.G. Bond and P. Wignall (2014): Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions: An update. PDF file, in: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds.: Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America Special Paper 505.

! N.R. Bonis (2010), Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Palaeoecology Institute of Environmental Biology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University: Palaeoenvironmental changes and vegetation history during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. PDF file (7.7 MB), LPP Contribution Series No. 29. Seven research reports (chapters) in this thesis, see especially chapter 7 (with W.M. Kürschner):
! Vegetation history, diversity patterns, and climate change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (PDF page 140).
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
See also here.

R. Bos et al. (2023): Triassic-Jurassic vegetation response to carbon cycle perturbations and climate change. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 228.
Note figure 1: Paleogeographic reconstruction of the end-Triassic.
Figure 4. Major vegetation patterns as inferred by their botanical affinities.
Figure 5. Palynofloral diversity indices plotted against the variation of major botanical groups.
Figure 7. Depositional model of paleoenvironmental changes in the northern German Basin-

R. Bos et al. (2023): Climate-forced Hg-remobilization driving mutagenesis in ferns in the aftermath of the end-Triassic extinction. Free access, researchsquare.com.
"... We conclude that Hg injected by CAMP across the extinction was repeatedly remobilized from coastal wetlands and hinterland areas during eccentricity-forced phases of severe hydrological upheaval and erosion, focusing Hg-pollution in shallow marine basins ..."

C. Bos et al. (2023): Triassic-Jurassic vegetation response to carbon cycle perturbations and climate change. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 228.

A. Boscaini et al. (2022): Late Permian to Late Triassic Large Igneous Provinces: Timing, Eruptive Style and Paleoenvironmental Perturbations. Free access, Frontiers in Earth Science. See also here.
Note figure 1: Simplified sketches of the Siberian Traps, the Wrangellia and the CAMP.
Figure 2: Initial maximum CO2 budgets obtained from Nb whole-rock concentrations of magmas for the Siberian Traps, the Wrangellia and the CAMP.

L. Brakebusch (2022): Record of the end-Triassic mass extinction in shallow marine carbonates: the Lorüns section (Austria). In PDF, Thesis, Department of Geology, Lund University.
Note figure 3: Palaeogeographic map of Pangaea.
Figure 21: Flow chart showing possible cascading effects of CAMP with respect to an ocean acidification scenario.
"... The importance of the Lorüns section lies in the continuous sedimentation from the late Rhaetian to the Sinemurian, which gives the direct possibility to study environmental conditions before, during and after the ETE [end-Triassic mass extinction] ..."

R.J. Butler et al. (2011, for 2010): Preface to "Late Triassic Terrestrial Biotas and the Rise of Dinosaurs" Special Issue. In PDF, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 101.

D.J. Button et al. (2017): ! Mass extinctions drove increased global faunal cosmopolitanism on the supercontinent Pangaea. Open access, Nature Communications, 8: 1–8.
"... 891 terrestrial vertebrate species spanning the late Permian through Early Jurassic. This key interval witnessed the Permian–Triassic and Triassic–Jurassic mass extinctions, the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangaea, and the origins of dinosaurs and many modern vertebrate groups. Our results recover significant increases in global faunal cosmopolitanism following both mass extinctions, driven mainly by new, widespread taxa, leading to homogenous ‘disaster faunas’. Cosmopolitanism subsequently declines in post-recovery communities. ..."

Ann Cairns, The Geological Society of America, (GSA): Mass Extinction At The Triassic-Jurassic Boundary: Where's The Smoking Gun?

! B. Cascales-Miñana and C.J. Cleal (2012): Plant fossil record and survival analyses. In PDF, Lethaia, 45: 71-82. See also here (abstract).

Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond Conference, University of Vienna, Austria (Sunday, July 9, 2000, to Wednesday, July 12, 2000). Go to: Preliminary Program and Abstracts (PDF format). To use this file, click on the name of the session, and when the full program listing appears, click on the title of a presentation to view the abstract.

S. Cirilli (2011): Upper Triassic-lowermost Jurassic palynology and palynostratigraphy: a review. In PDF, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 334: 285-314.
See also here.

David M. Cleveland et al. (2008): Pedogenic carbonate isotopes as evidence for extreme climatic events preceding the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: Implications for the biotic crisis? Abstract.

! M.H.L. Deenen et al. (2010): A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 291: 113-125.

A.M. Dunhill et al. (2018): Modelling determinants of extinction across two Mesozoic hyperthermal events. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B, 285.

A.M. Dunhill and M.A. Wills (2015): Geographic range did not confer resilience to extinction in terrestrial vertebrates at the end-Triassic crisis. Nature Communications.

E.M. Dunne et al. (2023): Climatic controls on the ecological ascendancy of dinosaurs. Open access, Current Biology, 33: 206-214.e4. See also:
Klimawandel an der Trias-Jura-Grenze nahm Schlüsselrolle in der Evolution der Dinosaurier ein. In German.
"... Statistical analyses show that Late Triassic sauropodomorph dinosaurs occupied a more restricted climatic niche space than other tetrapods and dinosaurs, being excluded from the hottest, low-latitude climate zones. ..."

A.M.T. Elewa (2008): Late Triassic mass extinction (article starts on PDF page 73).
This expired link is still available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
In: A.M.T. Elewa (ed): Mass Extinction (table of contents, Springer).

! Encyclopædia Britannica:
End-Triassic extinction.

C.P. Fox et al. (2022): Two-pronged kill mechanism at the end-Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Geology, 50: 448–453.

C.P. Fox et al. (2020): Flame out! End-Triassic mass extinction polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reflect more than just fire. Abstract, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 584. See also here.

Fowell, S. J., Cornet, B., and Olsen, P. E., 1994, Geologically rapid Late Triassic extinctions: Palynological evidence from the Newark Supergroup. In: Klein, G. D., ed., Pangea: Paleoclimate, Tectonics, and Sedimentation During Accretion, Zenith, and Breakup of a Supercontinent: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 288.

A.E. Götz et al. (2009): Palynological evidence of synchronous changes within the terrestrial and marine realm at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Csõvár section, Hungary). PDF file, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156: 401-409.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

J. Gravendyck (2021): Shedding new Light on the Triassic-Jurassic Transition in the Germanic Basin: Novel insights from the Bonenburg section & palynotaxonomy and nomenclature of plant microfossils. In PDF, Thesis, Freie Universität Berlin.

Anthony Hallam: How catastrophic was the end-Triassic mass extinction? Abstract, Lethaia, 35: 147-157, 2002.

Jerry D. Harris, Dixie State College, St. George, UT: Tracking Dinosaur Origins: The Triassic/Jurassic Terrestrial. Abstracts, PDF file.

R. Harris et al. (2017): Climate change during the Triassic and Jurassic. In PDF, Geology Today, 33: 210–215. See also here .
"... these results provide more nuance to the statement that the Triassic possessed a dry and hot continental climate versus the Jurassic, which became cooler and wetter. The increasing wetness really only occurred in the northern subtropics. Although the tropics cooled from the Triassic to the Jurassic, the average global temperature rose due to increasing carbon dioxide. Thus, referring to the Triassic as warm and the Jurassic as wet is an oversimplification of the geological evidence and palaeoclimate model simulations. ..."

M. Haworth and A. Raschi (2014): An assessment of the use of epidermal micro-morphological features to estimate leaf economics of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic fossil Ginkgoales. In PDF, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 205: 1-8.

M. Haworth et al. (2014): On the reconstruction of plant photosynthetic and stress physiology across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. In PDF, Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 23: 321-329.

HUNT, Adrian P., Mesalands Dinosaur Museum, Tucumcari; LUCAS, Spencer G., NM Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque; HUBER, Phillip, Dept. of Education, University of Bridgeport; LOCKLEY, Martin G., Dept. of Geology, University of Colorado at Denver: FAUNAL EVOLUTION IN LATE TRIASSIC, NONMARINE TETRAPODS. Abstract.

T.T. Huynh and C.J. Poulsen (2005): Rising atmospheric CO2 as a possible trigger for the end-Triassic mass extinction. PDF file, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 217: 223-242.
See also here.

Y. Ibarra et al. (2016): A microbial carbonate response in synchrony with the end-Triassic mass extinction across the SW UK. Sci Rep., 6.

! INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CORRELATION PROGRAMME (IGCP), UNESCO HQ, Paris, IGCP 458: Triassic/Jurassic boundary events. Mass extinction, global environmental change, and driving forces. Go to: Resources.

Report on the International Workshop for a Climatic, Biotic, and Tectonic, Pole-to-Pole Coring Transect of Triassic-Jurassic Pangea. Held June 5-9, 1999 at Acadia University, Nova Scotia, Canada. Navigate from here. Go to: Rationale for Meeting, and Triassic-Jurassic Biotic Turnover.

D. Jablonski and S.M. Edie (2023): Perfect storms shape biodiversity in time and space. Free access, Evolutionary Journal of the Linnean Society, 2.
"... Many of the most dramatic patterns in biological diversity are created by “Perfect Storms” —rare combinations of mutually reinforcing factors that push origination, extinction, or diversity accommodation to extremes. These patterns include the strongest diversification events [...] This approach necessarily weighs contributing factors, identifying their often non-linear and time-dependent interactions ..."

! Kelber, K.-P. (2003): Sterben und Neubeginn im Spiegel der Paläofloren. PDF file (17 MB!), in German. Plant evolution, the fossil record of plants and the aftermath of mass extinction events. pp. 38-59, 212-215; In: Hansch, W. (ed.): Katastrophen in der Erdgeschichte - Wendezeiten des Lebens.- museo 19, Heilbronn.

D.V. Kent et al. (2017): Astrochronostratigraphic polarity time scale (APTS) for the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic from continental sediments and correlation with standard marine stages. In PDF, Earth-Science Reviews, 166: 153–180. See also here.

Education Committee of the Kentucky Geological Survey, (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY): Educational Resources for K-16, End-Triassic extinction--Opening the door for dinosaurs. An annotated link list.

Tim Kerr, Simon Morten, Matt Robinson Sally Stephens, University of Bristol: The Late Triassic Website. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to:
! Ecology of the Triassic.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

T.G. Klausen et al. (2020): Geological control on dinosaurs' rise to dominance: Late Triassic ecosystem stress by relative sea level change. Open access, Terra Nova, 32: 434-441.
See also here.
"... The Late Triassic is enigmatic in terms of how terrestrial life evolved: it was the time when new groups arose, such as dinosaurs, lizards, crocodiles and mammals. Also, it witnessed a prolonged period of extinctions, distinguishing it from other great mass extinction events, while the gradual rise of the dinosaurs during the Carnian to Norian remains unexplained. Here we show that key extinctions during the early Norian might have been triggered by major sea-level changes ..."

W.M. Kürschner et al. (2013): Aberrant Classopollis pollen reveals evidence for unreduced (2n) pollen in the conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. Free access, Proc. R. Soc. B, 280.

W.M. Kuerschner et al. (2006): Abrupt climate changes at the Triassic - Jurassic boundary inferred from palynological evidence. PDF file, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8.

Wolfram M. Kuerschner: Palaeofloristic patterns across the Triassic - Jurassic transition: catastrophic extinction or long term gradual change? Abstract, Workshop on Permian - Triassic Paleobotany and Palynology, June 16-18, 2005; Natural Science Museum of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

L. Li et al. (2017): Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China. In PDF, Geological Magazine. See also here.

S. Lindström (2021): Two-phased Mass Rarity and Extinction in Land Plants During the End-Triassic Climate Crisis. Free access, Front. Earth Sci., 9: 780343. doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.780343
Note figure 5: Correlation of d13Corg-records, mass rarity phases (MR1 and 2) and crisis interval.
Figure 6: Flow chart illustrating cause-and-effect relationships between the CAMP and the terrestrial vegetation.

S. Lindström et al. (2019): Volcanic mercury and mutagenesis in land plants during the end-Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Sci. Adv., 5.

S. Lindström et al. (2017): A new correlation of Triassic–Jurassic boundary successions in NW Europe, Nevada and Peru, and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: A time-line for the end-Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 478: 80–102.
See also here.
! Note figure 15: Timeline of events around the end-Triassic mass extinction.

S. Lindström et al. (2015): Evidence of volcanic induced environmental stress during the end-Triassic event. 2015 GSA Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

! S. Lindström (2016): Palynofloral patterns of terrestrial ecosystem change during the end-Triassic event - a review. In PDF, Geological Magazine, 153: 223-251. See also here (abstract).

S. Lindström et al. (2015): Evidence of volcanic induced environmental stress during the end-Triassic event. Abstract.

S. Lindström et al. (2015): Intense and widespread seismicity during the end-Triassic mass extinction due to emplacement of a large igneous province. Abstract. See also here In PDF.

! S. Lindström et al. (2012): No causal link between terrestrial ecosystem change and methane release during the end-Triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Geology.

S.G. Lucas (2021): Nonmarine Mass Extinctions. Paleontological Research 25: 329-344. See also here.

! S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2018): The Missing Mass Extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. Abstract, with an extended citation list. Pages 721-785. In: L.H. Tanner (ed.): The Late Triassic World. Topics in Geobiology, 46.

! S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2015): End-Triassic nonmarine biotic events. In PDF.

! S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2008): Reexamination of the end-Triassic mass extinction (article starts on PDF page 75).
In: A.M.T. Elewa (ed.): Mass Extinction (table of contents, Springer).

S.G. Lucas (2002), New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque: END-TRIASSIC MASS EXTINCTION OR THE COMPILED CORRELATION EFFECT? Abstract.
Still available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2007): The nonmarine Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews, 84: 1-20. See also here.

! S.G. Lucas and L.H. Tanner (2004; scroll to PDF page 31): Late Triassic extinction events. In PDF, Albertiana, 31.

! L. Mander et al. (2012): Tracking Taphonomic Regimes Using Chemical and Mechanical Damage of Pollen and Spores: An Example from the Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction.

Luke Mander et al. (2010): An explanation for conflicting records of Triassic-Jurassic plant diversity. In PDF, PNAS, 107: 15351-15356. See also here.

! L. Marynowski and B.R.T. Simoneit (2009): Widespread Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic wildfire records from Poland: Evidence from charcoal and pyrolytic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In PDF, Palaios, 24: 785–798. See also here.
"... Laboratory tests indicate that 15% O2, instead of 12%, is required for the propagation of a widespread forest fire
[...] The most extensive wildfires occurred in the earliest Jurassic and their intensities successively decreased with time ..."

! J.C. McElwain (2018): Paleobotany and global change: Important lessons for species to biomes from vegetation responses to past global change, In PDF, Annual review of plant biology, 69: 761–787. See also here

J.C. McElwain et al. (2009): Fossil Plant Relative Abundances Indicate Sudden Loss of Late Triassic Biodiversity in East Greenland. Abstract, Science, 324: 1554-1556. See also:
Plant life under climate pressure (Irish Times, June 25, 2009).
Sudden collapse in ancient biodiversity: Was global warming the culprit? (innovations report, June 23, 2009).
Global Warming May Be to Blame for Sudden Collapse in Ancient Biodiversity (7th Space Interactive).
Climate change linked to ancient mass extinction (Cordis News, June 22, 2009).
Als Grönland in den Tropen lag (Deutschlandfunk, June 22, 2009; in German).

J.C. McElwain, UCD Earth Systems Institute, Dublin: Climate change and mass extinction: What can we learn from 200 million year old plants? PDF file.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! J.C. McElwain and S.W. Punyasena (2007): Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. PDF file, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22: 548-557. See also here (abstract).

J.C. McElwain, Jessica Wade-Murphy and Stephen P. Hesselbo: Changes in carbon dioxide during an oceanic anoxic event linked to intrusion into Gondwana coals. Abstract, Nature 435: 479-482; May 2005. Using the stomatal index method. Although multiple forcing factors may have contributed to the abrupt spike in atmospheric CO2, the authors suggest that the likely dominant forcing factor was oxidation of methane gas generated by subsurface thermal metamorphism of organic-rich late Permian and late Triassic coal bearing strata during magmatic intrusion of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province of southern Gondwana.

J.C. McElwain et al. (2009): Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland. PDF file, Science, 324: 1554-1556. See also here (abstract).

J.C. McElwain and S.W. Punyasena (2007): Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. Abstract, Trends Ecol Evol., 22: 548-57.

Jennifer C. McElwain, Dept. of Geology, The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL: FOSSIL FLORAL DYNAMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ACROSS THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC MASS EXTINCTION BOUNDARY. Abstract, North American Paleontological Convention 2001, Paleontology in the New Millennium (University of California Berkeley, California, June 26 to July 1, 2001).

J.C. McElwain et al. (1999): Fossil Plants and Global Warming at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. Abstract, Science, 285.

Jennifer C. McElwain, Jessica Wade-Murphy and Stephen P. Hesselbo Changes in carbon dioxide during an oceanic anoxic event linked to intrusion into Gondwana coals. Abstract, Nature 435, 479-482; 2005. See also here.

G.R. McGhee et al. (2013): A new ecological-severity ranking of major Phanerozoic biodiversity crises. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 370: 260-270.

! G.R. McGhee et al. (2004): Ecological ranking of Phanerozoic biodiversity crises: ecological and taxonomic severities are decoupled. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211: 289-297.
Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

! C.S. Miller et al. (2017): Astronomical age constraints and extinction mechanisms of the Late Triassic Carnian crisis. Sci Rep., 7: 2557.

! S. Morten et al., Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol:
The Bristol University Late Triassic Website. This site is intended to provide a brief background to Mass Extinction theory, the Triassic, and specifically to the Triassic Mass Extinction. Go to:
Theories on the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction.
These expired links are now available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

A. Nel et al. (2022): Mercury evidence for combustion of organic-rich sediments during the end-Triassic crisis. Open access, Nature Communications, 13.

Larry O'Hanlon, Discovery News: Ancient Fossil Fuels Caused Jurassic Warming. The carbon dioxide level and the stomata method. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

P.E. Olsen et al. (2003): Causes and consequences of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction as seen from the Hartford basin. PDF file, in: Brady, J. B. and Cheney, J.T. (eds.) Guidebook for Field Trips in the Five College Region, 95th New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference, Department of Geology, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, p. B5-1--B5-41.

Paul E. Olsen, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY: Go to: Lecture 12. The Lias, Newark, Glen Canyon, and Stormberg Assemblages - Mass Extinction in the Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs.

P.E. Olsen et al. (2002): Ascent of Dinosaurs Linked to an Iridium Anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. Abstract, Science 2002 296: 1305-1307.

P.E. Olsen and H.-D. Suess (1989): Correlation of the continental Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sediments, and patterns of the Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod transition. PDF file, in: K.Padian (ed.): The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs Faunal Change across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. See also here.

! Oxford Bibliographies.
Oxford Bibliographies offers exclusive, authoritative research guides. Combining the best features of an annotated bibliography and a high-level encyclopedia, this cutting-edge resource directs researchers to the best available scholarship across a wide variety of subjects. Go to:
Fossils (by Kevin Boyce).
Paleontology (by René Bobe).
Paleoecology (by Alistair Seddon).

Mass Extinction (by Paul B. Wignall).

J. Pálfy and Á. Kocsis (2014): Volcanism of the Central Atlantic magmatic province as the trigger of environmental and biotic changes around the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. PDF file. In: Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds., Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects: Geological Society of America Special Paper 505: 245-261.
See also here.
Note figure 2: Global paleogeographic map at the Triassic-Jurassic transition.

D.L. Parsell, National Geographic News: Mass Extinction That Led to Age of Dinosaurs Was Swift, Study Shows. The Triassic - Jurassic time boundary.

Y. Pei et al. (2023): Ecosystem changes through the Permian–Triassic and Triassic–Jurassic critical intervals: Evidence from sedimentology, palaeontology and geochemistry: Free access, Sedimentology.
"... The Permian–Triassic and Triassic–Jurassic critical intervals are among the most significant ecological upheavals in the Phanerozoic.
[...] the Permian–Triassic record is dominated by dasyclad green algae and fusulinid foraminifera, while the Triassic–Jurassic record is typified by corals and coralline sponges.
[...] For both critical intervals, it is commonly assumed that the formation of voluminous volcanic provinces (Siberian Traps and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively), as well as associated processes (for example, burning of organic-rich sediments such as coal), resulted in ecological devastation. ..."

O. Peterffy et al. (2016): Early Jurassic microbial mats - A potential response to reduced biotic activity in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction event. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. See also here.

H.I. Petersen and S. Lindström (2012): Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. In PDF, Plos One, 7.

G. Pienkowski et al. (2016): Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming. In PDF, Sci. Rep., 6.

M. Pole et al. (2018): Fires and storms—a Triassic–Jurassic transition section in the Sichuan Basin, China. Abstract, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 98: 29–47. See also here (in PDF).

! Kevin Padian (ed., 1988): The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. 390 pages. Provided by Cambridge University Press through the Google Books Partner Program. Registration procedure required. Use "More results from this book" or "Search this book" to navigate. Unfortunately, you can view two pages around your search result, but you can search again! Use Google Book Search to search the full text of books.

H.I. Petersen and S. Lindström (2012): Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. In PDF.

G. Pienkowski et al. (2016): Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming. Scientific reports, 6.

D.E. Quiroz Cabascango (2023): Plant Macrofossils from the Aftermath of the End-Triassic Extinction, Skåne, Southern Sweden. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.

G. Racki (2020): Volcanism as a prime cause of mass extinctions: Retrospectives and perspectives. PDF file, in Adatte, T., Bond, D.P.G., and Keller, G., (eds.): Mass Extinctions, Volcanism, and Impacts: New Developments: Geological Society of America Special Paper 544, p. 1–34. Special Paper, 544. See likewise here.
Note figure 9: Major geologic processes contributing to widespread oceanic anoxia, in a broad conceptual setting of the global system.
Figure 10: Volcanic super-greenhouse (“summer”) scenario.
"... In recent models of earth-system crises, the correlation between the major Phanerozoic mass extinctions and large igneous provinces has been well established
[...] the killing effectiveness of volcanic cataclysm should be viewed not only by the large igneous province size but also by their host geology, magma plumbing system, and eruption dynamics ..."

! G. Racki (2012): The Alvarez impact theory of mass extinction; limits to its applicability and the "great expectations syndrome". In PDF, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. See also here (abstract).

J. Radley et al. (2008): Discussion on Palaeoecology of the Late Triassic Extinction Event in the SW UK. Extract. See also here (Redorbit article).

Peter M.A. Rees et al.: Jurassic phytogeography and climates: new data and model comparisons. PDF file.
Now recovered from the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.
In: Huber, B.T., Macleod, K.G. & Wing, S.L. (eds) Warm climates in earth history. Cambridge University Press, pp. 297-318. Read the whole article (PDF file). See also here (abstract).

Allister Rees, Fred Ziegler and David Rowley, University of Chicago: THE PALEOGEOGRAPHIC ATLAS PROJECT (PGAP). Including a Jurassic and Permian slideshow sampler (QuickTime), paleogeographic maps (downloadable pdf files), and a bibliography of PGAP Publications (with links to abstracts).

! M. Rigo et al. (2020): The Late Triassic Extinction at the Norian/Rhaetian boundary: Biotic evidence and geochemical signature. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews, 204. See also here.

! D.A. Ruban (2023): Tsunamis Struck Coasts of Triassic Oceans and Seas: Brief Summary of the Literary Evidence. Free access, Water, 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081590.
Note figure 3: Global distribution and certainty of evidence of palaeotsunamis from the three time slices of the Triassic Period.
Worth checking out: !Table 1. The literary evidence for judgments of Triassic tsunamis.
"The present work aims at summarizing the published information on Triassic tsunamis to document their spatiotemporal distribution and the related knowledge gaps and biases ..."

D.A. Ruban (2022): A review of the Late Triassic conodont conundrum: survival beyond biotic perturbations. Open access, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 102: 373–382.
See also here.
Note fig. 3: The Middle–Late Triassic biotic perturbations.

Dmitry A. Ruban (2012): Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new? In PDF, Geologos, 18: 37-42.

Katrin Ruckwied et al. (2008): Palynology of a terrestrial coal-bearing series across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary (Mecsek Mts, Hungary). PDF file, Central European Geology, 51: 1-15. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Ruhl et al. (2011): Atmospheric Carbon Injection Linked to End-Triassic Mass Extinction. PDF file, Science, 333. Provided by the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

M. Ruhl (2010): Carbon cycle changes during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. In PDF.

Robert Sanders, Public Information Office, University of California at Berkeley: New evidence links mass extinction with massive eruptions that split Pangea supercontinent and created the Atlantic 200 million years ago. NEWS RELEASE, 4/22/99. See also here.

L. Santasalo (2013): The Jurassic extinction events and its relation to CO2 levels in the atmosphere: a case study on Early Jurassic fossil leaves. In PDF, Bachelor´s thesis, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.

U. Schaltegger et al. (2008): Precise U-Pb age constraints for end-Triassic mass extinction, its correlation to volcanism and Hettangian post-extinction recovery. PDF file, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267: 266-275.
See also here.

! M. Schobben et al. (2019): Interpreting the carbon isotope record of mass extinctions. Free access, Elements, 15: 331–337.
Note figure 2: Temporal distribution of large igneous provinces (LIPs) and mass extinctions since the Ordovician.
Figure 3: The biogeochemical carbon cycle.
"... carbon isotopes are not a panacea for understanding all aspects of mass extinctions. Most, perhaps all, extinction crises coincide with large-scale volcanism and disturbance to the long-term carbon cycle ..."

Martin A.N. Schobben (2011): Marine and terrestrial proxy records of environmental changes across the Triassic/Jurassic transition: A combined geochemical and palynological approach. In PDF, Master thesis, Department of Biology, Department of Earth sciences, University Utrecht.

Blair Schoene et al. (2010): Correlating the end-Triassic mass extinction and fl ood basalt volcanism at the 100 ka level. PDF file, Geology, 38: 387-390. See also here (abstract).

S.D. Schoepfer et al. (2022): The Triassic–Jurassic transition–A review of environmental change at the dawn of modern life. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews.
"... The ultimate cause of this transition was the emplacement of two Large Igneous Provinces, associated with the progressive breakup of the Pangaean supercontinent ..."

! J. Shen et al (2022): Intensified continental chemical weathering and carbon-cycle perturbations linked to volcanism during the Triassic–Jurassic transition. Open access, Nature Communications,13.

S.M. Slater et al. (2018): An introduction to Jurassic biodiversity and terrestrial environments. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 98: 1–5. See also here.

M. Slodownik et al. (2021): Fossil seed fern Lepidopteris ottonis from Sweden records increasing CO2 concentration during the end-Triassic extinction event. Open access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 564. See also here (in PDF).

Roff Smith (2011): Dark days of the Triassic: Lost world. Did a giant impact 200 million years ago trigger a mass extinction and pave the way for the dinosaurs? PDF file, News Feature, Nature, 479: 287-289. See also here.

W.K. Soh et al. (2017): Palaeo leaf economics reveal a shift in ecosystem function associated with the end-Triassic mass extinction event. Abstract, Nature plants, 3. See also here (supplementary information) and there (corrigendum, in PDF).

SpaceDaily: Mass Extinction At The Triassic-Jurassic Boundary.

Tracking Dinosaur Origins: the Triassic/Jurassic Terrestrial Transition. March 14-16, 2005St. Dixie State College, St. George, Utah (PDF file). The conference isn't just about dinosaurs, any facet of terrestrial Triassic/Jurassic research is welcome.

M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2018): Cuticle surfaces of fossil plants as a potential proxy for volcanic SO2 emissions: observations from the Triassic–Jurassic transition of East Greenland. In PDF, Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 98: 49–69. See also here.

M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2015): Evidence for insect and annelid activity across the Triassic-Jurassic transition of east Greenland. Abstract, Palaios, 30: 597-607. See also here (in PDF).

! M. Steinthorsdottir et al. (2011): Extremely elevated CO2 concentrations at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. In PDF, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 308: 418-432.
See also here.
"... The final results indicate that pre-TJB (Rhaetian), the CO2 concentration was approximately 1000 ppm, that it started to rise steeply pre-boundary and had doubled to around 2000–2500 ppm at the TJB. The CO2 concentration then remained elevated for some time post-boundary, before returning to pre-TJB levels in the Hettangian. ..."

Hans-Dieter Sues, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto: Triassic-Jurassic Boundary.

L.H.Tanner (ed., 2018): The Late Triassic World. Earth in a Time of Transition. Topics in Geobiology, 46 (Springer). Go to:
Chapter 1 The Late Triassic Timescale. In PDF.

Lawrence H. Tanner, Geography and Geosciences, Bloomsburg Univ, Bloomsburg, PA: THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC BOUNDARY EVENT: SEARCHING FOR THE MECHANISM . Abstract, Earth System Processes - Global Meeting (June 24-28, 2001).

! L.H. Tanner et al. (2004): Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions. PDF file, Earth-Science Reviews, 65: 103-139.

A.M. Thibodeau et al. (2016): Mercury anomalies and the timing of biotic recovery following the end-Triassic mass extinction. Nat. Commun., 7.

! V. Vajda et al. (2023): The ‘seed-fern’ Lepidopteris mass-produced the abnormal pollen Ricciisporites during the end-Triassic biotic crisis. Free access, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 627.
Note figure 4: Microsporophyll Antevsia zeilleri and microsporangia (pollen sacs) with contained pollen linked to the Lepidopteris ottonis plant.
! Figure 10C: Reconstruction of branch of male plant with short shoots bearing Lepidopteris ottonis foliage and Antevsia zeilleri microsporophylls.
"... We show that R. tuberculatus is a large, abnormal form of the small smooth-walled monosulcate pollen traditionally associated with L. ottonis, which disappeared at the ETE [end-Triassic mass extinction], when volcanism induced cold-spells followed by global warming. We argue that the production of aberrant R. tuberculatus resulted from ecological pressure in stressed environments that favoured asexual reproduction in peltasperms ..."

V. Vajda et al. (2021): Geochemical fingerprints of ginkgoales across the triassic-jurassic boundary of greenland. In PDF, Int. J. Plant Sci., 182: 649–662. See also here.
! Note fig. 2, 3: Reconstructions of selected fossil ginkgoalean taxa.

V. Vajda et al. (2016): Disrupted vegetation as a response to Jurassic volcanism in southern Sweden. In PDF, from: Kear, B. P., Lindgren, J., Hurum, J. H., Milàn, J. & Vajda, V. (eds): Mesozoic Biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic Territories. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 434.

B. van de Schootbrugge et al. 2024): Recognition of an extended record of euglenoid cysts: Implications for the end-Triassic mass extinction. Free access, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 322.
Note figure 1: Reconstructed palaeographic map of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval.
"... We conclude that Chomotriletes is the valid senior synonym of a variety of taxa, including Circulisporites, Pseudoschizaea, and Concentricystes
[...] Chomotriletes s.l. is considered to be a cyst of a freshwater organism
[...] The presence of euglenoid cysts in association with the end-Triassic extinction fits a scenario in which enhanced rainfall followed by strong soil erosion resulted in the release and redeposition of Chomotriletes into shallow marine settings ..."

! B. van de Schootbrugge and P.B. Wignall (2016): A tale of two extinctions: converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios. Abstract, Geological Magazine, 153.
"There is substantial evidence to suggest that very similar kill mechanisms acted upon late Permian as well as Late Triassic ecosystems, strengthening the hypothesis that the ultimate causes of the mass-extinction events were similar".

! B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2009): Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. In PDF.
This expired link is available through the Internet Archive´s Wayback Machine.

B. van de Schootbrugge et al. (2008): Carbon cycle perturbation and stabilization in the wake of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary mass-extinction event. PDF file, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 9: 1-16.

Z. Wangping and J.A. Grant-Mackie (2010): Late Triassic-Early Jurassic palynofloral assemblages from Murihiku strata of New Zealand, and comparisons with China. Free access, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
See also here.

J.H. Whiteside et al. (2015): Extreme ecosystem instability suppressed tropical dinosaur dominance for 30 million years. Open access, PNAS, 112.
"Our data demonstrate that a generally stable vertebrate community with a rarity of dinosaurs (especially large-bodied forms) coexisted with dramatically fluctuating plant communities, the latter reflecting highly variable environmental conditions enabled by high atmospheric pCO2".

! J.H. Whiteside et al. (2010): Compound-specific carbon isotopes from Earth´s largest flood basalt eruptions directly linked to the end-Triassic mass extinction. In PDF, PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America).

P.B. Wignall et al. (2020): A two-phased end-triassic mass extinction. Abstract, Earth-Science Reviews.

P.B. Wignall and B. van de Schootbrugge (2016): Middle Phanerozoic mass extinctions and a tribute to the work of Professor Tony Hallam. In PDF, Geological Magazine. See also here (abstract).

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
! Triassic-Jurassic extinction event.
Extinction event.
Category:Extinction events.
Fern spike.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Category:Triassic
Category:Triassic events
Category:Triassic life
Category:Triassic first appearances
Category:Triassic animals
! Category:Triassic plants
Excellent!

K.H. Williford et al. (2014): An organic record of terrestrial ecosystem collapse and recovery at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in East Greenland. In PDF, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 127: 251-263.

Z. Xu et al. (2022): Early Triassic super-greenhouse climate driven by vegetation collapse. In PDF, Europe PMC.
See also here.
Note figure 3, the climate graph.
"... Our reconstructions show that terrestrial vegetation collapse during the PTME, especially in tropical regions, resulted in an Earth system with low levels of organic carbon sequestration and chemical weathering, leading to limited drawdown of greenhouse gases. This led to a protracted period of extremely high surface temperatures, during which biotic recovery was delayed for millions of years. ..."

C. Yiotis et al. (2017): Differences in the photosynthetic plasticity of ferns and Ginkgo grown in experimentally controlled low [O2]:[CO2] atmospheres may explain their contrasting ecological fate across the Triassic–Jurassic mass extinction boundary. Free access, Annals of Botany, 119: 1385–1395.

N. Zavialova (2024): Comment on “The ‘seed-fern’ Lepidopteris mass-produced the abnormal pollen Ricciisporites during the end-Triassic biotic crisis” by V. Vajda, S. McLoughlin, S. M. Slater, O. Gustafsson, and A. G. Rasmusson [Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 627 (2023), 111,723]. Abstract, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 322.
"... Recently, Ricciisporites Lundblad and Cycadopites Wodehouse (= Monosulcites Cookson) pollen types have been found cooccurring in Antevsia zeilleri
[...] the two pollen types are too dissimilar by their exine ultrastructure as well as by the general morphology and exine sculpture.
[...] Another explanation should be found for the presence of Ricciisporites tetrads in these pollen sacs ..."

P. Zhang et al. (2024): Different wildfire types promoted two-step terrestrial plant community change across the Triassic-Jurassic transition. Free access, Front. Ecol. Evol., 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2024.1329533.

! P. Zhang et al. (2022): Volcanically-Induced Environmental and Floral Changes Across the Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) Transition. In PDF, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.
",,, The record of sedimentary mercury reveals two discrete CAMP eruptive phases during the T-J transition. Each of these can be correlated with large, negative C isotope excursions [...}, significantly reduced plant diversity (with ca. 45 and 44% generic losses, respectively), enhanced wildfire (marked by increased fusinite or charcoal content), and major climatic shifts toward drier and hotter conditions (indicated by the occurrence of calcareous nodules, increased Classopollis pollen content, and PCA analysis). ..."

X. Zhang et al. (2022): Biomarker evidence for deforestation across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the high palaeolatitude Junggar Basin, northwest China. Abstract, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 600.
"... We propose that widespread deforestation may be due to CAMP-derived acid rain and the rapid and large-scale demise of vegetation may have provided moisture-free fuels for wildfires. ..."

! N. Zhou et al. (2021): Pattern of vegetation turnover during the end-Triassic mass extinction: Trends of fern communities from South China with global context. Free access, Global and Planetary Change, 205.












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